Voice: A Biannual & Bilingual Journal https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice <p>Voice: A Biannual &amp; Bilingual Journal is published by the Autar Dei Chaudharain Research Centre (ADCRC), Mahendra Multiple Campus, Nepalgunj, Banke, Nepal. The primary aim of 'Voice' is to facilitate the exchange of expertise among scholars at a global scale.</p> en-US <p>CC BY-NC: This license allows reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator.</p> bedrajkc@gmail.com (Prof. Dr. Bed Raj KC) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 31 Aug 2023 12:19:52 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Influence of Alcohol Advertising on Alcohol Consumption among School Students https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/57956 <p>Alcohol advertising refers to the advertising of alcoholic beverages by alcohol manufacturers through various media. Exposure to alcohol advertising is the most important leading factor related to alcohol consumption among adolescents and youth. This study is focused on influences of alcohol advertising on alcohol consumption among school students. This study was based on online cross-sectional survey design. All of the secondary school students studying at the schools of Banke district were the population of the study. The researcher included the total 156 secondary school students as a study population by using a multistage sampling method. The data were collected from July 12, 2021 to July 29, 2021 through Google from. The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20, including frequency, percentage, median, mode and chi-square test. This study found that 88.6 percent of the respondents had seen alcohol advertising. Likewise, 31.4 percent of the respondents agreed and 32.7 percent of the respondents disagreed that they pay attention to alcohol advertising on social media. Similarly 85.9 percent of the respondents reported that alcohol advertising increases the number of drunks. Furthermore one fifth of the respondents indicated that alcohol advertising attracts them to taste alcohol. Lastly, this research revealed that there is a weak positive association between respondents who see alcohol advertising and attract them to taste alcohol. It is learned that alcohol advertising influences the purchasing and drinking behaviour of school students. School age is not a legal age for purchasing and drinking alcohol so it is necessary to conduct awareness programs through formal and informal institutions.</p> Bhagawoti Sharma, Bhimsen Devkota Copyright (c) 2023 Bhagawoti Sharma, Bhimsen Devkota https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/57956 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of Pictures in Enhancing ESL Students’ Short Story writing Ability https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/57959 <p>The integration of pictures into story teaching offers a dynamic approach that caters to various learning styles, fosters deeper understanding, and makes the learning experience more enjoyable. This quantitative pre-experimental research was conducted to investigate the impact of visuals on enhancing short story writing skill among secondary level ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Data was derived from a sample of thirty students selected purposively for the study. The research incorporated pre-tests, progressive tests, and post-tests as data collection techniques. The outcomes of these tests were subsequently compared and analyzed to assess the influence of visuals on short story development. The analysis of the data revealed that pictures were indeed effective in teaching short story composition to secondary level students. Therefore, utilizing visuals as an instructional tool for teaching short story writing is recommended for secondary level ESL students.</p> Hari Prasad Tiwari Copyright (c) 2023 Hari Prasad Tiwari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/57959 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Pesticide use and Their Impacts on Health of Farmers: A Study in Rajapur Area, Bardiya (Nepal) https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/57960 <p>A study was conducted in the Rajapur municipality and Geruwa Rural municipality to determine the types of pesticides used in agriculture and their potential effects on farmers' health. Interviews were conducted with 240 farmers from 12 villages in the study area, and the information provided suo moto by the farmers were analyzed. This study found that the farmers frequently use pesticides in the extremely risky to highly deadly categories, such as carbamates, pyrethroids, organophosphides, and organophosphates. It has been discovered that the majority of farmers in the study area are ignorant of the dangers to human health presented by the mentioned pesticides and the consequences of their careless handling. Farmers cover their faces with cloth fabric masks and smoke tobacco to protect them. In addition, it was noticed that after spraying the pesticides, other typical farming activities continued in the agricultural fields. So, there is also a possibility that these pesticides will directly come into touch with women, children, and other field employees. There were numerous illnesses and physiological abnormalities with various indications and symptoms. A significant relative risk (RR) was also noted. It was discovered that the farmers of the study area have poor state of health which was aggravated by the lack of awareness and failure to implement suitable preventive measures regarding use of pesticides.</p> Bhesh Raj Chaudhari Copyright (c) 2023 Bhesh Raj Chaudhari https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/57960 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Standardization of the Tharu Language: A Critical Analysis https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/57962 <p>This research paper highlights the importance and rationale of standardization in the Tharu language spoken in Nepal. It has some variants throughout Nepal and is being used on the individual styles of accent and pronunciation. These individual styles of speaking and writing the language have created some confusion and occasional linguistic disputes. This research project aims at mitigating such linguistic controversy. The native speakers of the Tharu language are found to have been pronouncing cerebral and dental sounds haphazardly. It happens so because the language hasn't been authentically standardized so far although it has had lots of literary activities with quite a good folk literature too. The Tharu language is the fourth largest language of Nepal. It’s the major language of southern Nepal from the east to the west but it doesn't have any authentic linguistic guidelines. Being centred on these points, the paper advocates for the standardization of the Tharu language with the authorized publication of grammar books, dictionaries, etc. Views of various authors regarding the standardization of language have been presented in this paper that has adopted the qualitative research method. The analysis and discussion have been made primarily based on the secondary sources of data with the conclusion that the Tharu language is in dire need to be standardized for its spread and quality as well.</p> Raj Kumar Tharu Copyright (c) 2023 Rajan Kumar Tharu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/57962 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Nepal-India Trade: Pre and Post Globalization Comparisons https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/57963 <p>Nepal and India have trade relations since pre historic age. The pattern of trade between these two countries has not remained same from prehistoric age to the current period. Nepal and British India signed first treaty of commerce in 1st March, 1792. Nepal’s had trade surplus with British India before both the countries signed a treaty of friendship on December 21, 1923 AD. Nepal’s trade deficit with India has been increasing. Nepal introduced country-wise and commodity-wise trade diversification initiatives to raise its export to India and lessen its reliance on India in international trade. Nepal has brought several reformations in trade policies though after 1991 when it liberalized its economy for increasing export and reducing volume of trade deficit. This study compares India-Nepal trade in past before down of democracy in Nepal, in between 1950 to 1990 and after 1990 in order to analyse effects of various trade treaties and policies in Nepal-India trade. It uses historical-analytical method using secondary sources of data to carry out the study. It covers data from 1900 AD to 2020/21. The study finds that various revisions in trade treaties between Nepal and India and trade reformation policies have not been effective in increasing export of Nepal, its trade deficit and dependency in India. &nbsp;</p> Rajesh Kesar Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 Rajesh Kesar Khanal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/57963 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Sanitary Practice of Public Schools in Nepalgunj Sub-Metropolitan City https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58018 <p>The study was conducted in Nepalgunj Sub Metropolitan of Banke District. The objective of this study was to find out the problems faced by schools in sanitary practice such as water supply, toilet, waste dispose and school physical plant as well as role of headmaster and community people in sanitary practice of school. This descriptive type of research was based on primary data collected through questionnaire applying simple random sampling method. The population of the study were 505 (500 students and 5 headmaster) headmaster and students of Nepalgunj Sub Metropolitan. After collecting data it was checked, verified manually to reduce possible errors. The collected data were processed and placed in different table and analyzed in terms of percentage and frequency table. The status of sanitary practice of public school of Nepalgunj Sub Metropolitan were satisfactory but not well managed. They had no preplan or ideas regarding physical plant. The source of drinking water was satisfactory but 80 percent have financial problem to manage pure drinking water. The study reveals that 100 percent schools have toilet facility but lack of interest or facilities inside toilet is very poor and dirty. There is no any proper management of the waste disposal system in the school. Separate toilet for boys, girls and teacher is must. Pipe line drinking water is essential for permanent solution of the water in the school. To avoid this miserable condition, the government should strongly include regular program on sanitary facilities and its practice in the curriculum and school should apply the curriculum properly.</p> Lal Mani Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 Lal Mani Acharya https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58018 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Input Crisis in the Agricultural Sector of Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58020 <p>Amidst 21st century when agriculture is cherished with advancement in all kind of technology backed by multifarious dimensions of research and innovation internationally, the mainstay sector of Nepal still remains darker. Poverty, hunger and food deprivation have become common characteristics of the peasantry and the sector remains at a very marginal level in its productivity and total product. Import of agricultural product of millions of worth has become destiny of the country. In this line crisis in agricultural input supply is found as a major determinant. Precisely by inputs we mean essential commodities as chemical fertilizers (urea, potash and DAP), agricultural tools and machines, improved seeds and saplings, agricultural finance. As per provisions of such inputs Nepal is found weaker in almost all segments of procurement. The country still doesn’t have any chemical fertilizer production unit of its own. Vast and diverse areas of agricultural land are still far from irrigation catchment. Breeding of improved seeds by modern aerobiological means is still under progress and very less is achieved compared to the desired target. Agricultural tools and machine production inside the country is still at nascent stage. Agricultural finance still falls under policy and implement question. The country relies heavily on neighboring countries for the supply of such inputs through formal and informal channels that would raise the question over food security and sovereignty as well. Therefore, to make efficient, reliable and sufficient provisions of agricultural input to the agriculture sector of Nepal is a crucial need of the day.</p> Avnindra Dutt Mishra Copyright (c) 2023 Avnindra Dutt Mishra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58020 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 छिमेकी कथाको समाजशास्त्रीय अध्ययन {A Sociological Study of Chhimeki Narratives} https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58073 <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखमा गुरुप्रसाद मैनालीको छिमेकी कथालाई पाठका रुपमा लिई समाजशास्त्रीय विश्लेषण गरेर उक्त कथामा रहेको अर्थ निक्र्योल गरिएको छ । यस कथामा रहेका प्रजाति, क्षण र पर्यावरण सम्बन्धी विभिन्न पक्षहरू पहिल्याउनु यस अध्ययनको प्रमुख उद्देश्य रहेको छ । यस लेखमा साहित्यको समाजशास्त्रका पिता एवं फ्रान्सेली समालोचक हिपोलाइट अडोल्फ टेनको प्रजाति, क्षण र पर्यावरण सम्बन्धी आधारभूत मान्यतालाई सैद्धान्तिक आधारका रुपमा लिई पाठगत विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस कथामा ब्राह्मण, भोटे, घर्ती, नेवार जस्ता विभिन्न प्रजातिका पात्रहरूको उपस्थिति रहेको देखिन्छ । लेखकले यस कथामा धर्मानन्द जस्ता खसआर्य प्रजातिका ब्राह्मणलाई पात्रका रुपमा उभ्याएर तिनका स्वभाव, वंशाणुगत गुण तथा भाषिक विशेषताको चित्रण गरेको पाइन्छ । यस कथामा क्षणका रुपमा असार महिनादेखि भदौका आधाआधीसम्मका घटनाहरूको वर्णन गरिएको छ भने दिउँसोको टन्टलापुर घाम, ज्यामिरे बेँसीको फाँट, रोपाइँ चलिरहेको अवस्था, चौतारो, कुलो, कुलोमुनि आसामरु साहूको हिउँदे पसल, रमाइलो ठाउँ, साँझ परेपछि, मिर्मिरे उज्यालो जस्ता समय जनाउने पदपदावलीको प्रयोग गरेर एउटा बृहत् प्राकृतिक परिवेशको निर्माण गरिएको पाइन्छ । यसमा ग्रामीण परिवेशको चित्रण प्रचुर मात्रामा भएको पाइन्छ । भौगोलिक संरचना तथा प्राकृतिक स्थिति प्रतिकूल हुनाका कारण यस कथामा मानिसका दुख, कष्ट र पीडाको चित्रण गरिएको पाइन्छ साथै यस कथामा पर्यावरणका रुपमा वर्गीय विविधतायुक्त सामाजिक परिवेश रहेको छ भन्ने कुरालाई सशक्त रूपमा चित्रण गरिएको छ ।</p> प्रदीपप्रसाद Pradeepprasad ज्ञवाली Gyawali Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58073 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 महानन्द ढकालको सिमाना मुक्तक सङ्ग्रहमा सबाल्टर्न {The Subaltern in Mahananda Dhakal's Simana Muktaka collection} https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58074 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख महानन्द ढकालको सिमाना मुक्तक सङ्ग्रहमा सबाल्टर्न अध्ययन गरिएको छ । सबाल्टर्न वर्गहितप्रति समर्पित रहेर &nbsp;वर्तमान साहित्य र समालोचनाको क्षेत्रमा विकसित नवीन मान्यता भएकाले यससँग सम्बद्ध सैद्धान्तिक आधारमा मुक्तकहरूको अध्ययन गर्न लागिएको हो । सबाल्टर्न अध्ययनलाई उच्च विवादको बीचबाट र आलोचनात्मक पृष्टभूमीको गर्भबाट हुर्किएको अभियान मानिन्छ । भारतबाट विकसित भएर विभिन्न मुलुकमा फैलिएको यो अध्ययनपद्धति भएकाले पूर्वबाट पश्चिम फैलिएको सशक्त अभियान मानिएका छ । सबाल्टर्न अध्ययनमा विभिन्न जातजति, महिला, दलित, पिछडिएका क्षेत्र र सीमान्तकृत वर्गको बोली साथै इतिहासबाट बहिष्कृत भएकाको पहिचनको खोजी गरिन्छ । यस लेखमा पनि निम्नवर्गीय सबाल्टर्न वर्गको समस्यालाई पहिल्याउने र उनीहरूले भोग्नु परेको अन्याय, अत्याचार, अधिनस्थ भएको अवस्था साथै विद्रोहका स्वरलाई समेटिएको छ । यसमा प्राथमिक र द्वितीयक स्रोतका सामग्रीको सङ्कलनका लागि पुस्तकालयीय पद्धतिको उपयोग गरिएको छ र सबाल्टर्नसँग सम्बन्धित सैद्धान्तिक ढाँचा तयार गरेर निगमन विधिबाट मुक्तकहरूको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यसमा राज्यव्यवस्था र सबाल्टर्नको अवस्था, वर्गीय सबाल्टर्न साथै सबाल्टर्न वर्गको प्रतिकार र विद्रोहलाई अध्ययनको विषय बनाइएको छ । यस अध्ययनले उच्चशिक्षा अध्ययन गर्ने विद्यार्थी, शोधकर्ता र प्रज्ञिक क्षेत्रमा जिज्ञासा राख्ने व्यक्तिहरूलाई नवीन ज्ञान प्रदान गर्नेछ । यस आलेखमा ढकालको सिमाना मुक्तक सङ्ग्रहमा सबाल्टर्नको विषयवस्तुमा मूलतः राज्यव्यवस्था साथै वर्गीय आधारमा सबाल्टर्न वर्गलाई अधीनस्थ बनाइएको हुनाले दुःख, पीडा र असमानताको अन्त्यका लागि प्रतिकार र विद्रोह गरेको अवस्था प्रस्तुत गरिएको निष्कर्ष रहेको छ ।</p> महेन्द्र Mahendra वाग्ले Wagle Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58074 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 सिद्धिचरण श्रेष्ठका खण्डकाव्यहरूले दिएको सन्देश {The message given by the poems of Siddhicharan Shrestha} https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58079 <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेख खण्डकाव्यकार सिद्धिचरण श्रेष्ठद्वारा रचित खण्डकाव्यहरूले दिएको सन्देशको अध्ययनमा केन्द्रित छ । वर्णनात्मक एवं वर्णान्तमक अनुसन्धान ढाँचालाई आत्मसाथ गरी यस लेखमा श्रेष्ठका उर्वशी, ज्यानमारा शैल, मङ्गलमान, आँसु, जुनकिरी, भीमसेन थापा, आत्म बिलौना, कान्तिमती र युद्ध र शान्ति नौ वटा खण्डकाव्यले दिएको सन्देश र त्यसका सकारात्मक पक्षहरूलाई उपलब्धीको रुपमा ग्रहण गरिएको छ । श्रेष्ठका खण्डकाव्यहरू पूर्वीय काव्यशास्त्रीय मान्यताका आधारमा सिर्जत भएका शास्त्रीय वार्णिक छन्द, मात्रिक छन्द, भ्याउरे र लोकलयलाई अँगाली लेखिएका छन् । कृतिभित्रको विषयवस्तुले तत्कालीन नेपाली समाजका आर्थिक सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक, धार्मिक एवं जातीय छुवाछुत जस्ता कुरालाई उठाएको छ । कृतिहरूमा देशमा रोजगारीको अभावमा विदेश जानुपर्ने र विदेशमै ज्यान गुमाउनुपर्ने अवस्था र नेपाली कठिन परिश्रमी जीवन र उद्देश्यप्रति तल्लीन भएर लाग्नुपर्ने जस्ता विशिष्ट सन्देशहरू दिइएको छ । स्वच्छन्दतावादी काव्यधाराका खण्डकाव्यकार सिद्धिचरण श्रेष्ठका स्वतस्फूर्त अभिव्यक्तिहरूका देशभक्ति, प्रकृतिको मन्मय चित्रण, जनजीवीका र शोषण उत्पीडनको अन्त्य र सामाजिक न्यायको प्राप्ति सहित सामाजिक परिवर्तनको आग्रह उनका खण्डकाव्यहरूको मूल स्वर वा सन्देश हुन् भन्ने कुराको अनुसन्धान गरिएको छ ।</p> हरि प्रसाद Hari Prasad तिमिल्सिना Timilsina Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58079 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 भाषिक सिप सिकाइमा कविताको प्रयोग {Use of poetry in teaching language skills} https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58164 <p>साहित्यका विविध विधाहरू मध्ये कविता विधालाई पनि एउटा सशक्त र सम्पन्न विधाका रूपमा लिने गरिइन्छ । कविता विधा प्राचीन समयदेखि नै लोकप्रिय र समृद्ध विधाका रुपमा स्थापित भएको छ । कविता शिक्षण कार्य पहिलेदेखि नै चल्दै आए पनि त्यस शिक्षण कार्यको उद्देश्य भाषा शिक्षण नभएर ज्ञानका लागि र चरित्र निर्माण लागि कविता शिक्षण गर्ने परिपाटी थियो तर आधुनिक कालमा भाषिक सिपको विकासका लागि कवितालाई शैक्षिक सामग्रीका रुपमा प्रयोग हुन थालेपछि कविता शिक्षाणका विभिन्न पद्यतिहरुको खोजी हुन थालेको छ । हाल भाषा शिक्षणका लागि कविता विधा अत्यन्तै उपयोगी सामग्री मानिन्छ । भाषाको सामान्य प्रयोग देखि लिएर विशिष्ट प्रयोगका लागि कविता शिक्षण अत्यन्तै उपयोगी मानिन्छ । आज नेपाली भाषाको प्रयोग क्षेत्र निकै व्यापक भइसकेको छ । नेपाली भाषाको प्रयोग क्षेत्रमा सबभन्दा विकसित क्षेत्र साहित्यको भएकोले हामी सर्वसाधारण र शिक्षितहरुमा यसको कुरा गर्दा विशेष गरेर साहित्यिक क्षेत्रमा केन्द्रित हुने प्रवृत्ति रहेको पाइन्छ । तर अहिले नेपाली भाषा साहित्यिक प्रयोगको विषय मात्र नभएर ज्ञान विज्ञान तथा प्राविधिक विभिन्न क्षेत्रमा पनि दिन प्रतिदिन बढि रहेको छ । आज यो भाषा देशको आधुनिकीकरणका विविभ पक्ष, व्यवसाय, शिक्षा, राजनीति, अर्थतन्त्र, कानुन, विज्ञान,सञ्चार आदिमा देखा परेका प्रौढता र जटिलताहरुलाई पनि आफ्ना अभिव्यक्ति भित्र समेट्नतिर अग्रसर भएको छ ।</p> इन्द्रबहादुर Indrabahadur भण्डारी Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58164 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 प्रचलित लिपिहरुको परिचय र विकासक्रम {Introduction and development of popular scripts} https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58165 <p>प्राचीन समयमा प्रचलित हुँदै सङ्केत वा भाषिक तत्वलाई देखाउन प्रयोग हुने सङ्केतात्मक अर्थ दिने लेखनको चिन्हलाई लिपि भनिन्छ । लिपि एउटा समाजको गहन ऐना भएकाले यो सबै ठाउँमा प्रचलित हुन्छ । लिपि एक व्यवहारिक ज्ञान र सिप भएकोले पनि यहाँ लिपिको उत्पत्ति र विकास, लिपिको परिचय प्राचीनता र एउटा लिपिको सबै भावलाई प्रस्तुत गर्ने अध्ययनलाई लिपि भनिन्छ । नेपालका यस्ता प्राचीन लिपि नागरी लिपि र पूर्व तथा उत्तर लिपि हुँदै देवनागरी लिपिको महत्व र उपयोगितालाई देखाउने यहाँ प्रयास गरिएको छ । यस्ता प्रचलित लिपिहरु नेपाल लगायत विदेशी मुलुकहरुमा समेत उपयोगी हुने कुरा यस लिपि सम्बन्धी आलेखमा उल्लेख गरिएको छ ।</p> बालकृष्ण Balkrishna शर्मा Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58165 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 विद्यालय तहको पाठ्यक्रममा शान्तिशिक्षा {Peace Education in the School Level Curriculum} https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58167 <p>शान्तिशिक्षा सम्बन्धि स्पष्ट राष्ट्रिय शिक्षाका उद्देश्य र तहगत उद्देश्यहरू रहेका छैनन् । शान्तिसंग सम्बन्धित पक्षहरू सामाजिक अध्ययन, नेपाली, विज्ञान, स्वास्थ्य र शारीरिक, सिर्जनात्मक र नैतिक शिक्षामा रहेका छन् । यी विषयहरूमा सामाजिकता, मानवीय मूल्य, आस्था सेवाभाव, प्रजातात्रिक, लोकतन्त्र, सद्भाव, सहयोग, चरित्र, नैतिकता, एकता, मैत्री, सहिष्णुता, विश्ववन्धुत्व र मानवअधिकार मुख्य रूपमा रहेका छन् । बौद्धशिक्षा अन्तर्गत परियत्ति शिक्षामा ध्यान, शील, प्रज्ञा, सेवा, मैत्री, भावाना, समभाव, आर्य आष्टाङ्गिक मार्ग, पञ्चशिल, पुण्य काम, सकारात्मक सोच, कर्तव्यबोध, सफल जीवनका सुत्रहरू, शान्त र असल पक्षहरू रहेका छन । विद्यालय तहको शिक्षामा, शिक्षाका राष्ट्रिय उद्देश्यहरू र तहगत उद्देश्यहरूमा राखेका शान्तिशिक्षाका पक्षहरूको अपेक्षित विद्यार्थीहरूमा व्यवहार एंव ज्ञान, सीप र धारणा विकास गर्न बौद्धदर्शनका शान्तिशिक्षाको महत्वपूर्ण पक्षहरू विद्यालयको पाठ्यक्रममा समावेश गर्नु पर्दछ । विशेष गरी ध्यान, पञ्चशिलका पक्षहरु र आर्य अष्टाङ्घिक मार्ग र मैत्री, करुणा, मुदिना र उपेक्षालाइ शान्न्तिशिक्षामा समावेश गराउनु पर्दछ । शान्तिशिक्षामा आस्था, सहिष्णुता, श्रद्धा, प्रेम, रचनात्मक सोच, सकारात्मक सोच, अनुशासन, मानवता, सामाजिक न्याय र वातावरण सचेतनाका विषयवस्तु प्रत्यक्ष स्पष्ट रूपमा पाठ्यक्रममा समावेश गर्नुपर्दछ । विद्यालय शिक्षाको पाठ्यक्रम र पाठ्यपुस्तकमा शान्तिका पक्षहरू, आन्तरिक रूपमा शान्तिको अनुभूती गर्ने बौद्धदर्शन समेटी एउटा कोर विषय बनाउनु पर्दछ । नेपाली र नैतिक शिक्षा विषयमा बौद्ध साहित्यका जातक कथाहरु समाबेश गर्नु पर्दछ ा समग्रतामा मानवता विकास गराउन महत्वपूर्ण शान्तिशिक्षाको आधार नै बौद्धदर्शन हो ।<br>विद्यार्थीिहरुमा शान्तिप्रीय व्यक्तित्व विकास गर्न र समाजमा शान्ति स्थापना गर्न विद्यालय शिक्षामा शान्तिशिाक्षाको व्यवस्था गर्नु पर्दछ ।</p> विष्णुबहादुर Bishnubahadur के.सी. KC Copyright (c) 2023 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/58167 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Editorial Vol.15(1) https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/57954 <p>No abstract available.</p> Bed Raj KC Copyright (c) 2023 Bed Raj KC https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://nepjol.info/index.php/voice/article/view/57954 Thu, 31 Aug 2023 00:00:00 +0000