Voice of Teacher https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot <p>Voice of Teacher is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal published by the Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Padma Kanye Multiple Campus Committee, Bagabazar, Kathmandu, Nepal. The journal seeks to provide a supportive environment for multidisciplinary researches on various disciplines under pure science, management, humanities and social sciences</p> TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit en-US Voice of Teacher 2362-1419 Status of Sanitation Workers: A Case Study of Kathmandu Valley https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60823 <p>Sanitation refers to the provision of services for the safe disposal of urine and feces. It also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions through different services such as garbage collection and waste water disposal. It is necessary to provide a healthy environment for people as well as protect the natural resources. A sanitation worker is a person which responsible for cleaning and maintaining the environment through sanitation services. This study aims to explore the socio-economic status of sanitation workers and to examine their livelihood means that help their living. For this study, both quantitative and qualitative exploration approaches are applied. The observation, interview as well as case studies are applied to the study. The findings of the study concluded that sanitation occupation is a traditional job for employment and reducing poverty in the civic area but sanitation workers also have to face numerous problems and they’ve different pitfalls which are nominated as the vulnerable environment of sanitation workers. This study helps the government and non-government agencies to make programs and mitigation measures.</p> Arjun K.C. Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 1 15 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60823 “Challenges and Impact of Disaster on Vulnerable Families in Rapti Sonari Municipality, Banke District” https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60824 <p>Nepal is exposed to multiple recurrent hazards. The country falls in the top 20th list of the most multi-hazard prone countries in the world. The country is ranked 4th, 11th and 30th in term of climate change, earthquake and flood risk respectively. The Rapti Sonari Rural Municipality of Banke district is traversed by the west Rapti River from in between. Communities living near the river coastal areas of the municipality are affected by floods every year. In addition to flooding their crops, the water seeps into their houses and damages their stored food and other materials. According to the district disaster preparedness and response plan (DPRP), communities living in the coastal areas of the river of formerly Fatehpur VDC and present Rapti Sonari Rural Municipality wards no. 6 and 7 have been mapped as being at high risk of flooding. Due to the fact that floods during the monsoon damage the paddy fields, the farmers who are vulnerable to the floods are not able to get agricultural production expected hence they are starting to promote winter and spring farming. Such phenomenon’s have caused loss of lives and property in different areas of Nepal and have posed severe hazards to physical infrastructure likes roads and bridges. The floods of August 2008 in Koshi River, Sept. 2008 in Western Nepal and July and August 1993 in the Bagmati and other rivers were the most devastating floods in Nepal. The primary data collection was accomplished himself by the researcher during March 2023. The exploration of gap between policy and practice is the main area of research. What are the best practices, skills and how they (Governmental and nongovernmental organizations) are using this knowledge solving the major problems of poor and vulnerable community is also the issue of research. This study will be helpful for policy makers, stakeholders, province and local government and other researcher to study the well-being and resilience among vulnerable families in targeted area.</p> Dipendra Bahadur K.C. Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 16 22 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60824 Land Use/ Land use zoning Practice at Micro level in Nepal: An Assessment https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60825 <p>The land use zoning is thought to be better for the sustainable use of land resources utilization in Nepal. Land use (LU) denotes the human activity associated with a specific piece of land and mainly refers to the use by human beings for specific purposes with some sorts of management practices (Khanal, 2000). Specially, Land use is affecting by various factors like, physiographic, topographic, climatic, lithology, soil types, climate, rainfall pattern, cultural and traditional practices as well as socio economic factors etc. With varying physiography conditions around Punchapuri Municipality the land use zones have been found to be a varying shapes and thickness. With the growth of population Punchapuri has expanded the cultivable land of the town. The land use in the Municipality is predominantly nonagricultural with forest, shrub, and grass, covering more than 77% of the total area. The Punchapuri Municipality which is located Surkhet district in province no.6 has been choosen as the study area. Land use map was prepared based on 0.5 m spatial resolution satellite imagery. Various other vector raster and imagery datasets were used ancillary data which enhanced interpretation and classification of land use classes.</p> <p>&nbsp;Information on the losses, damage and its future risk were collected through focus group discussion, key informants, interview, observation and measurement. The paper further emphasizes on a detail study of land use pattern, land system, land forms type, and land capability, geology and natural hazards in order to formulate a classification scheme for land use zoning. This study will certainly help the concerned authorities for the ongoing practices on the land, and land use zoning the finite resource of the country. It will further help to develop plan for the local areas and implement accordingly. Therefore, this study can be regarded as milestone for the planners and development working agencies within the area.</p> Gopi krishna Pandey Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 23 42 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60825 Federalism and the significance of Governmental Agencies and of organizational Experience at the time of country’s Crisis: Tracing the Emergency Medication Response System of the Covid-19 Pandemic https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60826 <p>This research has focused on the emergency response based on the section 1135 emergency waivers which were devised as instruments for policymakers to swiftly enhance the capacity of the health system in times of disaster. By providing flexibilities in regulations, administration, and payment models during the COVID-19 pandemic, states could be better prepared for a surge in hospitalizations and protecting the life of those who were in the emergency response to take care through the process of the hospitalization on time. It employs a Time-to-Event analytical framework to identify key factors influencing the adoption of a state’s 1135 Waiver request. In the primary model, the event of interest is a state making a request for a Section 1135 Waiver, and the dependent random variable is the time elapsed between the disaster proclamation and the state’s request date. The primary independent variable is binary, indicating whether a state has previously sought Section 1135 Medicaid flexibilities during past emergencies. The study stands as the inaugural attempt to pinpoint notable factors influencing Section 1135 Waivers. If efficiency is gauged by swifter requests, then the effectiveness of emergency waivers during the COVID-19 pandemic is predominantly shaped by institutional and external factors. it has revealed that the effective organizational and institutional tasks in the federalism during the emergency would assist to address the issues of the national crisis as it has been explained by the 1135 Waivers as the sample study for further information to the concerned stakeholders not merely in the advanced nation as of the United States of The America but even to the backward countries as of the Asian continents.</p> Govinda Prasad Guragain Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 43 54 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60826 Perception and Adjustment Practices of People on Environment and Climate Change : A Case Study of Kathmandu Valley https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60827 <p>The modern globalized capitalistic economic system blended with never ending hunger of accumulation of wealth has intensified the process of industrialization, urbanization, over use of natural resources, deforestation, anti-metabolic processes creating imbalance in the carbon cycle, bringing changes in the global climate and forming problems in the environment. Such consequences brought changes in the adaptation behavior of the people of Kathmandu Valley. This study aims to focus on the perception and adjustment practices of kathmandu valley people with regard to change in climate and environment. In this study, four elderly people of different areas of Kathmandu valley have been selected purposively for acquiring information about the perception on climate change and environment of Kathmandu valley and change in the practices of people for coping with the changing context. Information has been collected through several hours of informal interview with the sampled people within the period of one month. There is adverse impact of capitalistic economic system and associated socio-cultural practices on the environment of Kathmandu valley causing change in the climatic condition and enforcing local people to change in their practices and behavior for better adjustment.</p> Kailash Uprety Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 55 65 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60827 Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Are Conventional Ways of Managing the Ailment Sufficient? https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60828 <p>Beginning with how women know about the particular condition of having pelvic organ prolapse, this article examines what women do when they know about this medical condition. The paper specifically addresses the customary management of this health problem by women. In the process, it also clarifies how people come to possess this knowledge. It also looks at whether this knowledge is enough to treat the diseases or if they also need to stay away from alternative forms of therapy. While doing so, this article also examines whether women with uterine prolapse have narrower healing pathways that only go in one direction or if there are other options in a plural healing context. The ethnographic data from an anthropological study carried out in Nepal’s middle hills served as the basis for the development of this essay.</p> Kapil Babu Dahal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 66 75 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60828 Construction, Deconstruction, and the Question of Authorship in Magical Realist Narratives https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60829 <p>Colonial discourse in particular has constructed fixed frames and grids in which to place and separate individuals according to their class, race, gender, culture, nationality and ethnic models of unified and stereotypical representation of otherness and difference which postcolonial writers challenge. Writers from across the globe have adopted and adapted magical realism to fit their own cultures and within their own frame of reference. As a dominant literary mode, it can be considered as a decolonizing agent in a postmodern context. What the narrative mode offers is a way to discuss alternative approaches to reality to that of Western philosophy, expressed in contemporary fiction. Specifically, this paper argues how magical realism is positioned in relation to the two contrasting operations of construction and deconstruction. What is its capacity to affect either or both of these outcomes? A prominent view has developed which understands the mode as one that structures an exclusively deconstructive narratology. I explore the narratives of Isabel Allende’s The House of the Spirit, Tony Morrison’s Beloved and Hashem Garaibeh’s The Cat Who Taught Me How To Fly that reiterate realist narrative conventions subversively to critique the effects of colonialism as a decolonizing device in the contemporary literary scholarship. This study utilizes the ideas from Stephen Slemon’s “resistance to colonialism,” Theo D’haen’s “decenter privileged centers,”, Wendy B. Faris’s “Questioning the colonial subjugation,” and Christopher Warnes’s ‘deconstructive notions of subjectivity” and “recover and affirm identities.” Thus, the narratives in opposition to the notion of absolute history emphasize the possibility of simultaneous existence of multiple truths and plural meanings.</p> Khum Prasad Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 76 88 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60829 Laws Related to Banking Offences: A Social Analysis https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60831 <p>Banking is an important institution and in banking too, there are many more offences over its activities. Law is a formal tool to socially control such activities. The article is an analysis of such discourses.</p> <p>The factors that come into play while the Judiciary delivers verdict to some particular banking offence case are not solely technical; for social aspects also come into play. Laws are made with reference to some particular state of society; and need to be complemented with certain assumptions and extrapolations when used in a different state of society. This creates room for multiple explanations as shown in the different case studies listed in this paper.</p> Milan R. Gartaula Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 89 101 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60831 Exploring Economic Growth and Development Strategies in South Korea and Nepal: Evaluating Risk and Opportunities in Investment Narratives https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60834 <p>This article explores the narratives of investment in South Korea and Nepal, examining the risks and opportunities associated with each country. The study is based on a comprehensive review of existing literature, including academic research, government reports, and news articles. The analysis reveals that while South Korea is widely considered a safe and stable investment destination, with a well-developed infrastructure, skilled workforce, and strong regulatory framework, Nepal presents a more complex and challenging investment landscape, characterized by political instability, weak governance, and inadequate infrastructure. However, the study also uncovers a range of unique investment opportunities in Nepal, particularly in the areas of renewable energy, tourism, and agriculture. The article concludes by offering insights and recommendations for investors seeking to navigate these complex and dynamic markets. The findings suggest that while South Korea is widely perceived as a relatively safe and attractive destination for investment, with a highly developed economy and supportive government policies, Nepal faces greater challenges and uncertainties, including political instability, inadequate infrastructure, and limited access to financing. The study also highlights several areas of potential opportunity for investors in both countries, including in emerging industries such as renewable energy and technology, as well as in sectors such as tourism and agriculture. The study concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for investors and policymakers, and suggests areas for further research and analysis.</p> Newal Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 102 118 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60834 Library Culture Among Students of Bachelor in Public Service and Governance (BPSG) https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60836 <p>This study explores Library Culture among students at BPSG of Padmakanya Multiple Campus. The study population comprises 80 students from the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 7th semesters, with 55 samples selected using stratified random sampling. The questionnaire, structured according to predetermined objectives, serves as the primary research tool. Data collected are analyzed using MS Excel, and the findings are presented through tables, pie charts, and bar diagrams.</p> <p>The analysis indicates that the library is generally clean, tidy, and offers good accessibility and comfortable reading spaces. However, improvements are needed in these areas, along with addressing dissatisfaction in technology integration, book variety, and quality. From the students’ perspective, the library culture at BPSG is found to be unsatisfactory and poor. This is evident in their infrequent library visits, underutilization of available resources, and a lack of awareness regarding library facilities.</p> <p>Several recommendations are provided, emphasizing the necessity for serious consideration and effective measures. These suggestions aim to enhance the library’s physical environment, technological aspects, and book collection. Addressing these concerns will likely contribute to an improved library culture among BPSG students.</p> Raju Malla Pratikshya Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 119 142 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60836 A Comparative Study of Parliamentary Election of 2017 and 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60862 <p>The study demonstrates the value and propriety of parliamentary election in a multicultural society such as Nepal, which is a rainbow of ethnic diversity. In order to lessen the tension between recognition and identification based on these disparities, it is appropriate to address varied groups such as caste, gender, ethnicity, region, and religion and provide them a sense of equality to participate in the social, economic, and political landscape of the country through the election.</p> <p>The study includes proof from secondary sources of information such as significant books, journal articles, official documents, and election commission statistical data. The mainstream of political science strategy, which is based on liberal, multicultural, and representative theory and comparative research design, was shown to be less effective in this study’s descriptive and institutional approach.</p> <p>The comparative results of the House of Representatives elections in 2017 and 2022 demonstrate that the general proportion of all clusters declined from 2017 to 2022, there was a minor change in the percentages of women and indigenous people, which grew by 0.28% for women and 0.73% for indigenous people. Women’s FPTP results increased 1.85% between 2017 and 2022, making them marginally better. There is a constant upward tendency in the percentage of Khas Arya.</p> Sabita Kumari Mallik Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 143 153 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60862 Corruption and its Implications for Politics in South Asian Countries https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60863 <p>This study measures corruption using survey data, newspaper reports, court records, anti-corruption agency records, and other sources. Corruption and problems with the government have been significant problems in South Asia since the early 1980s. The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) from Transparency International is recommended because it is a “robust” indicator that looks at many different ways to measure political corruption in each country. The root causes of corruption in South Asian countries, however, are a monopoly of government-controlled institutions, excessive regulations, convoluted tax and licensing systems, numerous government departments with opaque bureaucracies and discretionary powers, and a lack of transparency in laws and procedures. Tax evasion, which helps black money accumulate and lowers public morale, has a substantial negative impact on the economies and politics of South Asian nations. Since the 1980s, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, and Bangladesh have all been officially charged with corruption. In addition, political rivals and the media frequently accuse the prime ministers of Sri Lanka and Nepal of corruption. In Bangladesh, Pakistan, and other South Asian countries, political bribery is widespread. In 2002, General Pervez Musharraf passed stringent election laws that forbade politicians convicted of a crime from seeking office. The rule’s detractors believe that applying it would prevent the civilian community’s two most influential political figures from challenging the military administration in elections later this year.</p> Santa Bahadur Thapa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 154 166 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60863 Saving Habits Utilization Practices on Rural Nepal : A case study of Namobuddha Kavre https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60864 <p>Saving is a process of setting aside a portion of current income for future use. Saving is considered important for every individual because of a number of reasons. Saving helps in situations of emergency, helps in providing for family and in living a comfortable retirement. In rural areas, saving money is quite the problem because of illiteracy, lack of employment and poor access to financial institutions.</p> <p>The main purpose of this research was to understand the perception of people in rural areas about their saving habits. This research was done to understand the respondents view on importance of saving and factors that might affect the saving practices of rural people. Altogether 100 samples were taken in the area of Namobuddha rural area Kavery District Rural Nepal .Face to face interview, observation method and structured questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. The data was then analyzed to reach the conclusion. The research conducted revealed that the saving is influenced by social and cultural factors. People seemed to be conscious about the importance of saving. However, it was seen that the access of people towards commercial banks was extremely low and most of them saved their money in finances.</p> Suresh Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 167 180 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60864 Financial Performance Analysis of Public Enterprises (PEs) in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60865 <p>The main objective of this study was to analyze the financial performance of Public Enterprises in Nepal. PEs in Nepal was incorporated for socio economic development of the country. There has been found 44 PEs in Nepal currently some of them incurred loss. On the basis of these, it is argued that financial performance of PEs in Nepal is weak. This study was carried out on the helps of trend analysis, profitability ratio and turnover ratio. Twelve years financial data were taken from publications of Ministry of Finance, Nepal Government and research articles, etc. All the secondary data were analyzed on quantitative approach with descriptive methods. The analysis showed revenue increased slowly on the basis of base year 2010/011 in 12 years. Similarly profit has found fluctuate over the study period between-0.524 to 7.323 times of base year profit 2010/011. The net profit margin ratio and return on shareholders’ net worth has not found satisfactory level. Total assets and net fixed assets turnover ratio have shown poor performance in assets utilization of PEs Nepal. The turnover ratio massaged that, there is a chances of enhancing financial performance of PEs Nepal by proper utilization of assets for inducing profitability position of PEs. The management of PEs should enhanced the financial performance of organization by the helps of budget as a means of controlling devices on activities of the PEs.</p> Surya Prasad Poudel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 181 192 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60865 Capital and Crisis: A Metafictional Study of Wealth and Power in Hernan Diaz’s Trust https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/60866 <p>This paper examines how Hernan Diaz’s novel Trust (2022) uses metafictional techniques to explore the relationship between wealth and power in the context of the Great Depression. The paper argues that Diaz’s novel challenges the dominant narratives of capitalism and exposes the hidden mechanisms of exploitation and oppression that sustain the system. The paper analyzes the four sections of the novel, which consist of a novel, an autobiography, a memoir, and a private diary, each with its own author, audience, and agenda. The paper shows how these texts interact and contradict each other, creating a complex and multifaceted representation of the wealthy Rask family and their impact on society. The paper concludes that Diaz’s novel is a powerful critique of the capitalist system and its effects on human lives, as well as a reflection on the role of fiction and storytelling in shaping our understanding of reality.</p> Sushil Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 8 1 193 202 10.3126/vot.v8i1.60866