Voice of Teacher https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot <p>Voice of Teacher is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal published by the Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Padma Kanye Multiple Campus Committee, Bagabazar, Kathmandu, Nepal. The journal seeks to provide a supportive environment for multidisciplinary researches on various disciplines under pure science, management, humanities and social sciences</p> TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit en-US Voice of Teacher 2362-1419 Effectiveness of Social Security System in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44062 <p>Social security is a fundamental human right to which every individual has been entitled as a member of the society. It is the programs developed to reduce the vulnerability of an individual. The main objective of this paper is to examine on effectiveness of social security system in Nepal. This study follows to analyze the effectiveness Social Security Allowance among the beneficiaries especially for senior citizen, widowed, fully disabled and partially disabled. The implication of the study is to strengthen the social security programs in Nepal. This study is based on primary data collection in terms of use of the allowance and use of it to maintain the social status. This study reveals that social security allowance have been used for the fulfilment of basic personal needs.</p> Arjun K.C. Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 1 10 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44062 Foreign Direct Investment Trend in Nepal and Recent Changes in Bylaws to Reduce Administrative Hurdles https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44063 <p>Foreign Direct Investment is one of the major source of external finance for the economic growth and development of a country, specially the Least Developed Countries (LDC’s) like Nepal. Inflow of FDI is very low in Nepal in comparison to its neighboring countries. In this paper comparative analysis of FDI inflow in Nepal and in SAARC countries and administrative hurdles in importing FDI in Nepal has been analyzed to come to the conclusion.</p> <p>This study is based on the secondary data of FDI inflow in recent five years, acts, rules, regulations, and bylaws regarding FDI and their recent improvements. In the past, investment climate in Nepal was not favorable to the foreign investors and FDI inflow was very low. Amendment and change in laws and regulation to simplify administrative procedures has created good investment climate in Nepal and being favorable to foreign investors. We can expect that FDI will increase remarkably in the days to come.</p> Basu Prasad Mainali Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 11 18 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44063 Girl Students in Mathematics at Bachelor level Colleges of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal: Some Problems and Prospects https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44064 <p>This Paper is based on the study of girl students studying at Bachelor level in mathematics in six reputed educational institutes situated in Kathmandu Valley. The Paper is guided by three objectives – to examine the historical trend of girl students offering mathematics at the Bachelor level, to examine the possibility of increasing the enrollment of these students, and to identify policy instruments that can help increase their participation. Low number of girl students, low number of female teachers, limited availability of resources and equipment are among the important features that characterize the Bachelor level education in Mathematics. The Paper also enumerates some policy instruments that can assure the future career prospects of girl students studying mathematics. &nbsp;</p> Bindra Devi Shakya Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 19 32 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44064 Undergraduate Female Students' Motivation and Perceived Self-efficacy in Mathematics https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44065 <p>This article aims to describe undergraduate-level female students’ motivation, interest, and perceived self-efficacy in mathematics. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. All 84 female students who were studying mathematics at the undergraduate level in the selected nine different campuses of Tribhuvan University (TU) of Kathmandu valley and one campus of Kathmandu University (KU) were included as a sample of the study. Data were collected from sample female students through a self-administered questionnaire. Female students were found to be motivated and encouraged by their parents and teachers to study mathematics at undergraduate level. Fifty-two percent of respondents were confident in obtaining A grade in mathematics but most of them have a moderate level of self-efficacy to learn mathematics concepts and theories. Self-efficacy belief is significantly higher among daughters of educated mothers (above high school) (79%) compared to daughters of mothers with high school education and below (43%). Perceived self-efficacy of the female students is influenced by various factors including the educational status of parents, family support, and teachers’ encouragement. Association between parents’ education and self-efficacy is found significant at p-value &lt; 0.05. It can be said that parents’ education and teachers’ encouragement influence the mathematical self-efficacy of female students to some extent.</p> Dhan Kumari Thapa Tara Paudel Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 33 42 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44065 Socio-cultural Beliefs of the Deuki Tradition in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44066 <p>In the course of Human history and civilizations, several social and cultural practices have developed which have their roots in the fulfillment of their wishes or protection from unknown forces. One of the manifestations of such practices is slavery and attempts to appease Gods and Goddesses by making expensive offerings, sometimes even Human beings. Deuki tradition that started in the far western parts of Nepal is believed to have been started by the King Naga Malla in 14th century. In the course of time, the practice started to be followed by the people in the region.</p> <p>The Deuki tradition started to give rise to some social and family problems in the region where the tradition was in practice. There have been attempts to abolish the system by the government by making law and making provision for their resettlement. Even though the practice is a dying tradition, the impact that it created in the society is still in existence. There is a need to fully understand the various consequences and impacts of these socio-cultural phenomena. This study will explore various facets of Deuki tradition, its influence in the society and various measures taken to address the issue and recommend future course of action to mitigate the effects of the tradition in the society and the ways how best issues of Deuki can be managed. Hence, the practice has become like a rigid tradition that the society is not easily able to break away from. A critical and academic look and in-depth study and informed analysis is required to the issue of Deuki tradition.</p> Dipendra Bahadur K.C. Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 43 54 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44066 Tourism for Sustainable Livelihood in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44067 <p>The main objective of the paper is to clarify the different adaptive strategies and livelihood pattern based on sports tourism initiatives in Nepali rural villages. The sustainable livelihood and adaptation of the natural resources especially in the rural areas of the country have been demanded to raise awareness and building capacity by attracting people from different countries through the organization of in-house and cross country tournaments and youth exchange programs. The livelihood is shaped as per the natural resources and other means provided in the area. This study has attempted to survey the climate change effects in the territory in long run. It has been possible by studying the changes and advancements experienced for twenty years back to today. While analyzing the different researches and studies of the past and the study has concluded that there are number of challenges despite of some progress and advancement in the livelihood. The majority of the population of Nepal resides in the rural areas so that the livelihood in general is critical in such areas. While studying for 20 years there have been changes and progresses in the livelihood pattern and adaptation strategies. The sports tourism has been found effective and efficient tool for the advocacy and lobbying in favor of livelihood promotion as well as sustainable development. The study and analysis of the documents have revealed that there has been tremendous efforts carried out in local level and more demand has been raised for national as well as international events. The sports tourism initiatives have been demanded for the accumulation of the climatic change effects as well as the environmental factors for poverty alleviation along with socio cultural prosperity.</p> Gobinda Lamichhane Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 55 63 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44067 Adjustment Problems Among College Students https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44068 <p>This study investigates the adjustment problems of college students. The main objectives of the study were to assess the level of adjustment problem of college students and find out the relationship between adjustment problems and stress level. The sample consists of 300-college students 150 male and 150 female from Tribhuvan University Constituent and affiliated colleges in the Kathmandu Valley. The adjustment inventory for college students (AICS) by Dr A. K. P. Sinha and Dr R. P. Singh, Stress Measurement Scale developed by the British Heart Foundation (Stress and your Heart) were used. The methodology includes a descriptive survey design with a purposive sampling technique. The univariate statistics and Pearson’s Product-moment correlation method was used to analyze the data. Analysis of the result revealed that college students have an average level of adjustment and Among all adjustment area emotional adjustment was more pronounced than others. It was also found that male students were better adjusted than female students. The value of the correlation between stress and adjustment level were found positive(r&gt;0) for both male and female students.</p> Kabita Raj Cadel Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 64 73 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44068 Tantric Influence in 'Aripana' of Mithila https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44069 <p>This paper examines the influence of tantra in the aripana, a floor painting, of Mithila Region. The ancient tradition of floor painting expresses the philosophy of tantra, which lays a focus on the balance between the spiritual and material aspects of the world. The use of the tantric symbols, celebration of the bodily desires, recognition of the material aspects, and glorification of feminine power as a primal source in aripana shows the influence of Tantra in Maithili society, art, and culture. Mithila, a Hindu society, has the influence of patriarchal Vedantic civilization. The society observes Hindu religious practices and rituals, on the one hand, and develops its own faith, beliefs and value systems on the other hand that at times tend to contrast with the religious practices of the Indian subcontinent. However, Mithila has advanced a good balance between the religious and secular practices so as to seek meanings in their lives, that is, a good equilibrium between the spiritual and material realities of the world. The link of aripana in Mithila, solely a Hindu community, demonstrates the tantric tradition of worshipping ‘shakti’. Thus, Mithila Women through aripana highlights on the equal status of both the spirit and matter, initiating Human kind to attend their spiritual and material strength to its fullest. Despite the multi-facets of aripana in Mithila, it lacks proper study and research. The researcher aspects minimal bridging of research gaps and problem from this article entitled “T<em>antric Influence in ‘Aripana’ of Mithila</em>”.</p> Kul Bahadur Rana Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 74 83 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44069 Documentation of Medicinal Tree Plants of Padma Kanya Multiple Campus area, Kathmandu, Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44070 <p>The paper documents a Total 18 medicinal tree species belonging to 15 families within Padma Kanya Multiple Campus at Kathmandu district. The plants were surveyed through the direct visit of the field in different interval of time and identified their therapeutic values by using the help of secondary data such as available literatures and research papers. The plant parts most commonly used in medicine are roots, leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, bark and whole plant. These plants are commonly used to cure diseases like cough, bronchitis, asthma, digestive problems and rheumatism etc. This study will be helpful to the students of this campus as a basic information for their research and practical works.</p> Lalita Bijukshe Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 84 92 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44070 Working Conditions and Problems of Domestic Child Labour in Kathmandu Metropolitan City https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44071 <p>In general, the children working in employer’s house for household work with or without wage are known as domestic child worker. Domestic child workers are seen to operate household chores such as cooking, washing, cleaning and taking care of employer families' children.</p> <p>The study was conducted in Kathmandu Metropolitan city, ward no. 16 of Bagmati province in 2020. This paper aimed to highlight the social issues, primarily the working conditions of child labour in the study area. The purpose of the study was to identify the major problems faced by domestic child workers from development perspective.</p> <p>The study was based primarily on both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The study revealed that employer families have appeared to involve domestic child Labour in household chores without either pay that is insufficient or without any pay as compensation. The study also found that in the name of providing them with education and promise of better life, these child labours had been misused and exploited. The long working hours and unpaid labour and merely any facilities of education and health services, child labours have been both physically and mentally abused in majority of the cases. The study also found that guardians and relatives were agents to fix the domestic child worker. The money earned by them was kept by their parents. Domestic child workers had been low paid and therefore exploited in terms of remuneration, lack basic amenities and even lack security.</p> Pampha Duwadi Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 93 104 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44071 Mountain Literature: Mount Everest in the eyes of the two Nepalese Climbers https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44072 <p>This article looks at the Mountain Literature of Nepal, based on the writings of two Nepalese mountaineers of Mount Everest, Jamling Tenzing Norgay, and Lhakpa Phuti Sherpa. It presents their feelings, observations, and the challenges they faced while climbing up the peak.</p> <p>The Humans’ appetite for travelling, their spirit of adventure and exploration, and their desire to know and conquer the unknown have inspired many to climb the mountains. Though Mountaineering is a daring adventure, many climbers are attracted to it. The mountaineers try to test their courage and stamina. For that, they risk their lives in snow, bone-chilling avalanche, and sharp windy weather to reach the summit. They know that getting the pinnacle is not always easy, but it is worthwhile.</p> <p>The magic of Mount Everest attracts the attention of the mountaineers. Its beauty, mystery, and majesty make Nepal, a center of attraction. For all, the mountains are the abode of Gods and Goddesses. They are the sources of peace, happiness, power, faith, and enlightenment.</p> <p>The Mountaineering narratives have contributed much to the development of Nepalese mountain literature. It is a rich source of information, that is beneficial not only for the Mt. Everest climbers but also for the lover of mountains. &nbsp;</p> Pragya Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 105 116 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44072 Factors affecting Women towards purchase of Facial skin care Product of Patanjali (A case study of Lalitpur) https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44073 <p>It was understood that Women and girls being more concerned towards their beauty also seems true in reference to this study. This study has been able to show the increased interest of young girls towards the use of herbal cosmetics Product of minimize the side effects and enhancing their beauty. Similarly increasing influence of Patanjali Product in Nepalese young girls' life also has been traced through this study as many respondents have shown their trust towards the brand of Patanjali. Young /teen aged girls of Lalitpur seem to be highly influenced by their family members when it comes to use of cosmetics. Patanjali has been able to create the customers on the market who trust their brand because of various competitive advantages it owns in relation to other leading competitors like its natural indigents', strong image, popular figure.</p> Neera Shrestha Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 117 124 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44073 Role of Women in Decision Making in Household Chores https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44074 <p>The paper aims to explore decision making role of women in household chores that is cooking, dressing and caring of the children and other household activities. This study applied the semi-structured interview with case studies and observation method for the exploration of grounded realities of decision-making practices at household chores. Upon examination of everyday work situation, it becomes clear that the status of women in household chores is meaningful in Nepalese society; however there have been tremendous changes over the generations due to the several socio-political and economic shifts. Empirical observation and informations from the field study prevailed that role of decision making of women seems to be dominant in cooking, washing and cleaning at the same time their roles in political participation, income and purchasing activities also to be peripheral. The role of women in the household’s level have been transforming along with their age and marital status; for instance, teenager women prefer official jobs whereas, mature women discourage official jobs and public activities. The women, who engaged in the public jobs equally contributes in the household chores. The concerned authorities have not paid due attention to the plight of these simple hard working labourers who has made significant contribution towards increasing gross national product and also earning for their family.</p> Raju K.C. Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 125 132 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44074 State of Domestic Violence Against Ever Married Women In Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44075 <p>This study entitled “State of Domestic Violence Against Ever Married Women In Nepal” was carried out on secondary data of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), 2016. This study tried to identify outline of domestic violence against of ever married Women in Nepal. It has looked into the domestic violence such as physical, emotional, sexual and any kinds, of age 15-49 years of ever married women with respect to different socio-economic and demographic variables. The finding let out that physical violence increases sharply with age, from 17.7 per cent among women age 15-24 to 24.8 per cent among age 30 and above. About 36 per cent of women have experienced physical violence on other caste &amp; ethnicity followed by Dalit (31.7%), Janajaties (20.4%) and Brahmin &amp; Chhetri (12.2%). This study has assessed that experience of emotional violence is higher in middle class family in rural areas. Finding revealed that there is strong relation between experience of domestic violence and education level. Higher educated women were less exploited from any kinds of domestic violence in comparison to women with low level of education.</p> Raju Malla Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 133 150 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44075 Remittance: It’s Impact and Utilization Trend: A Case Study of Returned Migrant Women of Kathmandu Valley https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44076 <p>Foreign Labor migration has lured to Nepalese and huge numbers of youths left the country daily for jobs abroad. Mainly unemployment is the cause that has encouraged people for foreign labour migration on one hand; it too has been a global issue on the other. With globalization and liberalization, the trend of going people from one place to another has intensified. Today, foreign employment among both male and female has become a significant aspect in strengthening the country's economy. The study entitled as Remittance: Its Impact and Utilization Trend (A Case Study of Returned Migrant Women of Kathmandu Valley) has been conducted to analyze the role of remittance. For this noble cause, researcher has adapted exploratory and descriptive research design where purposive sampling has been applied along with proper interpretation of both qualitative and quantitative data. This study has tried to provide a clear picture of contribution of Nepalese Women migrant Workers for supporting their families. The significant factor of remittances and changes felt by the migrants are highlighted throughout the text. Researcher hopes that the description, findings, conclusion and recommendation of the research will be useful to the agencies which are programming on the issues, academicians, students and others and will increase consciousness of the migrant workers, their families and the agencies which support women to send them to foreign lands safely.</p> Rekha Maskey Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 151 158 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44076 Earthquake Induced Displacement and living arrangements in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44077 <p>The article is based on the issues of IDPs in Nepal. Introduction of IDPs is the main focus of the article whereas it deals with the methodology and show the status of Nepal in the world. It is the quantitative descriptive types of study. The objective of the study is to identify the status of living arrangements, shelter sources of water and toilet facility of IDPs. The IDPs have the very poor situation of living arrangements. The government must take initiatives to protect the IDPs. And further research must be conducted in the issues of IDPs.</p> Samir Khadka Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 159 168 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44077 Administrative Employees’ Job Satisfaction in Selected Campuses of (TU) in Kathmandu Valley: An Empirical Study https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44078 <p>Job satisfaction is a positive feeling of employees toward their job because unsatisfied employees are quite their job. Satisfied employees are less absent, contribute to the benefit of an organization and stay in the organization. Only happy employees should enhance organizational efficiency and performance. It is a combination of psychological, physiological and environmental circumstance which derives to the person; I am satisfied with my job. It is accepted that individual differences in employee job satisfaction can be measured and managed by an organization. This study was organized to identify the variables influencing job satisfaction of administrative staffs, so the samples were taken from randomly selected campuses, TU in Kathmandu Valley.</p> <p>Primary data were collected from distribution 148 structured questionnaires with six points Likert scale developed in the Job description index (JDI). Only 106 respondents’ opinions were analyzed by the bits of the help of descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The finding showed that satisfied variables are co-workers, supervisors and promotion. The satisfaction level of gender has not found different but different according to age groups.</p> Surya Prasad Poudel Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 169 186 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44078 The Narratives of Former Entertainment Workers in Nepal: An Explorative Study of Becoming and Being an Entertainment Worker https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/44079 <p>This paper explores experiences as being and becoming of entertainment Worker in Nepal. Entertainment sectors, conceptualized here, a place where girls and Women are kept for sexual purposes. In doing so, the timing of events model, and narrative theory were applied to explore how events timing changes the life experiences of former entertainment Workers. Twelve former entertainment Workers were selected from NGO's who were rescued and helped by Youth for Transformation. The oral narration was taken as an interviewing method. Their problems and narratives as being Workers, and the process of becoming, off timing stages of entertainment workers intertwined in family system/sub-system or outside inter-personal system, were recorded, transcribed, analyzed, and discussed as informed by thematic techniques, and off timing stage model.</p> <p>Following timing of events model and narrative theory, five off timing events led sequential patterns in clients’ life were identified: a) chronic poverty and bigger family size led-sequences; b) single mother led-sequences; c) early child marriage led-sequences; d) love marriage led- sequences, and d) parent’s death led-sequences. Likewise, research generates the client’s construction of the four dominant themes were: a) stigmatization; b) enactment of social expectations; c) role mediation and feminization, and d) health condition.</p> Victory Thapa Abhiyan K.C. Copyright (c) 2021 TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit 2021-12-24 2021-12-24 6 1 187 199 10.3126/vot.v6i1.44079