The Geographic Base <p>An annual publication of the Nepal Geography Student Society, The Geographic Base is an academic journal of Nepal. The journal is a beginner’s research outlet which provides a platform for the publication of research primarily done by novice researchers (e.g., Master’s and PhD students). It welcomes multi-disciplinary articles, review papers and seminar papers. The papers should be well articulated and documented with clearly described methodology. Results should be presented based on sound facts, scientific procedure, and well-founded arguments, be embedded in the relevant national or international debates, refer to the contemporary academic literature on the issues discussed, and be presented in a structured and comprehensible manner.</p> Nepal Geography Student Society, Central Department of Geography, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal en-US The Geographic Base 2705-4616 <p class="Default">© Nepal Geography Student Society</p> Land Suitability Analysis for Coffee Production in Hilly Districts of Lumbini Province <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The government of Nepal has been implementing policies to increase agriculture production by motivating farmers towards farming. This study aims to identify spatially distributed suitable areas for sustainable Arabica coffee production in the Gulmi, Palpa, Arghakhanchi, and Pyuthan districts of Lumbini Province. The multi-criteria analysis was carried out to identify the suitable area for coffee cultivation in the study area, where parameter values were assigned based on Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). In the AHP method, the weightage for each parameter for suitability was considered through an expert questionnaire, interview, and field observation. The modeled suitability map was verified through field inventory-based coffee farm points. The result shows different land suitability classes: highly suitable (S1), moderately suitable (S2), marginally suitable (S3), and not suitable (N) cover an area of 869.0 km<sup>2</sup> (16.92%), 1949.0 km<sup>2</sup> (37.95%), 280.23 km<sup>2</sup> (5.46%), 2037.00 km<sup>2</sup> and (39.67%), respectively. The suitable areas are equally distributed around the study area, while some agglomeration patches were observed in northern Arghakhanchi and southern Gulmi. The findings of this study can be used for coffee production and to gain related economic benefits in the study area. The condition of precipitation, soil characteristics, and topography of the study area are much favorable to Arabica coffee hence farmers need to consider growing Arabica coffee rather than Robusta-type coffee.</p> </div> </div> </div> Kiran Neupane Til Prasad Pangali Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Geography Student Society 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 1 14 10.3126/tgb.v9i1.55421 Comparative Study of Flood and Long-term Mean Monthly Flow Estimation Approaches: Case Studies of Six Basins in Nepal <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Most of Nepal's river basins have poor hydro- meteorological databases, with several river basins being ungauged. Thus, hydrological parameters need to be estimated using different types of computation methods. The primary goal of this study is to identify the most accurate method for calculating peak flood and long-term mean monthly flow among the most commonly used methods in Nepal. We compared the peak flood calculated using various flood computation formulas, such as Hydest, Modified Hydest, MHSP (Medium Hydropower Study Project) 1997, Modified Dickens, PCJ (Prem Chandra Jha) 1996, Rational, and Specific Discharge, to the flood calculated using gauged discharge data frequency analysis. We find that it is wise to use the Modified Hydest method in the khokana basin for all Return Periods (RPs) and in the Belkot basin (for RP ≤ 100 years), the Specific Discharge method in the Jamu basin, the MHSP 1997 method in the Belkot basin (for RP ≤ 100 years) and the Bagasoti Gaun basin (for RP ≤ 20 years). The PCJ 1996 method having the lowest cumulative value of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for the six studied catchments is suitable for Rabhuwa Bazar (for RP &gt; 50 years) and Bagasoti Gaun (for RP &gt;20 years). Similarly, the Modified Dickens method is suitable in the Bagasoti Gaun basin for RP ≤ 50 years. This paper also shows the performance of the Hydest and MHSP 1997 mean flow estimation methods and suggests different coefficients or constants to be used with the MHSP 1997, Modified MIP (Medium Irrigation Project), and Hydest methods to obtain more reliable long-term mean monthly flows. Overall, our study will help the designer choose a reliable method for design flow estimation. This study also shows that the flow obtained from even the most suitable methods needs to be adjusted. As a result, intensive research is required to adjust previous methods and develop the new one.</p> </div> </div> </div> Buddha Subedi Prem Chandra Jha Namita Gautam Bikalpa Lamichhane Gudiya Jaiswal Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Geography Student Society 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 15 38 10.3126/tgb.v9i1.55425 Effect of Urbanization on Land Surface Temperature: A Case Study of Kathmandu Valley <p>Growth in the population over time is bound to increase the expansion of densely populated areas which will change the dynamics of land use and land cover (LULC) directly or indirectly. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of urban growth on the land surface temperature (LST) in Kathmandu. We used the maximum likelihood classification method for LULC classification and change detection of pre-monsoon satellite data for the years 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2020. LST was then calculated using the thermal infrared band from the satellite imagery. Finally, the relationship between urban growth and LST was assessed by correlation and regression analysis. The result shows an increase in urban areas by 241.61% of the total area between 2000 and 2020. The analysis of thermal patterns shows that there is a gradual increase in temperature in the urban area. With an overall accuracy of 89.96% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.86, the study shows high agreement between classified data from images. This study shows that urbanization has a significant positive impact on average land surface temperature. Sustainable city planning and strict adherence to the Land Use Act and regulations will assist to make the urbanization process more sustainable in the future.</p> Shudarshan Hamal Raju Chauhan Sudeep Thakuri Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Geography Student Society 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 39 52 10.3126/tgb.v9i1.55427 Soil Erosion Estimation Using Geospatial Technology: A Study of Jyadul Khola Basin, Gorkha, Nepal <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Estimation of soil erosion from drainage basins is essential while assessing the severity and its impact on agriculture, forests, barren land, waterbodies, and built- up areas. Jyadul Khola basin significantly affects the ecological processes that feed into the Budhigandaki River in the south-eastern side of Gorkha District. This paper has attempted to estimate the mean erosion rate based on the erosion severity classes. Remotely sensed Ziyuan-3 satellite image processed in Earth Resources Data Analysis System (ERDAS) Imagine, Geographical Information System (GIS), and Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model were used in this study. The land use land cover (LULC) classification results were validated by using confusion matrix by computing overall accuracy and kappa coefficient which is 95% and 0.94 respectively. The basin had been classified into 6 categories based on erosion severity. The results indicated 92.7% of land (0-5 t ha<sup>–1</sup> yr<sup>–1</sup>) is low severe followed by 2.39% (10-20 t ha<sup>–1</sup> yr<sup>–1</sup>) moderate, 2.07% (5-10 t ha<sup>–1</sup> yr<sup>–1</sup>) high, 2.04% (20-40 t ha<sup>–1</sup> yr<sup>–1</sup>) very high, 0.67% (40-80 t ha<sup>–1</sup> yr<sup>–1</sup>) severe and 0.10% of land (&gt;80 t ha<sup>–1</sup> yr<sup>–1</sup>) which is very severe for soil erosion. The total annual mean soil loss was found to be 13526.60 t yr<sup>–1</sup> and soil erosion classes ranges from 0 to 305.34 t ha<sup>–1</sup> yr<sup>–1</sup> for the entire study area. Kuwapani, Lakuri Bhanjyang, Khadkagaun, Garapani and Kaulebhagar area are the most susceptible to soil erosion. It is observed that barren land, steep slopes, and high intensity of rainfall are major factors for soil erosion hazard. This outcome can serve as a foundation for decision-makers to conserve high risk areas and plan effective measure to lessen impending disasters.</p> </div> </div> </div> Sandeep Adhikari Prabesh Shrestha Motilal Ghimire Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Geography Student Society 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 53 72 10.3126/tgb.v9i1.55436 Factors Affecting the Farming System of Gwaltar (Sindhuli) and Birta (Ramechhap) Village, Nepal <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Farming in Nepal is subsistence-based and is mostly integrated with livestock. Farming is seasonal and weather dependent. Different factors of agricultural system such as soil, water, livestock, labor, climate change and other resources within a given environment have affected farming. Primary data was collected using the tools like household survey, key informants’ interview, focus group discussion and field observations. In order to select the households for the household questionnaires, a random sampling technique was carried out. The study area consists of two villages viz. Birta and Gwaltar divided by a Sunkoshi River, Gwaltar having wet land on the other hand, Birta having dried land and thus 30 households from each village were selected. Despite of lying the village in the same region, there is variation in the selection of crops, cropping pattern and amount of production. It has found that policy, infrastructure, market, lack of irrigation water, climate change etc. are some of the major constraints for Birta while these factors affecting the farming in Gwaltar was less. Water scarcity in Birta was increasing, affecting the agricultural production and resulting in food insecurity. They were accessed to limited irrigation, low income level, limited institut.ional capacity resulting these effects in crop types, production, household food security and household income.</p> </div> </div> </div> Sunita Lama Chandra Kanta Baral Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Geography Student Society 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 73 84 10.3126/tgb.v9i1.55439 Assessment of Land Use Land Cover and River Dynamics of Himalaya: Seti River Sub-Basin of Nepal <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>In rapidly growing areas, land use land cover (LULC) change is one of the most pre-eminent features of environmental changes produced by human-induced activities. LULC changes are critical issues and challenges for environmentally friendly and sustainable development. Understanding land-use and land-cover (LULC) changing patterns is critical for sustainable environmental management, particularly effective water management. This study was focused on the assessment of LULC and sinuosity of the Seti River sub-Basin over 28 years. Satellite imagery of Landsat series (MS, TM, and OLI) were classified using maximum likelihood classifier to create LULC maps for 1991, 2004 and 2019. The LULC change was assessed using change detection analysis and verified the result by confuse matrix. The results showed that forest cover is regaining its original status with the increasing rate of 1.31%. In the meantime, built-up areas are expanding with the rate of 2.62% while agricultural land has decreased with the rate of -1.89% per year and are more converted to built-up area. Trendofsinuosityindexfoundincreasing and varying in different sections of the river path indicated the complex response of changing characteristics of river flow, river mining and geomorphology of landscape. Based on research findings and descriptions from earlier works, river morphology is affected by both natural (topography, climate, precipitation), and anthropogenic (rapid urbanization, foreign labor migration, abandonment of cultivable land, community forest programs, development activities) factors.</p> </div> </div> </div> Anup Raj Adhikari Sher Bahadur Gurung Laxman Adhikari Zhu Lianqi Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Geography Student Society 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 85 110 10.3126/tgb.v9i1.55440 Impact of Climate Induced Disaster in Sindhupalchowk District <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This study attempt to analyze the impact of climate induced disaster on human, private housing, government building, and economy in Sindhupalchowk district based on the information available on Nepal Disaster Risk Reduction Portal from 1971 to 2022. The disaster caused by climate change can be classified as hydrological, climatological, meteorological, or both. Hydrological disasters are controlled by hydrological processes, such as floods, droughts, and avalanches; climatological disasters are concerned with hazards related to extreme temperatures, such as heat waves, cold waves, and wildfires; and meteorological disasters represent storms of all types, such as snowstorms, thunderstorms, hurricanes, and tornadoes. This article is based on literature review that includes district disaster preparedness and response plan (DPRP) and different articles related to disaster and climate induced disaster. DRR portal of MoHA and Disinventar are the major secondary source of information. Sindhuplchowk district is one of the disaster-prone districts of Nepal. Landslide, flood and thunderbolt are the major disasters of Sindhupalchowk district. Climate induced disaster affected 100,903 families; 4,467 persons have lost their lives, 2,778 to have been injured, 314 missing. It has found that among all disaster 53% death toll by climate induced disaster and 47% death happens due to the non-climate induced disaster. Damage and losses due to the disaster were amounted to an estimated 72,565,001 Nepalese rupees. The findings of this study can help local, national, and international policies and decision-making in order to lessen the risks associated with these disasters and foster resilient communities.</p> </div> </div> </div> Raj Kumar Pariyar Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Geography Student Society 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 111 128 10.3126/tgb.v9i1.55442 Changing Rainfall Pattern in Pokhara Valley, Nepal <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Pokhara valley lies on the southern slope of the Annapurna Range in the Himalayas, Nepal. The mountain range blocks the monsoon originating from the Bay of Bengal in the monsoon season. Based on the observed rainfall data from 1991 to 2021 AD from the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM), Government of Nepal (GoN), this study aims to assess the monthly, seasonal, and annual pattern of rainfall in Pokhara. Trend analysis for annual rainfall as well as seasonal and monthly rainfall was performed and a regression method was used to find the rate of increase or decrease of the rainfall. Pre- monsoon and monsoon seasons indicate both an upward and a downward trend, whereas post-monsoon and winter seasons illustrates the exact opposite. However, the average monthly rainfall indicates an upward trend, despite the fact that the annual rainfall exhibits both an increasing and a decreasing trend. According to the research, there are rising (+ve) and falling (-ve) trends for the different stations. Although both stations are very near, the precipitation varies broadly. Such massive variation within the short distance might be due to climate change, local wind effects, outflanking of hydraulic structures, and monsoon patterns.</p> </div> </div> </div> Nistha Niraula Baijayanti Mala Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Geography Student Society 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 129 140 10.3126/tgb.v9i1.55444 Land Suitability Assessment for Cereal Crops in Sainamaina Municipality Nepal <p>Land suitability is the fitness of a given type of land for a defined use. The land may be considered in its present condition or after improvements. This paper aims to present the land suitability of the study area for major cereal crops. The present study is conducted in ward no. 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 of Sainamaina municipality Rupandehi district Nepal. Soil samples were taken from 29 different pits from polygon generated by intersecting land system map and land capability map within agricultural land use map with the help of geographic information system. Collected soil samples were tested in the soil laboratory of central department of geography, Tribhuwan University. Land suitability for major cereal crops paddy, wheat, maize and millet were derived from FAO guideline for land evaluation. As a result, the land of study area is found more suitable for wheat followed by paddy maize and millet.</p> Bishal Gnyawali Ishwor Aryal Umesh Kumar Mandal Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Geography Student Society 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 141 154 10.3126/tgb.v9i1.55449