Voice of Teacher https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot <p>Voice of Teacher is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal published by the Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Padma Kanye Multiple Campus Committee, Bagabazar, Kathmandu, Nepal. The journal seeks to provide a supportive environment for multidisciplinary researches on various disciplines under pure science, management, humanities and social sciences</p> TUTA, Padma Kanya Multiple Campus Unit en-US Voice of Teacher 2362-1419 A Case Study of Secularism in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51017 <p>Secularization has constituted the centerpiece of the sociology of religion indecent years. It is argued that this controversy is a particularly important and illuminating site upon which the redirection of the sociological enterprise is being wrought. So far, secularism been seen as an opportunity for religious minorities to claim equal support. The state is given the active duty to enhance and reform religious traditions. The emerging form of Nepalesesecularism may not merely contribute to a rethinking of the Western categories of the secular; its continuing evolution may also be most instructive for western countries. The objectives of the research are to know the emergence of secularism in Nepal and to evaluate the consequences of secularism in Nepal. In this paper, I have focused on the debate of secularism in Nepal. Here, I have applied the qualitative methods with case studies. The respondents were selected through purposive sampling. The aim here is to offer a perspective from which to begin to analyze the formation of Nepalese secularism, and the forces which are presently shaping it.</p> Arjun K.C. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 9 23 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51017 Estimation and Projection of the Fertility at Bagmati Province https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51027 <p>Information on fertility levels and patterns can assist to formulate and evaluate policies related to population change (Brass, 2015). Policy infertility can affect the population change. Fertility relies upon accepted practices and desired family size (Bongaart, 2017). Fertility provides positive contribution to population growth if it is above the replacement level. The negative contribution occurs if it is below replacement level (Pressat,1973). So, actual scenario of fertility data is essential for policy formulation. Fertility decline in Nepal has been tested and tried with different studies gives different figures like demographic health survey and national census data but varies data in provincial level. This study describes number of children ever born and number of births before 12 months who were given birth by reproductive (15-49) age group of women. The study has utilized census data from CBS that were conducted in 2001 and 2011. From census data files 1156521 and 1583063 number of reproductive age group (12.5% of the sample data) of women were identified through analysis. It was used to the Arriaga method and changing P/F ratio method in the estimation of Bagmati Province. The TFR values of Bagmati Province exact years 2016, 2021, 2026 and 2031 were obtained by linear interpolation and extrapolation by 2031, it will too low TFR replacement level.</p> Bijaya Mani Devkota Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 24 36 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51027 Importance of Demography in Business Planning Regarding Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51028 <p>A business plan which has guided through several goals of the enterprise. The several elements of the business plan are directly linked with the demographic outputs of society. The objective of this study is to analyze the importance of demography in business planning. It also focused on the role of business statics in the business cycle. The information in this study has-been gathered from secondary sources. They are based on various reports, manuals, and guidelines from various organizations. Published articles, books, and reports. Information was analyzed in the descriptiv e method.</p> <p>Business demographic statistics help to identify the demographic outputs for the planning of the new business. It provides information on the creation, destruction, and survival of enterprises. The business demographic statistics provide information on the births and deaths of a business's plan. The growth of the country's population encourages competition in business activities. It further suggests expanding the market's potential. There is fundamental relationship between population and economic development.</p> <p>There was a fundamental relationship between the development and population, the demographic transition has a vital role in economic development. Therefore developed countries have relatively low fertility and mortality rates than developing countries. In the current year, Nepal is gaining its demographic dividend and is experiencing declining fertility, declining mortality rate, and increasing life expectancy. Nepal is passing with a bonus population which has a supportive role in expanding the national economy, new business, and finally national development of the country</p> Govinda Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 37 47 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51028 Does the Advent of Federal Democracy and Madheshi Movement Significantly Successful to alter the Lives of Madheshi Dalit ? (A Study of Inaruwa Municipality, Sunsari District) https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51029 <p>The Madheshi Dalits of Nepal fall below the national average for human development. They are also denied from basic human rights. In this article, researcher has examined the socio economic situation of Madheshi Dalits of eastern Tarai after Madesh movement and the country of Nepal attained Federal Democracy. The study is founded on a design for qualitative and quantitative research. It is conducted in Inarwa Municipality ward no 9 and sample of Dalit people, Dom, Khatwe, Paswan, Mushahar, and Chamar people is used. Interview schedule, observation, and case study methods have been used in the process of data collection. Data descriptively evaluated and has presented using basic statistical methods. The study has reached in conclusion that social and economic exclusion, inequality, and caste-based discrimination, illiteracy are equally significant contributors to the underdevelopment and poverty in the Madheshi Dalit community. The Madheshi caste-based Hindu hierarchical culture and prejudice are also significant among them. According to the study, the advent of federal democracy and Madhesh movement in Nepal did not significantly alter the lives of the Dalit community. Still prevalent are societal injustices like poverty, unemployment, discrimination, and violence. Increased in political engagement of Dalit activists have all had a significant impact on the study area's Dalit population. They know very little about Dalit's political rights and freedoms, as well as Dalit representation in local government. They have started to speak out about equal representation of man and women in local government and against many forms of social prejudice and violence both within and outside the group.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Jagadish Oli Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 48 63 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51029 Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic in the Urban People of Kathmandu Valley https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51031 <p>COVID-19 is a pandemic of an acute respiratory syndrome that emerging in Wuhan, China in December 2019 spread and affected to the various parts of the world in short period of time. This study explores the social, economic and social psychological impact of COVID-19 in people from different professions and family backgrounds of various categories of urban people. Similarly, I used exploratory research design by taking 5 respondents from different backgrounds and occupations purposively for case study. I found that COVID-19 pandemic has made a huge loss to all economic sectors, employer as well as employee. It creates fear, tension, anxiety and depression in the people. Likewise, this pandemic has also brought changes in the sanitary behavior of the urban people. Moreover, people used to maintain social relationship through cell phone, messenger call and telephone rather than direct meeting and gathering. The nature and degree of impact of COVID-19 was different in the sampled respondents except similar changes in sanitary habit.</p> Kailash Uprety Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 64 82 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51031 Diasporic Subjects in Multicultural World in Mukharjee's Stories https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51032 <p>The present paper argues that globalization has created diasporas subjects among immigrants communities as they go through a number of adjustment in the host culture. As recorded by Bharati Mukherjee in her story collection Middleman and Other Stories the protagonists have to constantly adopt and adapt new forms of hybridity in the US. With an advent of globalization, people started migrating into first world in search of better opportunities and social security, but the cultural differences always played a role in determining their identities. In other words, globalization opened the space for multiculturalism, and multiculturalism, in turn, bore diasporic subjects. This immigrants thus lived with an identity that they can’t claim to be their own. They always struggle, constantly adopting and adapting a newer and newer form of identity negotiated heavily in a cross cultural setting.</p> Kusum Ghimire Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 83 93 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51032 Experience of Intimate Partner Violence among University level Female Students in Kathmandu https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51034 <p>Intimate partner Violence is one of the most widespread and may take place in any age, family, community, cultural, ethnical or religious group and religions in different forms and disparately impacts their life. Violence against Women (VAW) by their husband is one of the most common forms of violence in our society. Therefore, cross-sectional survey was conducted among female students studying in bachelors and masters level at Baneshwor Campus using structured and semi-structured questionnaires. A total of 215 participants were randomly selected and data were collected from the 1 December 2020 to 30 January 2021. One-thirds of the respondents were married. Married participants reported about their violence experience perpetrated by their husbands. The prevalence of emotional violence 40% was higher than physical 33% and sexual violence20%. Women with land ownership, employed, members of community groups and those who were married to husbands with the higher level of education were less likely to experience physical violence. Women who did not own land (OR=2.92), unemployed (OR=1.21) were more likely to experience violence than those who owned land and were employed. Similarly, lower level of husband's education (OR=3.35) and unskilled jobs(OR=1.56) were associated with the higher occurrence of violence compared to their husbands having university level of education and government job or working abroad. Women experienced violence by their husband is common among educated girls.</p> Radhika Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 94 108 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51034 Causes and Consequences of Gender Based Violence against College Girls https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51039 <p>Gender based violence was measured based on different questions related to physical violence, emotional violence and sexual violence. The questions were asked to the Bachelor and Masters Level students. Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) questionnaires were taken as reference for questionnaire development. This study entitled “Causes and Consequences of Gender Based Violence against College Girls” is based on the study of Bachelor and Masters Level students of Padmakanya Multiple Campus, Kathmandu. The objectives of the study was to identify the causes and consequences of gender based violence of college students. In this study cross-sectional research design was applied. The Study followed the quantitative approach. From this study it was found that about 34.3percent of the respondents were experienced violence in their life time. Out of the total case of the emotional violence, more than one fifth (24.2%) were humiliate in front of others followed by insulted or make feel bad (20.6%)and threaten to hurt or harm by someone (13.6%). Respondents who were experienced physical violence, highest percentage (10.6%) were pushed, shook and throw something on her followed by twist arm or pull hair (6.1%),slapped and punched (4.5%), and kicked, dragged and beaten (3.8%).A few of the respondents have experienced the sexual violence (12.1%). Among them, 6.1 percent of the respondents were physically force to perform any other sexual acts followed by physically forced to have sexual intercourse(4.5%) and threatened to perform sexual acts in any other way (1.5%).</p> Raju Malla Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 109 122 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51039 Socio-economic and Political Deprivation of Hill Dalits (A Study of Gaikhur and Taple Villages of Gorkha District) https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51035 <p>This paper applies the mix-method approach (both quantitative and qualitative methods) through survey data from Gaikhur and Taple villages of Gorkha district (408 Hill Dalit households and 210 non-Dalit households).The caste hierarchy and varna system created the caste-based discrimination and untouchability practice in Nepal. This paper also explores that because of caste-based discrimination including untouchability prevailed in the villages studies non-Dalits discriminates Dalits in education and participation inreligious and cultural functions in the villages. Further, Dalits are deprivedof household income generation as compared to that of non-Dalits. Data also reveals that Dalits are deprived of political participation as compared to that of non-Dalits. Within Hill Dalits, the so-called low caste Dalits (Damai and Gaine) have also deprived in education, household income and political as well as cultural participation as compared to that of high caste Dalits (Sarki and Kami).</p> Shiva Prasad Khanal Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 123 132 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51035 Home Stay Tourism in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51036 <p>Tourism is the world's fastest growing industry. Nepal is one of the most beautiful countries in the world with lofty snowcapped mountains and scenic, peaceful settings. It has varieties of tourism resources, places of natural beauty, historical and cultural monuments, art, architecture, and festival set which are the best attractions to the foreign visitors in Nepal. Among various tourists are attractions in Nepal. Chitlang is one of the most scenic tourist destinations in Nepal. It is a land of natural scenery, the richbio-diversity, peaceful environment, and the ethnic diversity, the rich and diverse culture which attract visitors. The general objective of the study is to explore tourism prospect of rural tourism home stay. The respondents were selected by purposive sampling method in case of home stay survey and simple random sampling procedure was used for survey of visiting tourists and households. The sample size is selected 10 home stay owners selected from 18 home stay, and 18 different types of tourists (internal and external), 12 in Local people in total sampled data was 40 total. The study is based both on secondary and primary data collection from municipality profile, reports and direct fill up the structure questionnaire. The number of foreign tourists is found very low according to the local people. Local people were found very much interested and devoted for promoting tourism in the study area but there seems lack of co-ordination among the government authorities and local promoters and also lack of fund. In conclusion it can be said that deserves potentiality of becoming one of the best rural tourism destinations of the country and home stay was very effective to promote tourism. Therefore, package programs and tourism advertisement seem necessary to develop as a rural tourist destination.</p> Suresh Acharya Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 133 144 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51036 तानसेनका महत्वपूर्ण जात्रा तथा पर्वः अमूर्त सांस्कृतिक पक्षको अध्ययन {Important Jatras and Festivals of Tansen: A Study of Abstract Cultural Aspects} https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51040 <p>यो लेखमा पाल्पा जिल्ला स्थित तानसेन नगरपालिकाभित्र मनाइने जात्रा तथा पर्व र तिनीहरूमा पाइने अमूर्त सांस्कृतिक पक्षको पहिचान, सङ्कलन, वर्गीकरण तथा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । पाल्पा जिल्लाको तानसेन बजार मूलतः मध्यकालीन सहर हो । तानसेनमा विशेषतः मध्यकालदेखि नै नेवार, ब्राह्मण, क्षेत्री, मगर, गुरुङ, थकाली जस्ता समुदायका मानिसहरू बसोवास गर्दै आएका छन् । यद्दपि नेवार तथा मगर यहाँ बसोवास गर्ने प्रमुख समुदाय हुन् । धार्मिक दृष्टिकोणले तानसेन सहरमा विशेषतः हिन्दू तथा वौद्ध धर्मसँग सम्बन्धित समुदायको बसोवास छ । तानसेन सहरको संस्कृतिर सांस्कृतिक सम्पदा भन्नासाथ मूलतः उक्त समुदायका साथै हिन्दू तथा वौद्ध धर्मसँग सम्बन्धित भौतिक संरचना एवम् अभौतिक परम्पराहरू बुझ्ने गरिन्छ । मूर्त तथा अमूर्त सम्पदाको अभाव तानसेन नगरमा देखिदैन । यहाँ मूर्त तथा अमूर्त दुबै स्वरूपका सम्पदा पाइन्छन् । त्यसलाई तानसेन नगरको शक्ति र सार्मथ्य मान्नु एवम् ठान्नु पर्दछ । यो लेख मूलतः अमूर्त संस्कृति र सांस्कृतिक सम्पदाको पहिचान, सङ्कलन, वर्गीकरण तथा विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित छ । अतः हिन्दू तथा वौद्ध धर्म र उक्त समुदायसँग सम्बन्धित जातीय कुल परम्परा अनुसार संस्कारगत कर्म, चाडपर्व, व्रतउपासना, धार्मिकअनुष्ठानका साथै युनेस्कोले वर्गीकरण गरेका पाँचवटा विद्यामध्ये सामाजिक व्यवहार, अनुष्ठान तथा चाडपर्व उत्सवसँग सम्बन्धित विशेषतः तानसेनका जात्रा तथा पर्वहरूको अध्ययन गरिएको हो । यसक्रममा अमरनारायण रथयात्रा, भगवती जात्रा, गाईजात्रा, वटुक भैरव जात्रा, गणेश जात्रा, भीमसेनजात्रा, कालभैरव जात्रा श्रीपञ्चमी, शीतलादेवी खटयात्रा, भगवान् बुद्ध रथयात्रा जस्ता पर्वहरूको पहिचान, सङ्कलन, वर्गीकरण तथा विश्लेषण यस लेखमा भएको छ ।</p> अरुणकुमार Arunkumar काफ्ले Kafle Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 145 154 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51040 नेपालमा जनसंख्या बृद्धि र सामाजिक विकासः एक अध्ययन {Population Growth and Social Development in Nepal: A Study} https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51041 <p>प्रस्तुत लेखकले नेपालमा जनसंख्या बृद्धिलाई सामाजिक विकाससँग जोडेर अध्ययान गर्ने प्रयास गरेको पाईन्छ । धेरै जनसंख्या बृद्धि आर्थिक विकासको बाधा हो । जनसंख्या बृद्धिले गर्दा राज्यलाई रोजगारीको अवस्था, साक्षरताको बृद्धि एंव सामाजिक पूर्वाधारका तथ्यहरुको पूर्ति गर्न गाह्रो पर्न जान्छ । धेरै बजेटको जोहो गर्न आवश्यक पर्छ । विकास एउटा सकारात्मक संरचनात्मक परिवर्तनरुप हो । त्यसैले सयुक्त राष्ट्र संघको वडा पत्र अनुसार विकासले मानिसको भौतिक संरचनासँगमात्र होइन सामाजिक, संस्कृतिक तथा संस्थागत बृद्धि पनि हो l यो अध्ययान विशेष गरेर वर्णात्मक एंव द्धितीयक तथ्याङ्गमा आधारित छ । यसमा जनसंख्या बृद्धिको स्थितिलाई प्राप्ति गर्नको लागि सन् १९५२ र ०५४ देखि सन् २०२१ को प्रारम्भिक जनगणना एवं सर्वेक्षणलाई आधार बनाइएको छ । साथै सामाजिक विकासका आधारहरु प्राप्त गर्न पलश प्रतिवेदन, पपुलेशन, मोनोग्राफ आदि मुख्य छन् । यस अध्ययानमा जनसंख्या स्थिति, भौगोलिक एवं क्षेत्रिय वितरणको संघर्षमा गरिएको छ । यस अनुसन्धानमा जनसंख्या बृद्धिले नेपालमा खाद्यययानको कमि हुनुको सन्र्दभमा पनि जोडेर अध्ययान गरिएको छ । सरकारले यि विकासका समस्याहरुलाई संम्बोधन कसरी गरिरहेको छ त्यो कुराबहसको विषय बन्न सक्छ । जनसंख्या बृद्धिले कृषि योग्य जमिन खण्डीकरण हुदै भवन बस्ती एवं उद्योगहरुको स्थापनाले गर्दा कृषक हरुको मौसमी रोजगार घट्दै जाने र कृषि उत्पादन पनि कम भईरएको छ । वर्तमान समयमा देशमा के कसरी जनसंख्या बृद्धि कुन कुन प्रदे्श एवं भौगोलिक क्षेत्रमा भइरहेको छ । सोहि अनुसार सामाजिक विकासका आधारभूत तत्वहरु जनतासामु कति पुगेका छन् भनेर जान्नको लागि पनि यो लेखबाट सहयोग पुग्ने अपेक्षा राखिएको छ ।</p> गोपीकृष्ण Gopikrishna पाण्डे Pandey Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 155 170 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51041 दनुवार जातिको सामाजिक संरचनाः एक समाजशास्त्रीय दृष्टिकोण {Social Structure of the Danuwar Caste: A Sociological Approach} https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51042 <p>यो अध्ययनमा दनुवार समुदायको सामाजिक संरचनाको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । नेपालमा पाइने विभिन्न जनजातिहरूमध्ये दनुवार पनि एउटा महत्वपूर्ण समुदायभित्र पर्दछ । महत्वपूर्ण सांस्कृतिक विशेषता भएकै कारण दनुवार समुदायलाई नेपाली समाज एवम् संस्कृतिको बहुमूल्य आभूषण मानिएको हो । अन्य जातीय समुदायका भन्दा पृथक सामाजिक/सांस्कृतिक विशेषता भएका कारण यो समुदायलाई महत्वका साथ हेर्ने गरिन्छ । अतः अध्ययन अनुसन्धानका लागि यो समुदायलाईमहत्वपूर्ण विषयका रूपमा लिन सकिन्छ । दनुवारसमुुदायमा अन्य समुुदायमा जस्तै जातीय पहिचानका छुट्टै आधारहरू छन् । मौलिकताको परिचय दिने विशेषता पाइन्छन् । सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक, आर्थिक, धार्मिक, भाषिक जस्ता विभिन्न विशेषताहरूका क्षेत्रमा यो जाति सम्पन्न छ । वास्तवमा त्यस्ता मूर्त तथा अमूर्त परम्परागत सांस्कृतिक सम्पदाहरू यस समुदायका पहिचान हुन् । तिनै सांस्कृतिक धरोहरहरूले यो जातिलाई चिनाउँदछन् । फलस्वरूप यो समुदाय अन्य समुदायभन्दा पृथक देखिन्छ । मौलिक सामाजिक एवम् सांस्कृतिक मूल्य मान्यता, चाल–चलन, बानी–व्यवहार, भाषा, धर्म, बसोवास क्षेत्र भएकै कारण यो समुदायलाई आदिवासी जनजातिको रूपमा स्वीकार गरिएको हो । यस अध्ययनमा यो जातिका सामाजिक संरचनाका विषयमा विश्लेषण गर्ने प्रयास भएको छ । यसक्रममा सिन्धुली जिल्ला दुधौली गाउँपालिका ६ हर्साही गाउँमा बसोवास गर्ने यो जातिलाई अध्ययनको केन्द्र बनाइएको हो ।</p> राजु Raju केसी KC Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 171 182 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51042 सामाजिक तथा सांस्कृतिक विभेदजन्य क्रियाकलापले अछाम क्षेत्रमा पारेको प्रभाव {Social and cultural discrimination activities Impact on the Acham region} https://nepjol.info/index.php/vot/article/view/51043 <p>Division in society is mostly caused by differences in religious belie for practice, culture, behavior, and social activities. One of the main characteristics of any community is how they are each presented differently from one another. The split might be interpreted as social prejudice. Social discrimination occurs when a person, caste, race, or ethnic group is treated unfairly. It is a notion based on social and cultural constructs. It has existed throughout civilization since ancient times and continues to do so. It is constant and evolving idea. Discriminatory practices on the basis of social and cultural background have existed in Nepal since ancient times. It still permeates society today and has an effect on Achham's social and cultural sectors as well. Social and cultural prejudices were the central issues of this study, which also examined how it affected society. This research paper is analytical and descriptive in style. The qualitative data is the foundation of this study article. Depending on the situation, both primary and secondary sources of data were utilized in this work. Field surveys and interviews provided the primary data, while literature reviews provided the secondary data.</p> शंकर प्रसाद Shankar Prasad भण्डारी Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-24 2022-12-24 7 01 183 193 10.3126/vot.v7i01.51043