Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) 2023-02-24T10:55:02+00:00 Binod Badal and Eka Raj Adhikari Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is published by the Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT), Research and Information Division, Sanothimi, Bhaktapur, Nepal.</p> TVET to Create Jobs and Spur Development 2023-02-23T08:35:21+00:00 Editor <p>With the federalism in place, Nepal is striving for economic development and prosperity. The national ambition of 'Prosperous Nepal: Happy Nepali' is reiterated by all three layers of government, and actors of policy, development and governance sectors. Creation of decent jobs, smooth operation of industries, development and expansion of entrepreneurs are essential to create atmosphere conducive for economic progress. Similarly, production of adequate technical human resources with skills, experiences and expertise prepares strong foundations for industries and economic activities.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CTEVT Approaching Apprenticeship in Nepal: Lessons from Dual-VET of Germany 2023-02-12T08:05:04+00:00 Prakash Kumar Paudel Christiane Eberhardt <p>Apprenticeship training is geared towards meeting the demands of labor market which also ensures self-esteem, employability and vocational career development for the individuals. Against this background, apprenticeship is seen as a successful model for grooming the labor force and reducing youth unemployment. In this paper, we map the current state-of-the-art of apprenticeship in Nepal against the dual system of VET in Germany. The central question in our reflection is how common ownership can be established through responsibility sharing in countries, where other governance principles apply and the governance models also differ from the German model. Hence, in the first step, we focus on the origins of vocational training in both countries. We show that the development of apprenticeship has been driven by social, political and industrial needs, thereby getting deeply rooted in society. We show that despite many challenges, dual training in Germany is an important educational pathway for young people to access the labor market and a backbone of the economy. This is different in Nepal, where despite the governance structures that have been created in the meantime, apprenticeship training is struggling for recognition among the leaders, and actors in the economy. We end up adopting the "six central pillars for successful quality apprenticeships" (i.e. meaningful social dialogue, robust regulatory framework, clear roles and responsibilities, equitable funding, strong labor market and inclusiveness) developed by the ILO (2017). We reflect on them with reference to the Nepali case and in the shadow of the German experiences. In our conclusion, we propose to add "consideration of the country context" as the seventh important pillar for qualitative apprenticeship to ensure sustainable development – free of external funding and support.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CTEVT Researching Informal Skills Learners: Considering Work Interruption and Vulnerabilities 2023-02-12T08:29:06+00:00 Durga Prasad Baral <p>Informal skills learners are the workers who learn occupational skills during their work in an informal setting. Little research has been done on their learning environment and processes in a context similar to Nepal and many other developing countries. Such research deficit is more pronounced in informal skills learning research. In this paper, I address this gap. Based on two concepts - work interruptions and vulnerability of novice informal skills learners - I discuss methodological and ethical dilemmas while researching these people. Drawing from my PhD research carried out in four occupational sectors - pottery, metalcrafts, fast food and two-wheeler mechanics in Nepal (in Kathmandu valley), I first analyse the general features of informal skills learners’ vulnerability which might further increase while spending time with the researchers. The ethical dilemmas researchers might face while researching vulnerable skills learners are about minimizing work interruption and avoiding harm to them. At the end, I propose specific ways of dealing with informal skills learners while conducting fieldwork. The study expects to increase the researchers’ awareness while dealing with vulnerable workers and learners, and provides a track for further research in the area.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CTEVT Effectiveness of TVET in Nepal 2023-02-12T08:55:02+00:00 Ramesh Adhikari Shiva Raj Adhikari Dilli Ram Upreti Keshav Prasad Adhikari <p>The technical and vocational education and training (TVET) program has been implemented in the country for a long time. Nevertheless, the actual impact it had made on the national economy is unknown. The main objective of this study is to examine the effectiveness of the TVET program in Nepal. The study employed concurrent mixed methods which used both quantitative and qualitative approaches. A retrospective post-then-pre design was used in this study. A total of 21 districts (3 districts from each province) were selected. A survey was conducted with 1,231 Diploma and Pre-Diploma (TSLC) graduates who studied in the institutions either affiliated to or constituent of the Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT). Similarly, 42 key informants’ interviews (2 from each district) were conducted with key stakeholders, such as school principals, instructors, and employers. Overall, out of the total graduates, only 8.8% were working before joining TVET, and the remaining 91% did not work, while the percentage of graduates employed during the time of survey was 58.2%. A remarkable difference in average income was found before and after graduation (NRs 1,815 vs NRs 15,656). The income difference was highest among the people who studied engineering (NRs 16,005) followed by health (NRs 14,908). The income of males was 1.6 times higher than that of females after graduation. Current income is higher among graduates from Lumbini Province (NRs 21,427), followed by Province-1 (NRs 20,396). The study revealed that overall, TVET has a positive impact on the society's economy through increased employment opportunities among youths. TVET has been effective in generating employment for many young people, ultimately contributing to elevate the family's economic status, thereby ensuring quality life.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CTEVT Globalization, Global Political Economy and Technical and Vocational Education and Training: A Nexus 2023-02-12T09:25:48+00:00 Sabitri Devi Acharya <p>The paper explores the understanding of globalization, global political economy, and their relation with Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) by utilizing the critical discourse analysis method as suggested by Fairclough. Several themes, such as globalization, global political economy, political ideology, national and international labor market, TVET policy, and curriculum for skill development are identified and tried to make connections among them. The findings indicate that globalization and global political economy influence the national economic policy and demand for and supply of labor-related policy. Nepal is a major labor-sending country for foreign employment. Supply of labor is directly related to TVET. TVET has been contributing to the preparation of basic- and mid-level human capital. It indicates the production of semi-skilled human resources for the low-paid international labor market. &nbsp;There are many other issues, including occupation risk, exploitation, working condition, and social and cultural relations in the context of the international labor market. Current TVET policy and curriculum are not sufficient to address these problems.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CTEVT Effectiveness of Vocational Training on Light Vehicle Mechanics in Underprivileged Children’s Educational Programs, Nepal 2023-02-12T09:50:56+00:00 Ishwor Rimal <p>Training effectiveness is important for the employment of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) school graduates, such as light vehicle mechanics in the automobile industry. This study explored the training effectiveness of light vehicle mechanics in Nepal, with focus on students’ satisfaction with TVET school’s physical facilities and physical environment. The training effectiveness is explored among the sampled TVET graduates of CTEVT affiliated TVET schools, using quantitative method of research. The overall impression of the training was effective because the graduates responded positively about training. The schools did not fully achieve the objectives due to inadequate provision of modern technology. Thus, they pointed out the need for regular up-to-date tools and equipment as per need of the industry. Utilization of library facility and technology in the teaching- learning methods was equally needed. The skill mismatch could be solved by linking industry to the TVET training. This study may draw an interest of the TVET school leaders for taking effective measures to maintain quality of graduates, keeping in mind the industry needs. Similarly, future researchers may take reference when they want to explore the underlying causes of students’ satisfaction with physical facility and school environment, as well as training and skill mismatch in the labor market among the TVET school graduates.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CTEVT Work-based Learning through School Production Unit in Polytechnic Institutes 2023-02-12T09:55:24+00:00 Harish Singh Thapa <p>Work-based learning (WBL) is a planned activity that integrates learning and work together to develop knowledge and skills for future employment. The study focuses on exploring WBL in the school production unit, which is a part of the school laboratory that works for the production of goods, items, or provision of services. This paper synthesizes, compares and contrasts the approaches of the WBL in production unit with the help of the literature through a systemic literature review. The production unit in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) institutes has been found as a contributive factor to experiential learning, active learning employability and entrepreneurship skills, work-based sustainability for students, and increased cooperation/collaboration learning ability of students. These are major applications of the implementation of WBL through school production units in TVET schools. The paper concludes that TVET education institutions anticipate the production-based modality to ensure the sustainability of WBL.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CTEVT Quality Assurance Agenda in Nepali TVET System 2023-02-12T10:01:11+00:00 Kushmakar Bhatta <p>Quality assurance in the technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is a concept that is concerned with high performance in entire academic process involving the activities, such as teaching, learning, infrastructure, and students’ behavior. Good quality education is imperative in the holistic development of the student, which ensures proper development, job prospects and the realization of academic goals and objectives. There are varied factors working against the realization of quality TVET. In a competitive labor market, the quality and relevancy of program offering must be of paramount interest to all technical and vocational institutions. Accredited institutions, qualified teachers and practical partnerships between public and private actors will have an increasingly important role to play in the delivery of TVET programs so that the fresh graduates from the institutions of TEVT must be world class and the education quality of global standards. Effective quality assurance policy helps to support the development and maintenance of a good TVET system. This paper attempts to clarify the concept of quality assurance in TVET by discussing various approaches employed in it. It presents examples of best practices in quality assurance based on the secondary data, observation, study, and experiences; outlines and discusses the relevancy, gap and need in Nepal’s TEVT system to meet the requirements of competent and competitive human resources for the world of work.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CTEVT Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Federal Nepal: A Critical Analysis 2023-02-12T10:21:38+00:00 Usha Bhandari <p>The technical and vocational education and training (TVET) in Nepal is one of the much discussed agenda for its contribution to socio-economic development of the country. Historically, Nepal’s TVET system is striving for being innovative and compatible with the global trends. With the Nepal’s Constitution 2015, it has received a considerable attention, as the Constitution (in article 51, h, 1) highlights the notion of TVET along with the allocation of TVET responsibilities to all three tiers of government. However, due to differing understanding among the policy makers, including existing several issues and concerns, the development of TVET sector in Nepal has been slow off the mark. Yet, Nepal has many opportunities for reforming the TVET sector in the coming days. There is an urgent need of paradigm shift in action, thoughts and visions in line with the Constitution to harness the benefit of TVET sector - to achieve the goal of socio-economic prosperity of the country.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CTEVT Phasing out of Technical School Leaving Certificate Programs in Health: A Scenario Analysis 2023-02-12T10:27:08+00:00 Rojina Basnet Chetan Karki Pyakurel <p>The education and training to the mid-level health workers has been provided in Nepal through the institutions run under the CTEVT. Currently, CTEVT is running various Diploma programs in health sectors like General Medicine, Nursing, Medical Lab Technology, Ophthalmic Science and Dental Science. However, TSLC (Pre-diploma) programs like Assistant Nurse Midwife (ANM), Community Medical Assistant (CMA), Lab Assistant, Assistant Ayurveda Health Worker, Dental Hygienist have been phased out since 2076 after the enforcement of the National Medical Education Act, 2018. Nepal has a shortage of health workers with only seven health workers per 10,000 populations. As a result of the phase out of health-related TSLC programs under CTEVT, there will be scarcity of the mid-level paramedical health workers who have direct relation with the community people and the basic level health services.</p> <p>This review article has tried to highlight the importance of mid-level health workers and effect of phasing out of TSLC programs by CTEVT in the health sector of Nepal. As per the Mathema Report, the major reasons for phasing out of the programs are lack of proper monitoring and regulatory mechanism of institutions running TSLC programs, as most of the colleges practiced to enroll students without quality and lack of proper supervision to the passed-out students. However, due to the removal of the programs, there might be less access to the skilled training, especially of the poor, women, and disadvantaged groups which has created inequitable development of skills in the health workforce. In response to the issues and challenges in incorporating TVET in the development of health workforce, TVET programs, mostly TSLC, should get top priority and the medical education system should be flexible and should reconsider the provision of the National Medical Education Act, 2018 on rethinking for the re-launching the TSLC programs in health so that there will be availability of skilled and technically competent mid-level human resource for health.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CTEVT Need of Market-based Skills Training to Create Employment Opportunities for Returnee Migrants in Madhesh Province 2023-02-12T10:35:27+00:00 Bal Mukunda Neupane <p>A Rapid Market Appraisal (RMA) was conducted with the aim of exploring market prospects or the specific occupational skills in demand in the local markets of Madhesh Province so as to reintegrate the returnee migrant workers into the Nepalese economic system. In order to collect data for RMA, major key informants that are also the key labor market players of Madhesh Province like returnee migrant workers (RMWs), employers of major three occupational sectors (Construction, Agriculture and Tourism), training providers, entrepreneurs, and rural municipal representatives were identified from different seventeen municipalities of seven districts of Madhesh Province. While interacting with 87 returnee migrant workers (RMWs- 64 as FGD and 23 as KII), it was found that around 70% of the 87 respondents did not have any specific skills learned in their respective destination countries, and the general skills acquired by them in such countries were not applicable in the context of Nepal.</p> <p>Based on the collected data from 204 key informants of labor market, 24 different occupations were identified as highly demanding occupations in three occupational sectors, nine were in the construction sector, eight in the agriculture sector, and six in the tourism sector. It was also found that the province, having the largest area of cultivated land in Nepal, is very potential for employing a bigger number of youths and returnees in the agriculture sector. However, it was felt necessary to make the agriculture sector truly attractive in terms of technology, financial access like floating subsidized loans and value addition. Regarding the access to the training and employment service providers (T&amp;Es), there is sufficient access of training but maintaining the quality of training is a challenging issue, for which a mechanism has been suggested.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CTEVT TVET Sector Strategic Plan, 2023-2032: A Drive to Success 2023-02-12T10:41:47+00:00 Hari Prasad Lamsal Anil Muni Bajracharya <p>The TVET sector faces a number of challenges, including declining enrollment, mismatch between supply and demand, and quality and relevance concerns. These issues may be addressed through a strategic plan that focuses on improving the quality of TVET programs, strengthening the governance and management of the sector, and increasing enrollment and participation. The three-phase 10-year plan in the article paves the path to address these challenges and move the TVET sector in the right direction. The first phase could focus on laying the foundation for a more effective and efficient TVET sector, including investment in infrastructure and technology, development of governance and management systems, and improvement of program quality. The second phase could focus on expanding access to TVET programs and increasing enrollment, while the third phase could focus on consolidating the gains made in the first two phases and making further improvements to the TVET sector. The author of this article conducted a desk review and engaged with various stakeholders to gain a comprehensive understanding of the challenges facing the TVET sector in Nepal. By identifying the current challenges and exploring the way forward through a 10-year plan in three phases, the article contributes to the development of a comprehensive and effective solution for the TVET sector. Overall, the article highlights the importance of a strategic approach to addressing the challenges facing the TVET sector in Nepal. By taking a phased, comprehensive approach, the TVET sector can be developed into a strong and effective source of economic growth and prosperity for the country.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CTEVT Academic Performance of Fee Paying and Scholarship Students at CTEVT Affiliated Nursing Colleges in Nepal 2023-02-12T10:48:44+00:00 Khagendra Prasad Adhikari <p>The Government of Nepal offers different scholarship schemes to promote nursing education through its agencies, including the Council for Technical Education and Vocational Training (CTEVT). Despite practice of scholarship in nursing education for many years, there are inadequate studies conducted to explore and inform about the effectiveness of scholarship in nursing education in association with the students learning performance. This study examines the status of academic performance of the scholarship and fee paying nursing students and also explores their perspectives on professional values they imbibe for nursing profession. The study reveals that the scholarship students perform better in learning than the fee-paying students. Their educational performances are measured in terms of the frequency of library visit, frequency of reading course-related articles, duration of time spent by students on self-study (independent variables) and the marks they obtained (dependent variable) in the first and the second year of nursing courses. The scholarship students have exceeded the fee-paying students in all of these educational performance indicators.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CTEVT