Three Hurdles to Technology Integration: A Case Study of Technology Integration in Bungamati


  • Jeffrey Chih-Yih Lee Azusa Pacific University
  • Paul Sparks Pepperdine University



Teacher Training, Informal Learning, Technology, ICT, Youth


Integrating technology in education is an extraordinary challenge in rural villages of developing countries like Nepal. Since greater understandings of the circumstances surrounding teachers and schools could illuminate issues and opportunities for positive change, a case study of the telecenter in Bungamati, Nepal was conducted. Data, in the form of interviews, observations and related documents, were gathered and analyzed to highlight and understand the local hurdles for integrating technology in teaching. Findings were threefold: teachers lack technology integration skills; informal learning was the preferred way to learn technology; and males had greater access to technology. In this study, the researcher has drawn the following conclusions: a) teachers need technology access and training, b) administrators need a framework for integration, c) informal learning should be considered and promoted and d) there is a clear need for gender equity. Furthermore, suggestions for future studies include a need for informal learning, the use of the TPACK (Technological, Pedagogical, and Content Knowledge)framework for integration technology and more research in the area of teacher training with technology in other developing countries.


Journal of NELTA, Vol 18 No. 1-2, December 2013; 105-114


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Author Biographies

Jeffrey Chih-Yih Lee, Azusa Pacific University

Dr. Jeffrey Lee is an associate professor at Azusa Pacific University where he teaches courses in teacher education and digital teaching and learning. His research interests lie in the intersection of education, technology and developing countries. He has completed three ethnographic studies focusing on youth culture with technology in Nepal. 

Paul Sparks, Pepperdine University

Dr. Paul Sparks is an associate professor at Pepperdine University where he teaches doctoral and masters courses in learning technologies. He was also an educational technologist and information systems specialist for Rockwell International. Dr. Sparks has also been a part of several technology and education initiatives in Nepal.




How to Cite

Lee, J. C.-Y., & Sparks, P. (2014). Three Hurdles to Technology Integration: A Case Study of Technology Integration in Bungamati. Journal of NELTA, 18(1-2), 105–114.