BMC Journal of Scientific Research 2023-01-13T15:41:10+00:00 Prof. Dr. Sita Ram Bahadur Thapa Open Journal Systems <p>The BMC Journal of Scientific Research is published by the Research Management Cell of Birendra Multiple Campus, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal.</p> A Review on Microplastic in Freshwater Lake Sediments from Asian Countries: Methods and Abundance 2022-12-23T14:43:45+00:00 Rajeshwori Malla-Pradhan Bijay Lal Pradhan Khamphe Phoungthong Saroj Gyawali <p>This review paper summarizes the methods used for measuring microplastic in freshwater lake sediments and also compares the distribution and characteristics of microplastic in freshwater lake sediment in Asia. Bulk sampling using Van Veen grab or stainless steel shovel was the most common sampling tool used for sediment sampling. Density separation using sodium chloride (NaCl) is<br />the most common process for the extraction of microplastic from lake sediments. For microplastic quantification, the common preliminary technique is visual counting aided by an optical microscope. Whereas, spectroscopy like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy is the most commonly used technique for polymer identification. High abundance of microplastic reaching 11 to 3153 items/ kg was observed in the lakeshore sediment of Poyang Lake, China. In the lake bottom sediment of Ulansuhai Lake, the concentration of microplastic was low (24±7 to 14±3 items/kg). Polyethylene and polypropylene was the widely used polymer in Asia.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus The Effect of Chromium on Human-Health: A Review 2022-12-24T02:07:24+00:00 Ganga Raj Pokhrel Galaxy Pokhre <p>This review presents the health effects of chromium on the living organism based on previous studies. Chromium (Cr) belongs to the d-block element in the modern periodic table. Chromium has a wide range of oxidation states ranging from -2 to +6. Chromium mostly exists in the environment as trivalent (Cr<sup>3+</sup>) and hexavalent (Cr<sup>6+</sup>) states. Both trivalent and hexavalent states of chromiums are derived from the industrial effluents. Ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation are the most common routes through which chromium enters the human body. Ion chromatography inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS) is mostly used for the speciation analysis of metals. Hexavalent chromium is highly soluble and mobile in alkaline and slightly acidic soils, whereas trivalent chromium is less soluble, adheres to the coarse material on the soil, and precipitates as Cr(III) hydroxide. Hexavalent chromium is more detrimental as compared to trivalent chromium. The detrimental effects of chromium are bronchial asthma, lung cancer, nasal ulcers, skin allergies, carcinogenicity, and genotoxicity. To protect from these adverse effects, WHO has suggested a provisional guideline value of chromium as 0.05 mg/L until further information is available and revalued.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Biomedical Application of Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Review 2022-12-24T10:40:26+00:00 Eak Raj Paudel <p>Medical treatment technologies in healthcare industries are modernized by using nanoparticles. The effect of nanoparticles and their interaction on human cells show many significant results. In this paper, I have studied the experimental and theoretical background of some biomedical applications of nanoparticles. It is found that gold (Au), silver (Ag), iron (Fe), silica (SiO<sub>2</sub>), and some polymeric nanoparticles are extensively used in the treatment of various deadly diseases. The nanoparticles of gold, silver, zinc oxide, silica, and cerium oxide are studied mostly to investigate the suitable distribution methodology for medical diagnosis and treatment.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Study of Fitted and Computed Plots in Magnetized Plasma Sheath 2022-12-23T15:09:51+00:00 B. R. Adhikari R. Khanal <p>Velocity profile of ions at the sheath entrance position with various obliqueness of the magnetic field has been studied. The oscillation amplitude of the velocity decreases as time increases. The mean values of different component of velocity also changes. The computed and fitted values of the vector sum of oscillatory part of x, y and z-component of velocities of the ions are nearly matches. At angle 30°, damping rate of vector sum of oscillatory part of total velocity increases from 1 to 5 mT. On the other hand vector sum of oscillating part of initial velocity is almost equal for magnetic field 1 mT, 3 mT and 5 mT at the same angle.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Fractal Structure of Seismic Signals of 2015 Gorkha-Kodari Earthquakes: A Box Counting Method 2022-12-24T01:29:31+00:00 Ram Krishna Tiwari Harihar Paudyal ram.tiwari@bimc.tu.e <p>Fractal dimension analysis is a computational image processing technique that allows assessing the degree of complexity in patterns. In seismology, fractal dimensions can be used to describe fractured surfaces quantitatively. The larger the fractal dimension the more rugged is the surface, the more irregular is the line, and the more complex is the pore space. For the present investigation the seismic<br>wave signal of 40 earthquakes including one foreshock, main shock and 38 aftershocks (mb ≥ 5.0) of 2015 Gorkha-Kodari earthquakes from 2015/4/21 to 2016/11/27 were considered. The seismograms were retrieved from the archived waveform data of Incorporated Research Institutions of Seismology (IRIS). The fractal dimension (D) was evaluated by the Python program for box counting. It is found that the fractal dimensions of the seismic wave signal during the active seismic period do not show sudden variation and they are almost identical. The maximum value was noticed to be 1.99±0.006 and the minimum value to be 1.95±0.007. The estimated fractal dimension is greater or equal to 1.95 with an average value of 1.98 which signify the presence of high grade of fractality in seismic wave time series. This suggests that the fractal characteristics of the seismic wave signal of 2015 central Himalayan earthquakes occurrence behavior is nonlinear and coplanar.&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus A Solution of a Dispersion Problem for the Concentration of Pollutants in River Water 2022-12-24T02:57:04+00:00 Prem Sagar Bhandari <p>In this study, one-dimensional advection dispersion equation is solved for the concentration of water pollutant. To solve the differential equation, the Laplace’s transform technique has been used assuming no added pollutants on the way of water along the river. From the study, it is found that for various time period and speed, the concentration of the water pollutants decreases continuously, as the distance of the river increases from the point source.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Phytochemical Analysis and Biological Activity Test and Functional Group Detection of Eucalyptus Globulus 2022-12-24T03:21:19+00:00 Hari Gyawali Albert Ghimire Toran Dip Dhital <p>This study was designed to explore phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of the Eucalyptus globulus. Extraction of phytochemical was performed by Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol and hot water extraction using water. The phytochemical screening of ethanolic extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, proteins &amp; amino acids, steroids, volatile oils, and aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, proteins &amp; amino acids, gums and mucilage, and steroids. Agar well diffusion method was used for the antimicrobial activity test. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. globulus are resistant to the E. coli, Staphylococcus sp., and Bacillus species except ethanolic extract shows activeness against Staphylococcus sp. &amp; Bacillus species. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of E. globulus show inactivity against Aspergillus species. This study concludes the phytochemicals derived from given plants has great potential to treat life-threatening disease. The FTIR studies show that plant extracts consist of amine, carboxylic acid, alcohol &amp; nitro compounds as the most abundant component.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Impact of Remittance, Money Supply and Inflation on Economic Growth of Nepal: Using Autoregressive Distributed Lag Model (ARDL) 2022-12-24T03:46:10+00:00 Hari Prasad Upadhyay Bijay Lal Pradhan Omkar Poudel Keshab Raj Sapkota Daya Ram Simkhada <p>Remittances have become a major source of funding in developing countries. A time series analysis was conducted by taking the 25 years data of economic growth as a dependent variable while remittance, money supply and Inflation as independent variables form the annual report of Economic survey of Nepal (2020/21). The autoregressive distributive lag (ARDL) was used to study the relationship among the variables. The trend of economic growth and total percentage of economic growth is in increasing order. The relation between then was found as LN(Economic Growth) =8.0740 +0.220*LNREM + 0.3123 *LNM2-0.0802*LNINF. The stability test of long-run coefficient including short run was studied using ARDL model and are confirmed using Cumulative Sum chart (CUSUM) and cumulative sum of squares test (CUSUMSQ) test. Finding shows that there is long run positive relationship between remittance, money supply, inflation on economic growth of Nepal. From the analysis it is clear that coefficients of error correction are highly significant this indicate that adjustment to longterm equilibrium in the dynamic model and ARDL model showed all the independent variables had positive impact on economic growth of Nepal.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Leaf Impression of Amesoneuron (Arecaceae) from the Lower Siwalik Sediments of the Kankai Mai River Section, Eastern Nepal 2022-12-24T04:07:28+00:00 Purushottam Adhikari Dhan Bahadur Khatri Gaurav Srivastava Khum N. Paudayal <p>A leaf impression of Amesoneuron (Arecaceae) is reported from the Lower Siwalik sediments of the Kankai Mai River section, eastern Nepal. The overall habit, habitat and modern distributions and climatic conditions show the existence of tropical to sub-tropical wet evergreen forests with humid swampy lowland areas during the deposition of the sediments.<br><br></p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Computational Study of the Thermodynamic Properties of Some Lead-free Solder Alloys 2022-12-24T04:44:25+00:00 Sanjay Kumar Sah Indu Shekhar Jha Ishwar Koirala <p>Activities of the components of the binary lead-free solder alloys Cu-Sn, and Ag-Cu were computed using the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM). The theoretical data have been compared with the corresponding experimental values. For the validity of the model parameters, the excess Gibbs free energy of mixing of Cu-Sn, and Ag-Cu liquid alloys have been determined and compared with the corresponding experimental data available in the literature. Similarly, the activities of Sn in ternary liquid alloys Sn-Ag-Cu were computed and examined with the available experimental data at 1000 K. It has been observed that the calculated activities of the components of the binary and ternary solder alloys have nearly the same tendency as the experimental data.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Documentation of Wild Leafy Vegetable Plants of Chitwan, Nepal 2022-12-24T06:33:42+00:00 Manoj Kumar Lal Das <p>Wild leafy vegetables are an important source of carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and fibers. Local people of Chitwan rely on wild leafy vegetables. Knowledge of wild leafy vegetables is part of traditional practice. This paper revealed total 38 plant species belonging to 32 Genera under 30 families which are consumed by local inhabitants of Chitwan. Out of 38 plants species consumed as leafy<br />vegetable, 26 taxa were herbs, 6 species are climbers, 5 plant species as to trees and only one was climbers. The harvesting season of leafy vegetables are variable. 15 leafy vegetables plants were harvested during rainy season, 8 spp. were harvested in summer season. 12 plant species were harvested throughout the year. Similarly; 32 plant species were used for vegetables; 3 spp. were used for spices.<br />A few spp. was consumed as raw, pickle and topping purpose.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Diversity of Bumblebees (Bombini, Apidae: Hymenoptera) in Chitwan Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) of Central Himalaya, Nepal 2022-12-24T06:41:54+00:00 Kishor Chandra Ghimire Daya Ram Bhusal <p>Bumblebees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: genus Bombus Latreille, 1802) are the effective group of pollinators for various crops and wild plants in the north high-hills of Nepal. Over the past few decades, it has been expected that the population of these insects has declined since there are still unexplored areas and rich floral and faunal diversity. However, there are very few scientific publications as well as little researches have been carried out focusing on bumble bees in high-hills of Nepal. Therefore, this research was focused to explore the bumblebees in Chitwan Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) in Manang, Mustang and Gorkha districts with altitudinal gradients from 500 -2700 m asl from June to September 2019. The data were collected following accessible walking trails by opportunistic survey method and specimens were captured using sweeping net. Total 7 subgenera with 8 species of genus Bombus were identified. Bombus festivus (subgenus: Festivobombus) was the most dominant species. The diversity of bumblebee species was more in Gorkha site compared to the Manang and Mustang sites. Bombus haemorrhoidalis, B. eximus, and B. rotundiceps were the dominant species in Gorkha site, whereas B. festivus, B. lepidus, and B. tunicatus were dominant in Manang districts. Bombus festivus, B. tunicatus, and B. turneri were the most encountered species in Mustang. This study indicates that each district has the unique diversity of bumblebees particularly a site-specific variation of the Bombus species, which are likely to the variations in floral resources, microclimate and habitat types.<br /><br /></p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Study of Fall Meteorites Over a Century (1922-2021) 2022-12-24T06:55:07+00:00 Bivu Wagle Kaustuv Regmi Krishna Prasad Adhikari <p>Fall meteorites represents to those meteorites whose fall has been witnessed and are later collected from earth surface for further studies. Mass, number of fall events, types, type mass and mass trend of observed fall meteorites are analyzed over a period of recent century (1922-2021) in this paper. The total number of fall meteorites was found to be 706 with total mass of 42800 kg. Decade 2012-2021 and 1932-1941 had the highest number of recorded fall which was 94 times and 89 times respectively. Type L6 meteorite was found to have the greatest number of falls which is 151 times, followed by type H5 and L5 with 109 times and 55 times respectively. The meteorite of type, Iron III AB had the greatest meteorites mass of 23480 kg followed by H5 and L6 with mass 6615 kg and 2347.362 kg respectively. The massive meteorite fall of this century was of Iron III AB type (1947) which weighed 23 tones. The decade 1942-1951 had the highest fall meteorites mass of 24806kg and 1972-1981 had 4858 kg. Various regression model is fitted for the trend analysis of the mass. Over a period of this century, meteorites having mass greater than 100 kg has struck the earth for 32 times while mass greater than 1000 kg has struck for 6 times. The average time between two impacts of meteorite with mass greater than 100kg was calculated to be 3.12 years while mass greater than 1000 kg was found to be 16.6 years.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Comparative Study of Harmonics to Noise Ratio of Closed Organ Pipe at First and Second Resonance 2022-12-24T07:17:29+00:00 S.K. Adhikari <p>A sound wave has two components as periodic and non-periodic whose ratio is known as harmonic to noise ratio (HNR). HNR is an important parameter to analyze the voice. It also measures the degree of hoarseness. The measure of this parameter can be done with the help of Praat software. This paper compares the HNR of a closed organ pipe at first resonance and second resonance. HNR has varied from 10.95 dB to 27.87 dB at the first resonance and 7.3 dB to 23.87 dB at the second resonance. The average values at first and second resonance are 15.69 dB and 11.99 dB respectively. From the observation table and graph, it was found that HNR is greater at first resonance than second resonance for closed organ pipe.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Corporate Governance and Market Base Performance of Commercial Banks of Nepal 2022-12-24T07:24:53+00:00 Mohan Prasad Sapkota Omkar Poudel <p>Corporate governance contains the rules, regulations, system, code of conduct and procedures for proper management and operation of the firm. This study is focus on examining the ascendency of CG on market base performance of Nepalese banks measured by Tobin’s Q. The population of the study is the total number of ‘A’ grade banks licensed by Nepal Rastra Bank is 27 till January, 2021.</p> <p>The samples of the study were twelve commercial banks. Corporate governance is measured by LR, B Size, B Meeting and OWC. The mediating variables of the study are CAR, F SIZE, and NIM. This study basically utilized multiple regression analysis and found that LR, OWC, NIM and CAR have significant positive influence on performance measured by Tobin’s Q. However, B Meeting and B Size had significant negative influence on performance. Evidence suggests that corporate governance significantly influences the market base financial performance of Nepalese commercial banks measured by Tobin’s Q. Finally, Nepalese commercial banks can ensure their superior market base financial performance by enhancing effective corporate governance practices. </p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Dimension of Disaster and Coping Strategy in Nepal (1971–2020) 2022-12-24T07:36:45+00:00 Prakash Regmi Deepak Regmi <p>The people of Nepal today, are victims to perform disaster events. The combined efforts of the government and non-government sectors are seemed to reduce the impacts of growing and changing disaster patterns. This article provides an overview and results of Nepal disaster vulnerability and achievements of the government and non-government efforts. The impact of efforts has been<br>monitored on the based-on disaster and mortality rate of disaster. This study was carried out based on 42,878 total disaster events and 44,782 deaths that occurred within 50 years period (1971-2020). The information has been pulled from the website of the national planning commission for 15 different periodic plans. And for the disaster detail, statistical data (incidents and death) has been also carried out from the website. Some statistical tools were used for the analysis. Although the number of total deaths is increasing, the event/death ratio is decreasing. The pattern of disaster has been changing in Nepal. The planning and legal efforts seem somehow positive for the case death rate on average.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus Effective School Leaders in Nepal 2022-12-24T07:55:52+00:00 Shurendra Ghimire <p>This paper contributes knowledge of the reasons behind a few public schools achieving good results in students' learning and attracting many students despite almost all public schools suffering from falling education quality and student numbers. The cases of two schools-one from city-located affluent and another sub-urban poor schools were taken to conduct an ethnographic study and cross-validate the findings. The study suggests that the role of the chairperson is more dominant than the head teacher in selected schools. Visionary commitment, devotion, and repeated tenure of chairpersons of the school management committee are the source of school effectiveness, the gradual progress in education quality, and the incremental growth of students. Chairpersons’ performances are boost by their motivation of fulfilling their needs of 'social recognition' and 'experimenting quality education' through school leadership or bringing changes in school; they have already fully filled their physiological needs (Maslow, 1943). Meanwhile, these chairpersons are influenced by the socioeconomic ideology of 'quality education in public schools is the state's accountability for promoting equality and access to the marginalized group'. It also suggests that chairmanship is a process than<br>the traits, anyone can lead a school regardless of academic and work experience if guided by an ideology and motivated to fulfill higher level needs.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus ‘अग्रगामी कथा’मा नारीचेतना [Women's consciousness in 'Aragami Katha'] 2022-12-24T08:28:57+00:00 दामोदर Damodar रिजाल Rijal <p>नारीवादी आन्दोलनको उपलब्धिका रूपमा पाश्चात्य साहित्यशास्त्रमा स्थापित नारीवादी समालोचना नितान्त नौलो पद्धति र दृष्टिकोण हो । यसले साहित्यिक कृतिहरूमा नारीसमस्याका रूपमा देखापरेका पितृसत्तात्मक व्यवस्थाका मूल्यमान्यताको प्रतिरोध र प्रतिवादका लागि सशक्त नारीचरित्र र नारीकेन्द्री चिन्तनको अपेक्षा गरेको हुन्छ । पुँजीवाद र पितृसत्ताको अन्तर्सम्बन्धमा व्यापक विमर्श चाहने नारीवादी समालोचनाको मूल आधार नारीचेतनामा एकातिर आर्थिक–सांस्कृतिक पक्षका विसङ्गतिलाई नछिमल्दासम्म नारीउत्पीडन र शोषण यथावत् रहने कुरा गरिएको छ भने अर्कातिर यसले सामाजिक विभेद, पुरुषकेन्द्री परनिर्भरता, लैङ्गिक हिंसा र परम्परित विवाहप्रथा नारीमुक्तिका बाधक हुन् भन्ने मान्यता अगाडि सारेको छ । नारीस्वतन्त्रताको वकालत गर्ने यस चेतनाका अनुयायीहरूले महिलासमस्याका बहुआयाममा ध्यान केन्द्रित गर्दै अत्याचारहीन, शोषणमुक्त र समतामूलक नारीसत्ताका लागि नारीस्रष्टा नै सक्रिय हुनुपर्ने आवाज बुलन्द गरेका छन् । नेपाली कथासाहित्यमा नारीहरूका अनेक पीडा र भोगाइलाई पुरुषसत्ताका आवरणमा प्रस्तुत गर्न मनपराउने पद्मावती सिंहको ‘‘अग्रगामी’ कथा नारीवादी चेतनालाई अभिव्यक्ति दिने सशक्त रचना भएकाले यसको अध्ययनमा नारीचेतनाका सैद्धान्तिक परिप्रेक्ष्यलाई सहयोगी बनाइएको छ । विवाहप्रथाका आडमा यथास्थितिवादी पुरुषसत्ताका कारण नारीहरूले भोगेका नारीउत्पीडन र शोषण, नारीको वैयक्तिक स्वतन्त्रता र स्वाभिमानलाई महŒव नदिने र नारीजीवनलाई मूल्यहीन ठान्ने तथा नारीअस्मिताको अवमूल्यन गर्ने पुरुषचिन्तनलाई मुख्यरूपमा विवेचनाको परिधिभित्र राखिएको छ र यस कथाकी केन्द्रीय चरित्र उर्वराका कार्यव्यापारबाट अभिव्यक्त नारीवादी चेतनाका अनेक पक्षहरूको<br>साक्ष्यसहित समीक्षा गर्दै यस अध्ययनमा पाठपरक निष्कर्ष दिइएको छ ।</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus ‘ऋग्वेद’मा विश्वदृष्टि] [Worldview in 'Rigveda'] 2022-12-24T08:41:44+00:00 धनेश्वर Dhaneshwar भट्टराइ Bhattarai <p>साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्तले साहित्यका माध्यमबाट व्यक्त हुने समाजको अध्ययन विश्लेषण गर्दछ । साहित्य स्रष्टाको व्यक्तिगत सिर्जना भए पनि त्यसमा आपूm बाँचेको समय र समाजका विविध पक्षहरू प्रतिबिम्बित भएका हुन्छन् । साहित्यमा समाज वा समुदायका सामाजिक प्रचलन, जातीय स्वरूप, धार्मिक आचरण, सांस्कृतिक परम्परा, आर्थिक अवस्था, तत्कालीन विचार वा चिन्तनगत धारणा कस्तो छ वा रहेछ भन्ने थाहा पाउन सकिन्छ । यही सन्दर्भमा साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रीय सिद्धान्तअन्तर्गत विश्वदृष्टिका आधारमा ‘ऋग्वेद’मा अभिव्यक्त तत्कालीन समाज वा समुदायका विचार वा चिन्तनको अध्ययन विश्लेषणका साथ मूल्याङ्कन गरिएको छ ।</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus ‘प्रेमदासको डायरी’ उपन्यासमा आलोचनात्मक यथार्थवाद [Critical Realism in the Novel 'Premdas's Diary'] 2022-12-24T08:58:35+00:00 रमेश Ramesh प्रभात Prabhat <p>यो लेखमा आलोचनात्मक यथार्थवादी कोणबाट उपन्यासकार रेशम विरहीको ‘‘प्रेमदासको डायरी’ उपन्यासको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यहाँ उपन्यासको विश्लेषणका लागि सैद्धान्तिक ढाँचा तयार पारिएको छ । यसका लागि आलोचनात्मक यथार्थवादको पुष्टि गर्ने कुञ्जी पनि तयार पारिएको छ । यसमा उपन्यासको कथावस्तुको सन्दर्भ उठाउँदै साक्ष्य सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । नेपालमा चलेका पञ्चायती व्यवस्था, २०३६ सालको आन्दोलन, २०३७ सालको जनमतसङ्ग्रह, २०४६ सालको जनआन्दोलन, २०५२ देखि २०६२ सम्म भएको माओवादी क्रान्ति र त्यसपछिको गणतन्त्र प्राप्तिले गरिब जनताको पक्षमा खासै परिवर्तन नल्याएको कुरा यो उपन्यासमा गरिएको छ । यो उपन्यासमा आएका तिनै घटनालाई हेर्दै सामन्तवादी सामाजिक व्यवस्थाप्रति आलोचना गर्ने, राजनैतिक व्यवस्थाप्रति आलोचना गर्ने, वर्गव्यवस्थाप्रति आलोचना गर्ने, विभेदयुक्त जातीय व्यवस्थाप्रति आलोचना गर्ने, मानवता विरोधी कार्यप्रति आलोचना गर्ने र नारीमाथि गरिने शोषणप्रति आलोचना गर्ने काम यो लेखभित्र गरिएको छ ।</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus नचिनिने भएछौ’ कविताको सङ्कथन विश्लेषण [Syntax Analysis of the Poem 'Nachinine Bhayachhau'] 2022-12-24T09:11:44+00:00 प्रभा Prabha मरहट्टा Marhatta कोइराला Loirala <p>भाषाको सबैभन्दा ठुलो र आफैंमा पूर्ण एकाइ सङ्कथन हो । आफैंमा पूर्ण भएका तर जस्तोसुकै परिवेशमा प्रस्तुत गरिएका जुनसुकै भाषिक अभिव्यक्तिहरूलाई सङ्कथन भनिन्छ । यस्ता सङकनहरूको अध्ययन र विश्लेषण गर्ने नवीन सिद्धान्त सङ्कथन विश्लेषण हो । यस लेखमा यही सैद्धान्तिक अवधारणा अनुशरण गर्दै कवि अगमसिंह गिरीको ‘नचिनिने भएछौ’ कविताको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । कविताका लुप्त पदहरू खोलुवा गरिएको छ । कवितामा रहेका प्रतिज्ञप्तिसूचक र अप्रतिज्ञप्तिसूचक शब्दहरूका बिचका सम्बन्धहरू खोजी गरिएको छ । यही आधारमा कवितामा उपयोग गरिएका वक्ता, श्रोता, परिवेश र आशय स्पष्ट भएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus ‘शत्रु’ कथामा समाख्यानात्मकता [Narrativeness in the 'Enemy' story] 2022-12-24T11:01:03+00:00 राजेन्द्र Rajendra गिरी Giri <p>प्रस्तुत लेख समाख्यानशास्त्रीय विश्लेषणसँग सम्बन्धित छ । यो समाख्यानशास्त्र आख्यानको नवीन मान्यता हो । यसले सङ्कथनलाई केन्द्रमा राखेर विषय, श्रोता, पात्र र समग्र संरचनाका बिचमा विश्लेषण गर्दछ । यसमा समाख्याताको कथासम्बद्धता, पात्रसम्बद्धता, समयसम्बद्धता, विश्वसनीयता र स्वप्रस्तुतिका आधारमा पहिचान गरी निष्कर्ष निकाल्ने प्रयास भएको छ । यस कथामा घटना, पात्रका कार्य र पात्रको मनस्थितिको वर्णन भएको छ । समाख्याताले कथाको प्रमुख पात्रका बारेमा सम्बोधितलाई जानकारी दिएको पाइन्छ । पात्रको शारीरिक, सामाजिक, आर्थिक तथा मानसिक अवस्था वर्णन गर्नाका लागि वर्णनात्मक समाख्यान विधि प्रयोग गरिनुका साथै मुख्य पात्रका विषयमा मूल्याङ्कन गर्दा समाख्याताले टिप्पणी विधिको समेत प्रयोग गरेको पाइन्छ । यस कथामा समाख्यान विधिको सामान्य तालिका प्रस्तुत गर्दै कथाको मुख्य पात्रबाट अकारण मानिसको कोही ‘‘शत्रु’ हुँदैन, ‘‘शत्रु’ बन्नका लागि झै–झगडा हुनुपर्छ भन्ने पनि छैन । बिनाकारण मानिसका कोही ‘‘शत्रु’ बन्दैनन् तर सानातिना कुरामा नै मानिसले ‘‘शत्रु’ बनाउने कारण छोडिरहेका हुन्छन् भन्ने कथनीयतालाई प्रकटीकरण गर्ने प्रयास गरिएको छ ।</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Research Management Cell, Birendra Multiple Campus