Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training <p>The Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is published by the Research and Information Division, Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT), Sanothimi, Bhaktapur, Nepal.</p> Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training en-US Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training 2773-8248 <p>© CTEVT All rights reserved</p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CC BY-NC</a> This license enables reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator. </p> Foster TVET Regime for Vibrant Economy <p>A country's economy is determined by the status of employment to its active population. Both the government and private sectors have significant role to create employments that propel economic activities. In order for the economy to achieve national ambition of development and prosperity, it needs the employees with proper skills and expertise in any field they engage with. Similarly, the formal and informal education and training provide necessary skills and build expertise in the workforce that ultimately spur entrepreneurships and industrial activities.</p> Narayan Prasad Ghimire Eka Raj Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 18 1 10.3126/tvet.v18i1.62927 Recognition of Prior Learning in Nepal: A Gateway to Socio-Economic Inclusion <p>Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) has become a popular policy instrument across the world- both in developed and developing countries. RPL is highly relevant in the context of Nepal, as it aims dignified employment to its people. Nepal has a huge number of people working in informal sector, including large number of migrants returning home every year with skills and experiences. However, the skills and competencies of these people are not yet harnessed to ensure them dignified jobs and better earning. This article is based on the secondary information along with author’s personal experiences and interaction with few RPL candidates. It presents the basics of RPL, the importance of RPL in the context of Nepal, and then looks at some problems and issues of RPL provision in Nepal. Finally, the article draws the conclusion on how the RPL can become a vital tool to boost Nepal’s socio-economic status.</p> Usha Bhandari Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 18 1 1 9 10.3126/tvet.v18i1.62706 Labor Market Information System: A Review of Some Practices <p>Accurate and up-to-date labor market information system, which is conducted with the involvement of public decision markers, technical and vocational education and training (TVET) practitioners, employers and their associations, employee associations, training providers and learners, is an essential feature of a successful TVET system. Similarly, engagement of multiple TVET stakeholders is an important component of overall skills development system which leads to developing responsive labor market skill needs, supporting prioritized economic sectors to foster dialogue among the stakeholders to maintain balance demand and supply of labor right. It enhances integration of labor market requirements in the overall training and skills development cycle and ensures that trainees acquire market-relevant skills for their employability and self-employment. In the context of changing labor market conditions, collecting, compiling, analyzing, and disseminating current and future needs from the TVET customers can support better matching for training and employment. As labor markets are constantly evolving and changing, labor market analysis therefore needs to be conducted on a regular basis so that real time labor market information can be obtained. But the active and regular labor market information process is underexplored in a developing country like Nepal. The main objective of the article is to explore the common practices of Nepali labor market information system and the problems faced by the TVET system. Thus, the article addresses the information gap by diving deep into the clear understanding of labor market, practices of labor market information processes in some South Asian countries, including Nepal and issues and challenges facing the Nepali labor market information process.</p> Rajendra Shrestha Copyright (c) 2024 Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 18 1 10 19 10.3126/tvet.v18i1.62739 Declining Enrollment in Long-Term Engineering Programs: Stakeholders’ Perspectives <p>This study investigates the declining enrollment in long-term engineering programs under the Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT) in Nepal, a critical issue affecting the development of skilled human resources and socio-economic transformation. The study analyzes enrollment data over the past 4 to 5 years and assesses enrollment trends. It also incorporates insights from focus group discussions and interviews with various stakeholders, identifies underlying causes of low enrollment, and proposes actionable recommendations. The findings reveal a multifaceted decline influenced by contextual factors, such as socio-economic conditions, the allure of foreign education, and the diminishing value of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET). At an institutional level, issues include haphazard extension of TVET institutions, weakened instructional quality and inadequate industry linkages. Personal perceptions also contribute that vocational education is often seen as a less prestigious alternative to general education. The study's comprehensive analysis culminates in recommendations as suggested by the research participants focused on curriculum revision, strengthening industry linkages and enhancing the overall perception and quality of TVET programs. These insights are crucial for policy formulation, educational reforms, and aligning TVET with industry needs and student aspirations in Nepal.</p> Durga Prasad Baral Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 18 1 20 37 10.3126/tvet.v18i1.62740 Quality Assurance in West African TVET Institutions: A Brief Literature Review <p>The study reviews the role of quality assurance in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) systems in supporting economic development, enhancing labor market competitiveness, and meeting industry expectations. The authors use a desk research strategy, focusing on document review and qualitative content analysis to analyze credible reports on the role of quality assurance in TVET to promote competent workforce. As per findings, quality assurance in TVET institutions is crucial to ensuring that graduates possess the necessary skills and competencies for the workforce, reducing skills gaps and enhancing employability. It aligns TVET programs with industry standards, enabling graduates to contribute effectively to the workforce. Quality assurance mechanisms also enhance the credibility and reputation of TVET institutions, increasing their attractiveness to students and employers. It helps produce highly skilled individuals, contributing to the country’s economic development and global competitiveness. However, the TVET sector in West Africa faces several challenges, including inadequate infrastructures, curriculum relevance, teaching and learning quality, limited industry collaboration, and lack of quality assurance mechanisms. To address these issues, the authors suggest some innovative dimensions of quality standards to strengthen and improve quality assurance in TVET institutions. These quality standards include leadership, governance, management, physical environment, human resources, curriculum, student participation, access, equity, career guidance, financial management, program evaluation, research, innovation and development. All of these are interrelated, thereby spurring the overall quality and effectiveness of TVET programs and institutions.</p> Cosme Zinsou Odjo Cordula Kaoti Alaba Oluwatoyin Oyewusi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 18 1 38 55 10.3126/tvet.v18i1.62741 Skill Test of Workers from Informal Sectors for their Recognition and Employability: A Thematic Study <p>This thematic review explores the significance of skill tests and recognition for the informal sector workers by employing a systematic approach to unveil recurring themes: validation of skills, employability enhancement, recognition and accreditation. The validation of skills emerged as a cornerstone, boosting confidence and motivation. Skill tests and recognition play a pivotal role in enhancing job prospects for informal sectors' workers, equipping them with a competitive edge. Moreover, recognition and accreditation are crucial for establishing the credibility of informal learning achievements. Implications for informal sectors' workers include increased confidence, employability and credibility. Policymakers are urged to integrate systematic recognition processes to foster a culture that values and empowers informal sectors' workers.</p> Ajay Poudel Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 18 1 56 65 10.3126/tvet.v18i1.62742 Experiences of Private Sector Employees on Transfer of Soft Skills Trainings <p>The issue of low training transfer remains prevalent despite private organizations' efforts in conducting soft skills training programs for its employees. Varying experiences of training transfer process are also reported. In this context, the purpose of this study aimed to explore the experiences of participants of private organizations of Nepal during soft skills training (reaction level), and their experiences while applying the knowledge and skills back to their workplace. The research design was qualitative and a total of 34 employees from four private companies of Nepal participated in this study who had attended a soft-skills training. Data was collected using five focus group discussions (FGDs) and thematic analysis used in which three overarching themes were generated with 25 categories and 210 codes. The study found that the participants had perceived soft skill training as the means for refreshments and socialization. In the post-training phase, they experienced changes in their mindset and improvement in interpersonal relationship with others in their workplace. Besides, irrespective of whether they participated in indoor or outdoor based programs, the duration and content of the program and their perspective towards whether they took it as an actual training or just a means of refreshment also affected their training transfer intentions. They experienced that for training transfer to occur, their own willingness to transfer guided by training content’s job relevance, micro-sessions based training designs, and importantly the post training interventions and support from employers or HR/line managers were necessary. Practical and research implications have been discussed in the paper.</p> Divya Singh Anup Bhurtel Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 18 1 66 88 10.3126/tvet.v18i1.62744 Enhancing Performance of Health Assistants through Technical and Vocational Education and Training for Better Healthcare Access <p>This is a review article exploring critical role of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programs in advancing capacities of health assistants and consequently strengthening healthcare access to the rural population in Nepal. The review was planned in the wake of the existing literatures on the study area that lacks a comprehensive examination to explores the role of health assistants in Nepal's healthcare delivery and assess the importance of TVET on their performance. A methodical literature search was conducted using various electronic databases like Google scholar and PubMed applying specific keywords, such as “Health Assistant", "Health Care Access", "Technical Education", "Vocational Education and Training”. It encompassed the studies published in the English language without limiting publication date, while the involved two authors independently evaluated the published articles' eligibility. These authors also carried out data extraction, culminating in a narrative summary of the findings. Of the total 37 literatures, most of them reported health assistant trained through TVET, play a vital role in improvement of healthcare access, thereby addressing the challenges. They bridge gaps in medical access, provide essential care, and promote community well-being, particularly in the underserved areas. TVET programs enhance skills through practical experiences and comprehensive training, resulting into significant improvement in healthcare access, especially in rural regions. Integrating innovative teaching methods and collaborations further enhances health assistant preparedness. Challenges, such as funding limitations and rural-urban divides persist, but opportunities exist in e-learning initiatives, partnerships, and professional development to improve health assistant education. Improving healthcare in Nepal by inculcating better skills to health assistants can address many healthcare problems.</p> Rojina Basnet Chetan Karki Pyakurel Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 18 1 89 101 10.3126/tvet.v18i1.62747 Development of Employability Skills through Work-Based Learning <p>Employability is the ability to participate in the workforce. It comprises a variety of elements that are required to obtain employment, while the skills needed to get employment are employability skills. These skills are essential for upgrading knowledge, skills, ability, and entrepreneurial enthusiasm of a learner. Work-based Learning (WBL) is an education strategy that increases participation in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) because there is support to enhance employability and upgrading skills for a competitive market. The aim of this article is to systematically review published research and explore the employability skills enhanced by WBL through the school-production unit. The finding of the review shows WBL in the school production unit of TVET institute is a positive indicator of employability, and they develop valuable competencies and employability skills. The review further shows that students enhance subject-specific technical skills, generic skills, or soft skills like communication skills, teamwork, problem-solving skills, critical thinking, leadership skills, entrepreneurial skills, and management skills. Likewise, they enhance personal skills like self-confidence, a positive attitude, and ethics. The article concludes that students gained their technical, generic, and personal employability skills from WBL through the school production unit in TVET institutions.</p> Harish Singh Thapa Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 18 1 102 111 10.3126/tvet.v18i1.62750 Vocational Training Instructors’ Perceptions towards Transfer of Training: A Case Study <p>This study is about how the participants of short-term training perceive training in the real context. The study is done with the help of an interview, where the participants are the trainers of short-term vocational training programs. The major finding of the training is that the participants have gained information about new methods and media. They perceived the training in a very positive way, and most of them understood the training as a booster of their professionalism. But the training was more focused on the instructional purpose than gaining skills. The main thing is that they realized the preparation and management of the training were very important. This study highlights that the training was more focused on the instructional skills and knowledge, and some presentations were made based on the skills. It also revealed that the implementation of instructional skills-based training in the participants' real workplace is challenging. Management of learning environment, preparation, and delivery are difficult to transfer in a real working situation.</p> Shiba Bagale Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 18 1 112 127 10.3126/tvet.v18i1.62751 Challenges Faced by Apprentices in Completing Dual TVET Course: A Case of Butwal Technical Institute <p>This article highlights a case on the status of apprentices studying at Butwal Technical Institute (BTI), a pioneer not-for-profit apprenticeship education provider in Nepal. It is seen that the graduates of BTI are earning respectable income and living reputed life; however, the study incompletion rate is found significantly on rise at BTI. To identify the challenges faced by the apprentices to complete their study, a research was carried out, assuming inadequate family support or guidance, poor family economy, unfriendly working environment in the industry, institutional technical inefficiency, and unavailability of amenities in the institute as the five major challenges. As a descriptive method, a questionnaire was used for collecting data from 204 apprentices out of 314 in the study. The family support was a moderate challenge for the apprentice to complete their dual TVET apprenticeship training at BTI. The apprentices of BTI had normal financial support from their families. Another challenge was the environment of industry for the apprentices to complete the dual TVET apprenticeship training at BTI, while institutional technical efficiency was considered a moderate challenge to this regard.</p> Raj Kumar Thapa Navin Kishor Gaihre Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-23 2024-02-23 18 1 128 142 10.3126/tvet.v18i1.62752