Theoretical Investigation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Lead-free Ternary Alloys Sn-Sb-Bi and their Subsystems

Authors

  • Sanjay Kumar Sah Central Department of Physics, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • Indu Shekhar Jha Department of Physics, M.M.A.M. Campus, Tribhuvan University, Biratnagar, Nepal
  • Ishwar Koirala Central Department of Physics, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3126/bmcjsr.v6i1.60950

Keywords:

Binary liquid alloys, excess Gibbs free energy, lead-free solder alloys, molecular interaction volume model, ternary liquid alloys.

Abstract

The concentration-dependent properties, like the constituents’ activities for the binary liquid alloys like Sb-Sn at 905 K, Bi-Sn at 600 K, and Bi-Sb at 1200 K, and the integral Gibbs free energy of mixing, ΔGXS, of the correspondent alloys were computed using the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM). Further, the model has been used to compute the activities of the component Sn in the ternary Sn-Sb-Bi system at 900K at the three cross-sections, i.e., Sb:Bi = 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1. The theoretical data have been analyzed with the corresponding experimental data accessible in the literature. An acceptable concurrence has been obtained, with some inconsistencies. The activities of the ternary alloys along the three cross-sections, i.e., Sb:Bi = 1:3, 1:1, and 3:1, show that the deviations change from positive to negative with increasing Sb content. The results confirm that MIVM is a good model for estimating the thermodynamic properties of binary and ternary systems.

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Published

2023-12-22

How to Cite

Sah, S. K., Jha, I. S., & Koirala, I. (2023). Theoretical Investigation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Lead-free Ternary Alloys Sn-Sb-Bi and their Subsystems. BMC Journal of Scientific Research, 6(1), 16–30. https://doi.org/10.3126/bmcjsr.v6i1.60950

Issue

Section

Research Article