BMC Journal of Scientific Research <p>The BMC Journal of Scientific Research is published by the Research Management Cell of Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal.</p> Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus en-US BMC Journal of Scientific Research 2594-3421 Class, Culture and Principles: Evaluating the Chinese Cultural Revolution on the Basis of its Aims and Strategies <p>Culture in any society is inherited from the past as a form of tradition. It is an automatic and unconscious process. It is usually taken as supra-class unifying category which binds a community. China during Mao proclaimed that old culture serves the interests of the exploiting class and therefore the proletariat as an emerging class should struggle against it and impose its own culture. On this premise ‘the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution’ was launched. Its aim was to ‘prevent the restoration of capitalism’ by revolutionizing people’s thinking to realize the communist goal of classless society. It lasted from 1966 to 1976, however, debates still continue regarding its aims, principles and practices and achievements or the damages it caused. This article attempts to explore what it actually wanted to accomplish and what strategies and measures were employed to materialize these aims. For this purpose it uses the documents published by the Communist Party of China during that period as the primary sources and judges them on the basis of Marxist socialist principles. The paper reaches to the conclusion that the Cultural Revolution adopted principles, policies and methods which accord with Marxism.</p> Dharma Bahadur Thapa Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 1 1 11 10.3126/bmcjsr.v4i1.42242 Study on the Behavior of Helmholtz Resonance in Different Size Bottles <p>The resonance is the specific response of system which is capable to vibrate with certain frequency to an external force acting with the same frequency. When air is blown across the open mouth of different bottles then air vibrate in a neck at resonant frequency. In this study we consider 5-5 bottles of different five types bottles having different of length of neck, radius of port, cross-sectional area of port and same volume (250ml). Resonance in different bottles was studied to determine how the volume of air cavity of different bottle affects the resonance. From calculated and experimental data, we found that the Helmholtz resonance frequency decreases with increase in volume and vice versa in each case of different bottles. From graph we also found that the calculated and experimental model are about 100% and 99% variability of the response data around its mean. The practical range for these different bottles is from about 256 to 512 Hz. This is about an octave plus a musical fifth near the middle of the musical instrument, so most simple musical tunes can be produced with such bottles.</p> S.K. Adhikari B. Sapkota S. Dhungana P. Pokharel Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 1 12 21 10.3126/bmcjsr.v4i1.42244 Distribution of Bombus haemorrhoidalis Smith and its Interrelationship with Host Plants in Chitwan Annapurna Landscape of Central Nepal <p>Occurrence and variety of flowering host plant of native Bombus pollinators are viewed as basic<br>alternatives than the imported species. The use of native bumblebee species for pollination was<br>considered more significant than imported bumblebees to reduce environmental impact and pest<br>problems. B. haemorrhoidalis is the most dominant species of Chitwan Annapurna Landscape in<br>agricultural and wild flora during April to September 2019. We followed assessable walking trails<br>and used insect net for sample collection. The effect of different environmental variables on the floral<br>host plant resources of this native bumblebee was examined. With eight locations ranging from 1407<br>to 2506 meters above sea level, twenty-seven species of seventeen plant families were identified as<br>pollen and nectar foraging host plants. B haemorrhidalis distribution frequency is correlated with<br>relative humidity (0.07438968) and altitude (0.495657857). The most visited plant family was<br>Balsaminaceae and plant was Imatian scrabida. This study gives the knowledge of abundance of host<br>plants, ecological and biological relationship of the B. haemorrhoidalis in Nepal</p> Kishor Chandra Ghimire Daya Ram Bhusal Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 1 22 30 10.3126/bmcjsr.v4i1.42245 Assessing the Contribution of Agriculture for Boosting Nepalese Economy <p>Agriculture sector is the main components of economic development of developing countries like<br>Nepal. This sector contributes boosting economy in terms of GDP, employment and food security,<br>as more than 60% of Nepalese residents chose agriculture as their primary source of income. The<br>increase in output and productivity in this sector is crucial for reducing poverty through long-term,<br>high-growth economic growth. Increased agricultural production and output are important contrib-<br>utors to the country's overall economic development. This study aims to look at how the agriculture<br>sector contributes to the Nepalese economy's growth. Using data collected over a 20-year period,<br>a simple linear regression model has applied to determine the economic impact of farm sector pro-<br>duction on real GDP. The study finds a positive impact of agriculture sector on real GDP and other<br>sectors. Though, agriculture sector has been facing diversified challenges improving its production<br>in Nepal.</p> Omkar Poudel Khom Raj Kharel Yadav Mani Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 1 31 41 10.3126/bmcjsr.v4i1.42246 Translanguaging in English Language Teaching <p>This study explores teachers’ perspectives and practices on translanguaging in English language teaching. Especially, it focuses on how English language teachers perceive and explicate the meaning of translanguaging. The researcher got the primary data from the teachers in different private and public schools in Chitwan. All the respondents were studying in the 4th year of B.Ed major English at Birendra M. Campus Bharatpur; they all were teachers as well. First of all, some survey questions which were related to the study were sent to them via mail and got the written responses by the same means. It happened in such a way because of the lockdown due to the COVID-19. To understand the issue further, I arranged the interview and focus group discussion. I followed the standard process of analysis i.e., coding, categorizing, thematizing, and discussion. Respondents were aware of translanguaging and they took it positively. They agreed that bringing the native languages of every student to classrooms was challenging. They claimed that translanguaging enhances students’ creativity and participation in class.</p> Padam Prasad Neupane Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 1 42 48 10.3126/bmcjsr.v4i1.42247 Buddhist Pragmatism or Pragmatic Buddhism: What is the relationship between Buddhism and Pragmatism? <p>With the rise of modernity, the Western world fell into a deep spiritual crisis which forced Comte to Dewey, and Einstein to Whitehead to synthesize a cosmic or humanistic religion. Similarly, the rise of modern science increased western interest in Eastern religions. Because of the ontological resemblance,they further enquired to Buddhism by assuming that would be a religion of their ideal. They began interpreting Buddhism through the lenses of modern philosophies. As a result, Buddhism appeared so diverse that sometimes its positioning is confusing and ambivalent- e.g. 'ethical idealism', 'atheism', 'empiricism', etc. As an attempt of resolving the contradictory positioning, both the original nikayas translated in English by PTS and commentary texts of Buddhism authored by both eastern and western scholars were carefully reviewed. These texts suggested that Buddhism is mostly close to 'ethical pragmatism. To present this closeness, the article at the first describes the cardinal principles of pragmatism, which are- multiple truths, verification of truths, changeability of truth; and then discusses how these principles are embedded in the teaching of Buddha. It also claims that Buddha’s efforts on developing new doctrine, constituting a Sangha, practicing sainthood, and defending against rival doctrines and organizations were just strategies of social reform via cultivating ethics rather than the objectives in themselves. This knowledge contributes to the understanding of both pragmatism and Buddhism from each other's perspectives, and at the same time, draws its educational implication in developing critical thinking, and ethical values.</p> Shurendra Ghimire Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 1 49 64 10.3126/bmcjsr.v4i1.42250 Resistance through Female Bonding in Tehmina Durrani's Blasphemy <p>The present research article analyses the suffering of women and their resistance against oppressive Islamic patriarchy through female bonding in Tehmina Durrani’s Blasphemy. In doing so, it offers the working definition of the term “feminism” as a tool of inquiry. It mainly focuses on the suffering of Heer, the protagonist of the novel, due to her loveless marriage with Pir Sain. It exposes the easy distortion of Islam by so-called hypocritical religious leaders like Pir Sain. The suffering of Heer and other female characters in the novel reveal the problems in the cultural and social setting of the Islamic culture and religion. Heer is repeatedly beaten, raped and humiliated by her abusive husband Pir. Pir forces her to live in the world that he has constructed for her. Her marriage with Pir utterly fails as it turns out to be a source of trouble and repression of her self-satisfaction. When she fails to tolerate severe torture and domestic violence, she decides to revolt against it. This paper concludes that Heer is able to resist sexual abuse and exploitation through female bonding. In doing so, she is able to assert her female selfhood.</p> Mukti Nath Kandel Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 1 74 81 10.3126/bmcjsr.v4i1.42257 भाषानीति, यसको कार्यान्वयन र नेपाली भाषाको अवस्था [Linguistics, its implementation and the status of Nepali language] <p>देशभित्रका सबै मातृभाषाहरूको समान संरक्षण, विकास र प्रवद्र्धन गरी संवैधानिक व्यवस्थालाई परिचालन गर्ने सरकारी चिन्तनको समष्टिपुञ्ज नै भाषानीति हो । संसारमा अहिलेसम्म एकल तथा बहुल गरी दुईप्रकारका भाषानीतिहरू निर्धारण र प्रयोग भएका देखिन्छन् । कुनै पनि बहुभाषिक देशमा एकल भाषानीति सफल भएको पाइँदैन भने बहुल भाषानीतिलाई पनि सही ढब्गले कार्यान्वयन गर्ने सब्गठन, तत्परता र कार्यविधि नहुँदा नेपालजस्ता थुप्रै देशमा त्यसले पनि अपेक्षित प्रतिफल दिन सकिरहेको छैन । नेपालमा २००७ सालयताका सरकारहरूले लागु गरेको एकल भाषानीतिको ऐतिहासिक सर्वेक्षण गरिएका यस अध्ययनमा प्रजातन्त्रको पुनस्र्थापनापछि जारी गरिएका तीनवटै संविधानबाट बहुल भाषनीति र बहुल भाषिक अधिकारका कार्यान्वयन झन्झन् कसिलो र पेचिलो बन्दै गएको सन्दर्भलाई स्पष्ट पारिएको छ । मातृभाषामा नै प्राथमिक शिक्षा पाउनुपन बालबालिकाको संवैधानिक भाषिक अधिकारको उपेक्षा गर्ने सरकारी निकाय र नेपालका रैथाने मातृभाषाहरूलाई समाप्त पारेर तिनलाई पहिचानशून्य बनाउने एकप्रकारका माफियाहरूको चक्रव्यूह तोडेर सरकारी भाषानीति कार्यान्वयन हुनुपर्ने दृष्टिकोण भएको यस अध्ययनमा नेपाली भाषा बाहृय तथा आन्तरिक दाउपेचको सिकार भई सब्क्रमणकालीन अवस्थामा रहेकाले यसका स्वत्वरक्षाका लागि पनि राज्यस्तरबाट पहलकदमी हुनुपर्ने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> दामोदर Damodar रिजाल Rijal Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 1 82 91 10.3126/bmcjsr.v4i1.42262 अनुसन्धानमा प्रयोग गरिने भाषा [Language used in research] <p>प्रस्तुत आलेखमा आवश्यकतानुसार व्याख्यात्मक, विश्लेषणात्मक र तुलनात्मक विधि अवलम्बन गरी शब्द, वाक्य, व्याकरण, वर्णविन्यास आदि भाषासम्बन्धी बढी त्रुटि हुने क्षेत्रमा ध्यान दिनुपर्ने कुरा सुझाइएको छ र अनुसन्धानलाई स्पष्ट, तार्किक र स्तरीय बनाउनका लागि भाषाको भूमिका महत्त्वपूर्ण हुने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । यस क्रममा उपयुक्त र अनुपयुक्त भाषाप्र्रयोगबार उदाहरण दिएर प्रस्ट पारिएको छ र यसबाट सम्बन्धित पाठकले अनुसन्धानमा कस्तो किसिमको भाषा प्र्रयोग गर्नुपर्दछ भन्न कुराको ज्ञान हासिल गर्न सक्ने अपेक्षा गरिएको छ ।</p> एकनारायण Eknarayan पौड्याल Poudyal Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 1 92 98 10.3126/bmcjsr.v4i1.42271 'कठपुतलीको मन’ कथामा विनिर्माणवाद [Deconstructionism in the story 'Puppet's Mind'] <p>कठपुतलीको मन इन्द्रबहादुर राईको ।।।कठपुतलीको मन कथासब्ग्रहमा सब्कलित कथा हो । यस कथालाई ज्याक डेरिडाका<br>विनिर्माणवादका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । विनिर्माणवादमा रहने महŒवपूर्ण पक्षहरूमध्ये विधाभञ्जन, विधामिश्रण,<br>द्विचरको विरोध, आलब्कारिकताको महŒव स्थापना, जग वा आधारलाई नमान्नु, लेखकलाई भन्दा पाठकलाई महŒव दिँद<br>बहुपठन र बहुअर्थमा जोड, अन्तिम सत्य र आदर्शलाई नमान्नु, विशृब्खलित शृब्खलाजस्ता पक्षलाई आधार बनाएर कथाका<br>विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । “कठपुतलीको मन” कथामा यस्ता पक्षहरूको भूमिका महŒवपूर्ण रूपमा आएको विनिर्माणवादी प्रवृत्तिका<br>दृष्टिकोणले कथा महŒवपूर्ण रहेको कुराको चर्चा यसमा गरिएको छ ।</p> कृष्णप्रसाद Krishna Prasad सापकोटा Sapkota Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 1 99 105 10.3126/bmcjsr.v4i1.42273 किसानप्रेमीको ‘चेतना’ खण्डकाव्यमा प्रतिध्वनित दलित चेतना [Dalit consciousness echoed in the ‘consciousness’ fragment of Kisanpremi] <p>किसानप्रेमी (२०१९) नेपाली कविताकाव्यका क्षेत्रमा क्रियाशील स्रष्टा हुन् । आफू स्वयम् उत्पीडित वर्गमा जन्मी हुर्किएका हुनाल उनका रचनामा उत्पीडनको स्वर तीब्र रूपमा मुखरित भएको पाइन्छ । हिन्दू धर्मावलम्बीको बाहुल्य भएको नेपाली समाजमा दलितका नाममा निकै विभेद हुने गरेको भेटिन्छ । मूलतः दलित भनिएको सम्प्रदाय नेपाली समाजका प्रायः सबै भूगोल र परिवेशमा पाइन्छ । नेपालका मधेस, पहाड, हिमाल र राजधानी सहरका रूपमा परिचित काठमाडौँ उपत्यकामा समेत दलितहरूका उपस्थिति, अस्तित्व र पहिचान फेला पार्न सकिन्छ । दलितले भोग्नु परेका अवस्था र दलनका विरुद्ध उठ्ने प्रतिरोधी भावना न वास्तवमा दलित चेतना हो । समाजमा जहिलेदेखि दलनको सुरुवात भयो, त्यतिबेलादेखि नै दलनका विरुद्ध आवाज उठ्ने गरेका भए पनि त्यो आवाज सम्बन्धित निकायसम्म पुग्न नसकेकाले त्यत्तिकै बिलाएको थियो । नेपालमा दलनविरुद्ध छिटफुट रूपमा उठ्ने गरेको त्यस्ता आवाज वि.सं. २०६४ मा गणतन्त्र आएपछि भने निकै सशक्ततापूर्वक अगाडि बढेको पाइन्छ । हिजोआज मानव मानवका बीचमा जातका आधारमा हुने छुवाछुतजस्ता भेदभावजन्य व्यवहार विरुद्धको आवाज बुलन्द हुन थालेको छ । कवि किसानप्रेमीको चेतना खण्डकाव्य पनि नेपाली समाजका यस्तै दलितका पक्षमा आवाज उठाउँदै रचित मानवतावादी खण्डकाव्य हो । यसर्थ यहाँ दलित चेतनालाई आधार बनाएर उक्त खण्डकाव्यको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ ।</p> रमेश Ramesh प्रभात Prabhat Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 1 106 114 10.3126/bmcjsr.v4i1.42274 रातभरि हुरी चल्यो कथाको समाजशास्त्रीय विश्लेषण [Sociological analysis of the story that took place overnight] <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा इन्द्रबहादुर राईको ।।।रातभरि हुरी चल्यो कथालाई हिप्पोली टेनको समाजशास्त्रीय मान्यताका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यसमा लेखकको विषयपरिचय दिँदै हिप्पोली टेनको जाति (प्रजाति), क्षण (युग) र परिवेश (वातावरण) को सैद्धा(ि न्तक कसीमा आगमनात्मक तथा निगमनात्मक दुवै विधिको प्रयोग गरी निष्कर्षसम्म पुग्ने प्रयास भएको छ । रातभरि हुरी चल्यो कथामा दार्जिलिबको निम्नवर्गीय परिवारलाई आधार बनाएर उनीहरुले भोगिरहेको पीडालाई चित्रण गरिएका छ । कालेकी आमाजस्ता नेपाली मूलबाट बसाईं सरेर आएका नेपाली जातिको अवस्था सफल बन्न नसकेको, न्यूनवर्गीय परिवार जहाँ गए पनि समस्याबाट मुक्ति पाउन नसकेको, गाउँमा बस्ने मानिसले आफ्नो जीविकोपार्जनको निम्ति कृषि पेसा अपना( एको, गरिबीको कारणले चुहिने घरमा बस्नु परेको, सहरका मानिसहरूले बाँच्नका लागि पेसा र नोकरी गरेको, सहर र गाउँका मानिसहरुको भोगाइ, सोचाइ र खुवाइ अन्तर रहेको, दार्जिलिबको तत्कालीन ग्रामीण समाज र सहरी जीवनका विविध पक्षलाइउल्लेख गरिएको छ ।<br />व्यक्तिका पीडा, बाध्यता र आन्तरिक वेदनालाई प्रस्तुत गर्ने सन्दर्भमा प्राकृतिक दूरी र वैचारिक दूरीलाई एकैसाथ प्रस्तुत गरिएका छ । कालेका बाआमाले भोगेको प्राकृतिक विपत्ति र पीडादायी मनोदशालाई हिप्पोली टेनको समाजशास्त्रीय मान्यताका आधारमा विश्लेषण गर्ने प्रयास गरिएको छ ।</p> राजेन्द्र Rajendra गिरी Giri Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 1 115 122 10.3126/bmcjsr.v4i1.42277 Problems of Standard Model, Review <p>It is assumed that standard model is the most successful theory of particle physics but it is not perfect. In this paper, I am interested to flash the published results of various proposals of theoretical physicists in various modes of Standard Model and beyond. There are no specifications theory to declare new model to till date, although some ideas that would modify the standard model in many ways helps to understand the existing results.</p> Eak Raj Paudel Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 4 1 65 73 10.3126/bmcjsr.v4i1.42253