The Educator Journal https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej <p>The Educator Journal is published by the Research Management Cell (RMC) of Gorkha Campus, Gorkha, Nepal. It is a platform where the faculties and the students of Gorkha Campus and other professionals can publish descriptive, analytical and empirical articles on the various issues of teaching, learning and professional development.</p> en-US guru.paudel@gc.tu.edu.np (Mr. Guru Prasad Poudel) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Tue, 02 Aug 2022 05:26:26 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.6 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 भाषा शिक्षकहरूको पेसागत विकासमा कार्यमूलक अनुसन्धानको प्रयोग {The use of action research in the professional development of language teachers} https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46867 <p>यस लेखमा भाषा शिक्षकहरूको पहिचानको खोजी गरी शिक्षकहरूको पेसागत विकासमा कार्यमूलक अनुसन्धानकोप्रयोग उपयोगी हुने सन्दर्भलाई सैद्धान्तिक रूपमा प्रस्ट्याउन खोजिएको छ । कार्यमूलक अनुसन्धान गर्ने क्रममा प्रक्रियागत रूपमा हुने प्रतिबिम्बनको पक्ष महत्वपूर्ण हुन्छ । यो ज्ञान प्राप्तिको माध्यम पनि हो । यस प्रक्रियामा शिक्षक आफैं अनुसन्धानकर्ता हो । यसबाट अनुसन्धानकर्ता (शिक्षक) मा सकारात्मक चिन्तनको विकास हुन्छ । यस्ता सकारात्मक तथा नवीन चिन्तनले शिक्षकहरूलाई नयाँ खोज, चिन्तन र सुधारतिर उन्मुख गराउँछ । फलस्वरूप पेसागत विकास हुन पुग्छ भन्ने मान्यतालाई अघि सारिएको छ । लेख तयारीको क्रममा विभिन्न पुस्तक, पत्रपत्रिकाका सम्बन्धित लेख, विद्वान्हरूको धारणा, विभिन्न प्रतिवेदन तथा आफ्नै शिक्षण अनुभवहरूलाई आधार मानिएको छ । यिनै आधारहरूमा रही भाषा शिक्षकहरूको पहिचान, जिम्मेवारी र पेसागत विकासको आवश्यकता, शैक्षिक क्षेत्रमा कार्यमूलक अनुसन्धानको प्रयोग प्रक्रिया, पेसागत विकास र कार्यमूलक अनुसन्धानको सम्बन्ध जस्ता पक्षहरूलाई उप शीर्षकमालिई भाषा शिक्षकहरूको पेसागत विकासमा कार्यमूलक अनुसन्धानले दह्रो टेवा पुर्याउने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p>{In this article, the identity of language teachers is sought to be explored and theoretically explained the context in which the use of action research is useful in the professional development of teachers. The aspect of procedural reflection is important while doing action research. It is also a means of acquiring knowledge. In this process, the teacher himself is the researcher. This develops positive thinking in the researcher (teacher). Such positive and innovative thinking leads teachers to new discoveries, thinking and improvement. As a result, it is believed that professional development will take place. During the preparation of the article, various books, related articles in newspapers, opinions of scholars, various reports and own teaching experiences have been considered as the basis. Based on these bases, it has been concluded that the practical research will greatly support the professional development of language teachers under the subheading aspects such as the identity of language teachers, responsibility and the need for professional development, the application process of action research in the educational field, the relationship between professional development and action research.}</p> इन्द्रकुमारी IndraKumari देवकोटा बस्नेत Devkota Basnet Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46867 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 स्थानीय तहको शासकीय अभ्यासः एक अध्ययन {Local Government Practices: A Study} https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46869 <p>नेपालको संविधानले सङ्घ, प्रदेश र स्थानीय तह गरी तीन तहमा राज्य शक्तिको बाँडफाँड गरेको छ । यी तीन तहमध्येको सबै भन्दा तल्लो जनतासँग प्रत्यक्ष सरोकार जोडिएको स्थानीय तह हो । स्थानीय तह बलियो भयो भने मात्र जनताले वास्तविक अधिकारको अनुभूति गर्न पाउँछन । यसले लोकतन्त्रलाई बलियो बनाउँछ । लोकतन्त्र बलियो भयो भने सामाजिक न्याय पनि बलियो बन्छ । प्रस्तुत लेखले स्थानीय तहमा शासन अभ्यास र सहिद लखन गाउँपालिकाले खेलेको भूमिकाको लेखाजोखा गरेको छ । यस अध्ययनका लागि प्राथमिक र द्वितीय स्रोतबाट तथ्यांक सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । अन्तर्वार्ता विधिमार्फत् प्राप्त तथ्यांकहरूलाई व्याख्या विश्लेषण गर्न गुणात्मक अनुसन्धान विधि अपनाईएको छ । प्राप्त जानकारी, तथ्याङ्क तथा कार्यसम्पन्न प्रतिवेदनको विश्लेषण गर्दा पालिकाले ऐन, नियमावली, कार्यविधि सहित ७७ ओटा कानुन निर्माण गरेको र न्यायिक समितिले ४६ उजुरीहरू मेलमिलाप गराएको पाइयो । शिक्षा, स्वास्थ्य, पर्यटन, भौतिक पूर्वाधारको विकासलाई गाउँपालिकाले प्राथमिकतामा राखेर काम गर्दै आएको र विस्तृत गुरुयोजना बनाई सोही अनुसार काम गर्ने लक्ष्य राखेको देखिन्छ । यस पालिकाको भौगोलिक अवस्थिति, विकासका न्यूनतम पुर्वाधारहरूको अभाव, सामाजिक कुरीति र अन्धविश्वासका कारण शासकीय अभ्यास चुनौति रहित हुन सकेको छैन । भूकम्पले निम्त्याएको भौतिक क्षति र मानिसमा परेको मानसिक आधात, प्राकृतिक प्रकोपबाट सिर्जित विनास, कोभिड महामारिले पारेको चौतर्फि प्रभावका बाबजुद पनि पालिकाले यस क्षेत्रको समग्र विकासमा प्रत्यक्ष देखिने गरी परिवर्तनहरू ल्याएको पाइयो । यस अर्थमा स्थानीय निकायको तदारुकता र सुझबुझपूर्ण योजना एवम् निर्णय, सामथ्र्यले शासकीय अभ्यासमा परिवर्तन ल्याउन सक्ने अपेक्षा गर्न सकिन्छ ।</p> <p>{The constitution of Nepal has divided the state power into three levels namely federal, provincial and local levels. The lowest of these three levels is the local level which is directly related to the people. Only if the local level is strong, the people will be able to feel the real rights. It strengthens democracy. If democracy is strong, social justice will also be strong. The presented article has given an account of the governance practice at the local level and the role played by Sahid Lakhan Rural Municipality. Data has been collected from primary and secondary sources for this study. Qualitative research method has been adopted to interpret and analyze the data obtained through the interview method. Analyzing the received information, statistics and completed reports, it was found that the municipality has enacted 77 laws including laws, regulations and procedures and the judicial committee has reconciled 46 complaints. It seems that the rural municipality is working on the development of education, health, tourism, and physical infrastructure as a priority and has made a detailed master plan and aims to work accordingly. Due to the geographical location of this municipality, the lack of minimum development infrastructure, social injustice and superstition, the governance practice has not been without challenges. Despite the physical damage caused by the earthquake and the mental condition of the people, the devastation caused by natural disasters, and the all-round effects of the Covid epidemic, the municipality has brought changes in the overall development of this area in a direct way. In this sense, it can be expected that the vigilance and intelligent planning and decision making of the local bodies can bring changes in the government practices.}</p> रमेश Ramesh अधिकारी Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46869 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 बहुकक्षा बहुस्तर शिक्षण सिकाइ र यसको सान्दर्भिकता {Multi class multilevel teaching learning and its relevance} https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46873 <p>वर्तमान समयमा बहुकक्षा बहुस्तर शिक्षण सिकाइलाई सिकाइको सन्दर्भमा नवीन प्रयोगका रुपमा लिने गरिन्छ । बहुकक्षा बहुस्तर शिक्षण सिकाइले विभिन्न कक्षाका विभिन्न सिकाइ स्तर भएका विद्यार्थीहरुलाई एकै ठाउँमा राखेर सिकाउने तरिकालाइ जनाउँछ । यस किसिमको सिकाइमा विद्यार्थीहरुले आफ्नो क्षमता अनुसार एकै परिवेशमा बसेर सिक्ने अवसरप्राप्त गर्दछन् । बहुकक्षा बहुस्तर शिक्षण सिकाइमा विभिन्न उमेर समूहका बालवालिकाहरुको वैयक्तिक विभिन्नतालाई समेटेर सबैको आवश्यकता, रुचि तथा क्षमताको सम्बोधन हुने गरी शिक्षण सिकाइ प्रक्रिया अवलम्बन गरिएको हुन्छ । यस सिकाइमा एक भन्दा बढी कक्षाका फरक फरक सिकाइ स्तर भएका बालवालिकाहरु एकै समयमा एउटै कक्षाकोठामा र एउटै बसाई व्यवस्थापनमा रहेर सिक्ने गर्दछन् । यसका लागि शिक्षक भने एक पटकमा एक जना मात्रहुने गर्दछ । व्यक्तिले आफ्नो क्षमता अनुसार आफै सक्रिय भएर हुने सिकाइले यस प्रक्रियामा निरन्तरता पाउने गर्दछ । नेपालको सन्दर्भमा बहुकक्षा बहुस्तर शिक्षण सिकाइको प्रयोग हुन थालेको एक दशक भइसकेको वर्तमान परिवेशमा यसको प्रयोग के–कसरी भइरहेको छ, यसबाट लाभान्वित व्यक्तिहरुको सिकाइको अवस्था के कस्तो छ, यस पद्धतिका समस्याहरु के–के छन् र ती समस्याहरु के–कसरी समाधान गर्न सकिन्छ भन्ने सन्दर्भमा उपायहरु प्रदान गर्ने उद्देश्यसहित यस अध्ययन कार्यलाई पूर्णता दिइएको छ । यसका साथै यो नयाँ किसिमको अभ्यास भएकोले यसको व्यापकता सम्भव छ वा छैन भन्ने तथ्यलाई पनि यस अध्यनबाट हेर्ने जमर्को गरिएको छ । काभ्रेपलाञ्चोक जिल्लालाई अध्ययन क्षेत्र बनाई गरिएको यस अनुसन्धानमा बहुकक्षा बहुस्तर शिक्षण सिकाइ पद्धति अवलम्बन गरिएका सम्पूर्ण विद्यालयहरु र त्यहाँ अध्ययन अध्यापनमा सङ्लग्न शिक्षक र विद्यार्थीहरु जम्मा जनसङ्ख्या रहेकोमा केवल तिनवटा विद्यालयहरुलाई अवस्था&nbsp; Case का रुपमा छनोट गरिएको छ । यस अनुसन्धानको नमूना आकारका रुपमा छनोटमा परेका तिनवटा विद्यालय तथा यसमा अध्ययन गर्ने विद्यार्थी र अध्यापन गर्ने शिक्षकहरु रहेका छन् । उद्देश्यमूलक नमूना छनोट विधिबाट यस अध्ययनका नमूनाको छनोट गरिएको छ । सबै तह र कक्षाका विद्यार्थीहरुलाई एकै ठाउँमा राखेर सिकाउनका लागि शिक्षकलाई कठिनाई भएको र सिकारुहरुलाई आवश्यक केही विषयवस्तु बाहेक सबै अवस्थामा यो पद्धति सान्दर्भिक नभएको यस अध्ययनबाट देखिएको छ । त्यसैले यसको प्रभावकारीताका लागि शिक्षकलाई आवश्यक तालिमको प्रबन्ध गर्ने र विद्यार्थीहरुलाई अनावश्यक रुपमा एकै ठाउँमा बस्नुपर्ने बाध्यता भन्दा पनि स्वेच्छाले नै सिमीत तथा नवीन कुराहरु सिकाउनका लागि मात्र एकै बसाईको व्यवस्थापन गरी सिकाउँदा यसको सान्दर्भिकता तथा प्रभावकारीता दुवै बढ्ने देखिन्छ । गुणात्मक अनुसन्धान ढाँचामा आधारित अध्ययन भएकोले यस अनुसन्धानबाट प्राप्त निचोडलाई भने समान गुणयुक्त जनसङ्ख्यामा सामान्यीकरण गर्न सकिँदैन ।</p> कृष्ण बहादुर Krishna Bahadur जि.सी. G.C. Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46873 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 नेपालको भाषानीति : अवस्था र अपेक्षा {Linguistics of Nepal: Status and Expectations} https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46946 <p><strong>संस्कृति, </strong><strong>सभ्यता, </strong><strong>जीवनशैली </strong><strong>आदिको </strong><strong>प्रतिनिधित्व </strong><strong>गर्ने </strong><strong>एवम् </strong><strong>राष्ट्रका </strong><strong>अमूल्य </strong><strong>निधिका </strong><strong>रूपमा </strong><strong>रहेका </strong><strong>भाषाको </strong><strong>संरक्षणर </strong><strong>विकासका </strong><strong>लागि </strong><strong>प्रभावकारी </strong><strong>भाषा </strong><strong>योजना </strong><strong>र </strong><strong>नीति </strong><strong>निर्माण </strong><strong>गर्नु </strong><strong>आवश्यक </strong><strong>हुन्छ </strong><strong>। </strong><strong>यस </strong><strong>अध्ययनको </strong><strong>उद्देश्य </strong><strong>बहुभाषिक&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong><strong>राष्ट्र </strong><strong>नेपालका </strong><strong>भाषाहरूको </strong><strong>विकासका </strong><strong>लागि </strong><strong>हासलम्म </strong><strong>भएका </strong><strong>नीतिगत </strong><strong>प्रयासहरू </strong><strong>र </strong><strong>तिनले </strong><strong>भाषाको </strong><strong>संरक्षणमा </strong><strong>पुयाएकोयोगदानका </strong><strong>सन्दर्भमा </strong><strong>विज्ञ </strong><strong>सहभागीको </strong><strong>विचार </strong><strong>केलाउनु </strong><strong>रहेको </strong><strong>छ </strong><strong>। </strong><strong>गुणात्मक </strong><strong>प्रकृतिको </strong><strong>यस </strong><strong>अनुसन्धानमा </strong><strong>उद्देश्यमूलक नमूना </strong><strong>छनोट </strong><strong>पद्धतिका </strong><strong>आधारमा </strong><strong>तीन </strong><strong>जना </strong><strong>भाषाविज्ञलाई </strong><strong>सहभागीका </strong><strong>रूपमा </strong><strong>लिई </strong><strong>गहन </strong><strong>अन्तर्वार्ताका </strong><strong>व्रममा </strong><strong>सहभागीलेव्यक्त </strong><strong>गरेका </strong><strong>विचारलाई </strong><strong>पूर्व </strong><strong>अनुसन्धानका </strong><strong>प्राप्तिसँग </strong><strong>जोड्दै </strong><strong>विश्लेषण </strong><strong>गरिएको </strong><strong>छ </strong><strong>। </strong><strong>लेखमा </strong><strong>भाषानीतिका </strong><strong>सम्बन्धमा </strong><strong>लेखिएका </strong><strong>ग्रन्थ, </strong><strong>भाषानीतिसम्बन्धी </strong><strong>अनुसन्धानका </strong><strong>प्रतिवेदन </strong><strong>र </strong><strong>नेपालका </strong><strong>भाषा </strong><strong>नीति </strong><strong>र </strong><strong>योजनासम्बन्धी </strong><strong>दस्तावेजहरूलाईद्वितीय </strong><strong>सामग्रीका </strong><strong>रूपमा </strong><strong>र </strong><strong>नमुना </strong><strong>छनोटमा </strong><strong>परेका </strong><strong>सहभागीका </strong><strong>विचारलाई </strong><strong>प्राथमिक </strong><strong>सामग्रीका </strong><strong>रूपमा </strong><strong>उपयोग </strong><strong>गरिएकोछ </strong><strong>। </strong><strong>द्वितीय </strong><strong>स्रोतका </strong><strong>सामग्रीबाट </strong><strong>पुस्तकालयीय </strong><strong>अध्ययन </strong><strong>विधिबाट </strong><strong>तथा </strong><strong>प्राथमिक </strong><strong>स्रोतलाई </strong><strong>अन्तर्वार्ता </strong><strong>विधिमार्फत </strong><strong>तथ्य सङ्कलन </strong><strong>गरी </strong><strong>तिनको </strong><strong>व्याख्या </strong><strong>र </strong><strong>विश्लेषण </strong><strong>गरिएको </strong><strong>छ </strong><strong>। </strong><strong>नेपालको </strong><strong>बहुभाषिकतालाई </strong><strong>ख्याल </strong><strong>गर्दै </strong><strong>विभिन्न </strong><strong>समयमा </strong><strong>भाषानीति </strong><strong>निर्माण </strong><strong>गरी </strong><strong>कार्यान्वयनको </strong><strong>प्रयास </strong><strong>गरिएको </strong><strong>भए </strong><strong>पनि </strong><strong>नेपालमा </strong><strong>प्रचलित </strong><strong>मातृभाषी </strong><strong>वक्ताको </strong><strong>सङ्ख्या </strong><strong>दिनानुदिन घट्दै </strong><strong>गइरहेको </strong><strong>तथा </strong><strong>अन्य </strong><strong>भाषाको </strong><strong>प्रभावका </strong><strong>कारण </strong><strong>धेरै </strong><strong>भाषाहरू </strong><strong>सङ्कटतर्फ </strong><strong>उन्मुख </strong><strong>भएकाले </strong><strong>नेपालमा </strong><strong>प्रचिलत </strong><strong>भाषा, </strong><strong>तिनको </strong><strong>वास्तविक </strong><strong>अवस्था </strong><strong>र </strong><strong>वक्ता </strong><strong>सङ्ख्याको </strong><strong>अवस्था </strong><strong>पहिचान </strong><strong>गरी </strong><strong>उपयुक्त </strong><strong>खालको </strong><strong>भाषा </strong><strong>नीति </strong><strong>निर्माण </strong><strong>गरी </strong><strong>त्यसलाई प्रभावकारी </strong><strong>ढङ्गले </strong><strong>कार्यान्वयन </strong><strong>गर्नुपर्ने </strong><strong>आवश्यकता </strong><strong>रहेको </strong><strong>निष्कर्षमा </strong><strong>पुगिएको </strong><strong>छ </strong><strong>। </strong><strong>नेपालका </strong><strong>भाषाहरूको </strong><strong>संरक्षण </strong><strong>र विकासका </strong><strong>निम्ति </strong><strong>प्रभावकारी </strong><strong>ढङ्गले </strong><strong>भाषिक </strong><strong>सर्वेक्षण </strong><strong>गरी </strong><strong>सबै </strong><strong>भाषाहरूको </strong><strong>विकास </strong><strong>र </strong><strong>संरक्षणका </strong><strong>लागि </strong><strong>उपयुक्त </strong><strong>भाषानीति </strong><strong>निर्माण </strong><strong>गरी </strong><strong>त्यसको </strong><strong>प्रभावकारी </strong><strong>कार्यान्वयन </strong><strong>गर्नुपर्ने </strong><strong>टड्कारो </strong><strong>आवश्यकता </strong><strong>रहेको </strong><strong>देखिन्छ </strong><strong>।</strong></p> <p><strong>{It is necessary to create an effective language plan and policy for the protection and development of the language that represents culture, civilization, lifestyle, etc. and is a precious treasure of the nation. The purpose of this study is to discuss the opinions of expert participants regarding the policy efforts made for the development of the languages ​​of the multilingual nation of Nepal and their contribution to the preservation of the language. In this research of qualitative nature, three linguists were taken as participants on the basis of purposive sample selection method and the opinions expressed by the participants during in-depth interviews were analyzed by connecting them with the results of previous research. In the article, books written about language policy, research reports on language policy and documents related to language policy and planning of Nepal have been used as secondary materials and the opinions of the participants in the sample selection have been used as primary materials. They have been interpreted and analyzed by collecting facts from the materials of the secondary sources through the library study method and the primary sources through the interview method. For the protection and development of the languages ​​of Nepal, there is an urgent need to carry out a linguistic survey in an effective manner and formulate a suitable language policy for the development and protection of all languages ​​and implement it effectively.}</strong></p> महेन्द्र Mahendra न्यौपाने Neupane Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46946 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 आधुनिक नेपाली कथामा पत्रप्रयोगको अन्तर्य {Introduction to the use of letters in modern Nepali fiction} https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46965 <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखमा आधुनिक नेपाली कथामा पत्रप्रयोगको अन्तर्यको विश्लेषण र मूल्याङ्कन गरिएको छ । विचारविनिमयको साधनका रूपमा प्रयुक्त हुँदै आएका पत्रहरू विभिन्न माध्यम, कागजका पाना हुँदै आधुनिक प्रविधिमय फेसबुक, म्यासेन्जर, इमेल जस्ता विद्युतीय माध्यममा प्रयोग भएका छन् । साहित्यका विभिन्न विधामा विशेष सन्दर्भमा पनि पत्रको प्रयोग भएका छन् । आधुनिक नेपाली कथाका घटनाको विशेष सन्दर्भ, पात्रको चरित्राङ्कन तथा विशेष परिवेशको निर्माणको अवस्था आदिमा पत्रको प्रयोग गरिएका छन् । त्यस्ता पत्रले कथाका मूल तङ्खवको सम्वर्धनमा महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निर्वाह गरेका हुन्छन् । यिनले भनाइलाई चोटिलो, घतिलो बनाएका छन् भने पात्र र परिवेशको चित्रणमा कलात्मकता भरेका पनि छन् । आधुनिक नेपाली कथामा प्रयुक्त पत्रको स्वरूप, विषयवस्तु र अभिप्रायको निरूपण गर्नु यस लेखको उद्देश्य हो । प्रस्तुत उद्देश्य प्राप्तिका लागि पत्रप्रयोगको आवश्यकता र पत्रप्रयोगको प्रयोजनलाई सैद्धान्तिक ढाँचाका रूपमा अवलम्बन गरी आधुनिक नेपाली कथामा प्रयुक्त पत्रहरूको पाठगत साक्ष्यका आधारमा नेपाली कथामा प्रयुक्त पत्रको अध्ययन, विश्लेषणद्वारा सामान्यीकरण गरी निष्कर्षीकरण गरिएको छ । कथामा पत्रप्रयोग कथाकारको विशिष्ट शैली भएकाले यिनले कथावस्तुको विन्यासमा रोचक र सार्थक निष्कर्षोन्मुख बनाउने, पात्रको चरित्राङ्कन र परिवेश चित्रणमा यी बहुपयोगी हुने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p>{In this research article, the use of letters in modern Nepali stories has been analyzed and evaluated. Letters, which have been used as a means of exchange of ideas, have been used in electronic media such as Facebook, messenger, email through modern technology through various media, paper sheets. Letters are also used in special contexts in different genres of literature. Letters have been used in modern Nepali stories for specific contexts of events, characterization of characters and conditions of construction of special environments. Such letters play an important role in enhancing the story's original meaning. He has made the words hurtful and poignant, and he has also filled the characters and surroundings with artistry. The purpose of this article is to describe the form, content and intention of letters used in modern Nepali stories. In order to achieve the presented objective, the necessity of using letters and the purpose of using letters as a theoretical framework, based on the textual evidence of the letters used in modern Nepali stories, the study and analysis of the letters used in Nepali stories have been generalized and concluded. As the use of letters in the story is a unique style of the storyteller, it is concluded that they are versatile in the setting of the story, making interesting and meaningful conclusions, characterizing the character and depicting the environment.}</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> विष्णु Bishnu न्यौपाने Neupane Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46965 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 कार्यमूलकताका दृष्टिले कक्षा छ को नेपाली पाठ्यपुस्तकमा समाविष्ट व्याकरण {Grammar included in the Nepali textbook of grade six from the point of view of practicality} https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46967 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख सन्दर्भपूर्ण प्रयोग अभ्यासबाट शिक्षण गर्नुपर्ने कार्यमूलक व्याकरण सम्बन्धी सैद्धान्तिक मान्यताका आधारमा कक्षा छ को वर्तमान नेपाली भाषा पाठ्यपुस्तकका व्याकरण अभ्यासको विश्लेषण गर्ने उद्देश्यमा केन्द्रित छ । यस लेखमा वर्णनात्मक विधिको अवलम्बन गरी उक्त पुस्तकमा दिइएका व्याकरण अभ्यास सम्बन्धी तथ्यहरूको व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । लेखबाट उक्त पाठ्यपुस्तकका व्याकरणका पाठ्यवस्तुहरूलाई कार्यमूलक व्याकरणका मान्यतासँग मेल खाने गरी सङ्गठन गरिएको, प्रश्नहरू कार्यमूलक प्रकृतिका बनाइएको, अभ्यासहरूमा भाषिक प्रकार्यलाई जोड दिइएको, सम्प्रेषण तथा कार्यकलाप आश्रित सिकाइ सम्भावनालाई प्रश्रय दिइएको जस्ता निष्कर्षमा पुगिएको छ । समग्रमा वर्तमान कक्षा छ को नेपाली भाषा पाठ्यपुस्तक कार्यमूलक व्याकरणात्मक मान्यताका दृष्टिले अग्रगामी रहेको देखिन्छ । तथापि वास्तविक जीवन सम्बद्धताका आधारमा अभ्यासहरू शिथिल रहेकाले यसतर्फ भने सचेतता अपनाउनुपर्ने देखिन्छ । </p> <p>{The present article is focused on the purpose of analyzing the grammar exercises of the current Nepali language textbooks of class six based on the theoretical assumptions related to functional grammar that should be taught through contextual practice. In this article, the explanation of facts related to grammar practice given in the book has been analyzed by adopting the descriptive method. From the article, it has been concluded that the grammar content of the textbook is organized in accordance with the principles of functional grammar, the questions are functional in nature, the linguistic function is emphasized in the exercises, and communication and activity-based learning possibilities are encouraged. On the whole, the Nepali language textbook of the sixth grade seems to be a pioneer in terms of functional grammatical recognition. However, as the practices are relaxed based on real life relevance, it seems that awareness should be adopted in this regard.}</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> दिनेश Dinesh घिमिरे Ghimire Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46967 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 सहयात्री उपन्यासमा नारी चेतना र सशक्तीकरण {Female Consciousness and Empowerment in Sahayatri Novels} https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46969 <p>प्रस्तुत लेख सहयात्री उपन्यासमा रहेको नारी चेतना र सशक्तीकरणको&nbsp; विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित छ । प्रस्तुत लेखमा उपन्यासका नारीका अवस्था, नारी चेतना तथा सशक्तीकरणका सन्दर्भहरूको सोदाहरण विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । सहयात्री उपन्यास लैङ्गिक अत्याचार र विभेदको अन्त्यका लागि सबै नारीहरू सचेत हुनुपर्ने आग्रहमा केन्द्रित देखिन्छ । सामूहिक सक्रियताले अधिकार निर्माण तथा लैङ्गिक सन्तुलन कायम गर्न सकिने विचार यस उपन्यासका मुख्य उपलब्धि हुन् । लैङ्गिक दृष्टिले समानान्तर अस्तित्वलाई प्राधान्य दिइएको छ । नारीलाई केन्द्रीय भूमिका दिएर पुरुषसँगको समानान्तर सहकार्य तथा सक्रियताले मात्र सामाजिक परिवर्तन सम्भव छ भन्ने देखाउनु उपन्यासको सन्तुलित तथा सचेत प्राप्ति हो । समाजमा हुने लैङ्गिक समस्या&nbsp; तथा सामाजिक शोषण र दमनका विरुद्ध सामूहिक एवम् साङ्गठनिक तवरले सशक्त आवाज सहित सक्रिय हुँदा न्याय स्थापना गर्न सकिने जनाउँदै लैङ्गिक सशक्तता तथा समानान्तर सचेत भूमिकाको आवश्यकता रहेको सन्देश दिइएको छ भने सामूहिक सचेत आवाजले अन्यायको पराजय र न्यायको विजय देखाउँदै सकारात्मक परिणति प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । उपन्यासमा सामाजिक, लैङ्गिक हिंसा एवम् समस्यालाई केन्द्रबिन्दु बनाएर इन्दु मार्फत् सशक्त चेतना निर्माण गर्दै लैङ्गिक समानताको पक्षपोषण गरिएको छ । नारी चेतना रसशक्तीकरणको आवाजलाई प्राधान्य दिई सचेत विचार प्रवाह गर्न सक्षम रहेकाले उपन्यासकार शीतविन्दु नारीकेन्द्री मुद्दामा संवेदनशील रहेको प्रस्ट हुन्छ ।</p> <p>{The presented article focuses on the analysis of women's consciousness and empowerment in Sahayatri novel. In the presented article, the context of women's situation, women's consciousness and empowerment in the novel has been analyzed. Sahayatri's novel seems to focus on the demand that all women should be aware for the end of gender oppression and discrimination. The main achievement of this novel is the idea that collective activism can create rights and maintain gender balance. Gender equality is preferred. Giving women a central role and showing that social change is possible only through parallel collaboration and activism with men is a balanced and conscious realization of the novel. A message has been given stating that justice can be established when a collective and organizational voice is active against gender problems and social exploitation and oppression, and the need for gender empowerment and a parallel conscious role, while a collective conscious voice shows the defeat of injustice and the victory of justice. In the novel, gender equality has been nurtured by creating a strong awareness through Indu by making social and gender violence and problems central. It is clear that the novelist Seetbindu is sensitive to women-centric issues, as he is able to convey conscious thoughts by giving priority to the voice of women's consciousness rasshaktikaran.}</p> राजेन्द्र Rajendra खनाल Khanal Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46969 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 विधमान चुनौतिः स्वास्थ्य सेवा कि उपभोग्य बस्तु ? {Present Challenge: Healthcare or consumer goods?} https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46976 <p>राज्यले सबै नागरिकको पहुँचमा स्वास्थ्य सेवा विस्तार गर्नको लागि समयानुकुलको स्वास्थ्य नीति, रणनीति र कार्यक्रम सञ्चालन गर्नु पर्दछ । कतिपय कुरा नीतिगत रुपमा उल्लेख गरिए पनि त्यसको सो अनुरुप कार्यन्वयन, संचालन तथा व्यवस्थापन गर्न नसक्दा राज्यले प्रदान गर्ने स्वास्थ्य सेवा कागजमै सीमित भएको छ जवसम्म सरकारले स्वास्थ्य क्षेत्रको पर्वाधार विकास र विस्तारमा लगानी गर्दैन तवसम्म स्वास्थ्य सेवा मौलिक हकको रूपमा राज्यबाट प्राप्त गर्ने सेवा नभएर उपभोग्य वस्तु जस्तै गरी खरिद गर्ने र नसक्ने, निमुखा आम नागरिक स्वास्थ्य सेवाबाट वञ्चित हुनु परेको यथार्त हाम्रो सामु रहेको छ । जसले समाजमा हुने र नहुने बीचमा ठूलो आर्थिक तथा सामाजिक खाडल निर्माण गरी समतामूलक समाज निर्माण गर्ने महान अभिलाषा असफल हुन पुग्दछ । स्वास्थ्य सेवालाई हुनेले खरिद गर्ने वस्तु बनाउने र नहुनेले उपभोग गर्ने सेवा सुन्नु पर्ने बाध्यतालाई समयमै निराकरण गरी आजको आवश्यकता हो । तसर्थ स्वास्थ्य क्षेत्रमा नीतिगत परिवर्तन गर्दै लगानी विस्तार मार्फत राज्यले नागरिकको अधिकार सुरक्षित गर्न अपरिहार्य छ ।&nbsp;</p> <p>{The state should conduct timely health policies, strategies and programs to expand the reach of health services to all citizens. Even though some things have been mentioned as policy, the health services provided by the state have been limited to paper because they cannot be implemented, operated and managed accordingly. Unless the government invests in the infrastructure development and expansion of the health sector, then health services will not be a service to be received from the state as a fundamental right, but a consumable item like People who buy and can't, facing ordinary citizens The reality of being deprived of health services is in front of us. Which leads to the failure of the great desire to create an egalitarian society by creating a huge economic and social gap between the haves and have-nots in the society. It is the need of the day to solve the necessity of making healthcare products for those who have them to buy and those who don't have to listen to them. Therefore, it is inevitable for the state to protect the rights of citizens through policy changes in the health sector and investment expansion.}</p> मोहन कुमार Mohan Kumar महत Mahat Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46976 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 विद्यालय तहमा निरन्तर मूल्याङ्कन पद्धति {Continuous assessment system at school level} https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/47003 <p>विद्यार्थी मूल्याङ्कन निर्माणात्मक र निर्णयात्मक मूल्याङ्कन दुई ओटा प्रयोजनका लागि गरिन्छ । पहिलो थप सिकाइका लागि सिकारुको स्थिति पहिचान गरी उपचारात्मक सेवा प्रदान गर्न र दोस्रो सिकारुले सिकेका कुराहरुको आधारमा स्तरीकरण गरी उसको बारेमा निर्णय गर्न एवम् प्रमाणपत्र प्रदान गर्न । निरन्तर मूल्याङ्कन पनि निर्माणात्मक मूल्याङ्कनकै एक रुप हो । यो सिकाइका लागि मूल्याङ्कन हो । विद्यार्थीहरु सिकाइएकै बेला के कति सिके भनेर लेखाजोखा गरी आगामी दिनमा के कस्तो उपायहरु अवलम्बन गरी थप सिकाइका लागि सहजीकरण गर्ने भन्ने कुरामा निरन्तर मूल्याङ्कन प्रणाली केन्द्रित हुने हुनाले उपचारात्मक शिक्षणका लागि सिकारुको अवस्था पहिचान गर्न तथा सिकेको कुराको तत्काल लेखाजोखा गर्न नै निरन्तर मूल्याङ्कन प्रणाली अवलम्बन गरिएको हो । निरन्तर मूल्याङ्कनलाई उदार कक्षोन्नतिसँग गाँसेर ल्याइनु, जटिल प्रकृतिका साधनहरुको प्रयोग गर्नुपर्ने हुनु, सरोकारवालाबाट अवरोध खडा हुनु, शिक्षण सिकाइ क्रियाकलापको सुधारको कुरै नगरी मूल्याङ्कन प्रणालीमा मात्र एकांकी ढंगले सुधार गर्न खोजिनु, पाठ्यक्रम कार्यान्वयनमा फित्तलोपना रहनु, अनुगमन तथा सुपरिवेक्षण प्रणाली कमजोर हुनु जस्ता कारणहरुले निरन्तर मूल्याङ्कन प्रणालीको कार्यान्वयनमा अपेक्षित सफलता प्राप्त हुन नसकेको देखिन्छ । निरन्तर मूल्याङ्कन प्रणालीको कार्यान्वयनका लागि समष्टिगत दृष्टिकोणबाट निर्देशित भई अघि बढ्नुपर्छ । पाठ्यक्रम, पाठ्यपुस्तक र शिक्षक निर्देशिकामा सुधार गरी निरन्तर मूल्याङ्कनका मापदण्डमैत्री बनाइनुपर्छ । शिक्षण सिकाइ क्रियाकलापमा परिवर्तनपछि मात्र मापदण्ड अनुसार निरन्तर मूल्याङ्कन गर्न सकिन्छ भन्ने कुरा सबैले बुझ्नुपर्छ । नत्र भने विद्यार्थीलाई परियोजना कार्य नगराउने तर परियोजना कार्यकै मूल्याङ्कन गर्ने किर्ते मूल्याङ्कनलाई विस्थापन गर्न सकिने सम्भावना देखिदैन । सरोकारवालाहरुमा भएको भ्रम निवारण गरी परीक्षा लिनै नपाइने होइन बरु बराबर परीक्षा एवम् अवलोकनबाट वास्तविक सिकाइको लेखाजोखा गरी थप उपचारात्मक कार्यशैलीका माध्यमबाट विद्यार्थीको सिक्न पाउने अधिकार सुनिश्चित गर्ने कुरामा स्पष्ट पार्नुपर्छ । शिक्षकहरु सकारात्मक सोच लिई यसको कार्यान्वयनबाट आफैलाई सजिलो हुने विश्वासका साथ दृढ संकल्पित भई लाग्नुपर्छ ।</p> <p>{Student evaluation formative and judgmental evaluation is done for two purposes. The first is to identify the status of the learner and provide remedial services for further learning and the second is to grade the learner based on what he has learned and make a decision about him and provide a certificate. Continuous assessment is also a form of formative assessment. This is an assessment for learning. Taking into account how much the students have learned while being taught, what measures should be taken in the future to facilitate further learning Since the continuous evaluation system focuses on this, the continuous evaluation system has been adopted for remedial teaching to identify the condition of the learner and to take an immediate account of what has been learned. Bringing continuous evaluation together with liberal grade promotion, having to use complex nature tools, obstacles arising from stakeholders, trying to improve the evaluation system only in a solitary manner without considering the improvement of teaching and learning activities, It seems that the expected success in the implementation of the continuous evaluation system has not been achieved due to reasons such as laziness in the implementation of the curriculum, weak monitoring and supervision system. For the implementation of the continuous evaluation system, it should be guided by a holistic approach. Curriculum, textbooks and teachers' manuals should be improved and made consistent with the standards of continuous assessment. Everyone should understand that only after changes in teaching and learning activities can continuous evaluation be done according to standards. Otherwise, it is not possible to replace the evaluation of the students who do not do the project work but evaluate the project work itself. Everyone should understand that only after changes in teaching and learning activities can continuous evaluation be done according to standards. Otherwise, it is not possible to replace the evaluation of the students who do not do the project work but evaluate the project work itself.}</p> महेन्द्र Mahendra बस्नेत Basnet Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/47003 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 लिच्छविकालीन नेपालको शिक्षा {Education in Nepal during the Lichchavi period} https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/47004 <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानात्मक लेखमा लिच्छवीकालीन नेपालको शैक्षिक व्यवस्थापनको चर्चा गर्ने, शिक्षा विकासमा तत्कालीन राजाहरूको योगदान पत्ता लगाउने र तत्कालीन शिक्षा प्रणालीको विवेचना गर्ने उद्देश्य राखिएको छ । अनुसन्धानका क्रममा द्वितीय स्रोतको प्रयोग गरी दस्तावेज अध्ययन गरी सूचना संकलन गरिएको छ । जसमा गुणात्मक अनुसन्धान विधिको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । लिच्छवीकालीन नेपालमा अनौपचारिक शिक्षा पद्धति भए पनि राजाहरूको शैक्षिक विकासमा महत्वपूर्ण योगदान रहेको छ । शैक्षिक व्यवस्थापनका विभिन्न निकायहरू (अग्रहार) गठन गरिएको देखिन्छ । संस्कृत र बौद्ध धर्ममा आधारित शिक्षा प्रणाली गुरुकुल पद्धतिमा आधारित भएर सञ्चालन भएको पाइन्छ । नेपालको आधुनिक शिक्षाको आधार प्राचीन वैदीक शिक्षा तथा लिच्छविकालीन शिक्षा नै हो । तत्कालीन राजाहरुको पूर्ण योगदानमा विभिन्न निकायहरु मार्फत अनौपचारीक शिक्षा संचालन गरिएको थियो । यस्तो शिक्षा पद्धतिमा संस्कृत तथा वौद्ध धर्ममा आधारित भएर शिक्षा प्रदान गरिन्थ्यो । शिक्षाको मुख्य उद्देश्य आर्दश नागरिक तयार गर्नु तथा राज्यलाई आवश्यक पर्ने जनशक्ति तयार गर्नु रहेको थियो । शिक्षालाई व्यवस्थापन गर्ने कार्य प्रत्यक्ष रुपमा राज्यले नै गर्दथ्यो ।</p> <p>{The purpose of this research article is to discuss the educational management of Nepal during Lichhavi period, to find out the contribution of the kings of that time in the development of education and to analyze the education system of that time. During the research, information has been collected by studying documents using secondary sources. In which qualitative research method has been used. Even though there was an informal education system in Nepal during the Lichchavi period, the kings had a significant contribution to the educational development. It seems that various bodies of educational management (Agrahar) have been formed. The education system based on Sanskrit and Buddhism is based on Gurukul system. The basis of modern education in Nepal is the ancient Vedic education and Lichchavi education. Non-formal education was conducted through various agencies with the full contribution of the then kings. In such an education system, education was provided based on Sanskrit and Buddhism.The main purpose of education was to prepare ideal citizens and to prepare manpower needed by the state. The work of managing education was directly done by the state.}</p> गणेश Ganesh धमला Dhamala Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/47004 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ‘जिडीपी’ को अर्थराजनीति {Ecopolitics of 'GDP'} https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/47005 <p>एक कृत्रिम जटिल र अमूर्त वस्तु सार्वजनिक नीति निर्माणको केन्द्रमा यत्रो समय सम्म कसरी रहन गयो, जसले मानिसको जनजीवनमा प्रभाव गर्ने निर्णयहरूलाई प्रभावित पारिरहेको छ । अर्थतन्त्रलाई नै प्रतिनिधित्व गर्ने एउटा तथाङ्कले कसरी देश र सरकारको कामकारबाहीलाई मापन गर्ने हैसियत बनायो ? आर्थिक सँगसँगै एउटा राजनीतिकमानक पनि कसरी भयो ? के यस्तो जटिल आर्थिक सामाजिक प्रणालीको चित्रण गर्न जिडीपी एक मात्र मापक हुनसक्छ ? यस्तै प्रश्नहरूको उत्तर दिने प्रयास डाएन कोयलको ‘जिडीपी अ ब्रिफ बट अफेक्सनेट हिस्ट्री स फिलिपे लिपेनिजको ‘दपावर अफ अ सिङ्गल नम्बरु र लोरेञ्जफिओरा मोन्टीको ‘ग्रस डोमेस्टीक प्रोब्लमु पुस्तकमा गरिएको छ । यो लेख यी तीन पुस्तकको सार समीक्षामा आधारित छ ।</p> <p>{How did an artificially complex and intangible object remain at the center of public policy making for so long, influencing decisions that affect people's lives? How did a number that represents the economy become a measure of the country's and government's performance? How did a political standard along with economic ? Can GDP be the only measure to describe such a complex economic and social system? Attempts to answer similar questions have been made in Diane Coyle's book 'GDP A Brief But Effective History', Philippe Lippeniz's 'The Power of a Single Number' and Lorenzfiora Monti's 'Gross Domestic Problem'. This article is based on a summary review of these three books.}</p> विशाल कुमार Bishal Kumar चालिसे Chalise Copyright (c) 2022 https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/47005 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Approaches for Enhancing Mathematics Learning of Students with Learning Difficulties https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46731 <p>&nbsp;Mathematics, commonly taken as a complicated subject, has been further challenging for students with learning difficulties. Learning difficulties are the difficulties of learners acquiring the knowledge and skills to the average level expected of those of the same age, primarily because of mental disability or cognitive disorder. Effective teaching approaches are required to meet the needs of diverse students in enhancing mathematics learning. This paper explores the approaches for enhancing mathematics learning for students with learning difficulties. The armchair research adopts document study or library study to explore the techniques to enhance students’ mathematics learning with learning difficulties. The findings showed students’ perception of the learning of mathematics greatly affects students’ motivation to engage in learning mathematics and achievement. The positive perception of students encourages them for effective learning. Some of the approaches to enhance mathematics learning for students with learning difficulties include: giving praise at the appropriate time; developing problem-solving abilities; guiding to identify the reasons other than personal factors; finding the reasons for lacking effort in the subject, providing opportunities for students to showcase their abilities in the classroom; encouraging and supervising learning habits and analyzing the attributions of success and failure after each exam. These approaches are useful to enhance the learning of students with learning difficulties in our classroom situation, and they become helpful to the teachers.</p> Bishnu Khanal Copyright (c) 2022 RMC, Gorkha Campus, Gorkha https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46731 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gender in Nepalese Higher Education Curriculum: An Example from Tribhuvan University https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46732 <p>This paper analyses the course entitled 'English Language Teaching (ELT) practices and materials' offered by Tribhuvan University for Master's level in English education from a gender perspective. The main objective of the paper is to explore and analyse gender inequalities underlying in the processing and production of the course. Taking the course documents as the primary source of data, this paper found that the course falls short in gender mainstreaming and has revealed gender-blindness in content selection and recommended/reference materials encouraging gender inequality during the course development process as well as in its production.</p> Hari Maya Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 RMC, Gorkha Campus, Gorkha https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46732 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Higher Education Status in Nepal: Possibilities and Prospects https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46733 <p>Higher education is the key to the overall development of a country like Nepal, whose population is ephemeral through a demographic transition. Currently, 11 universities, four health academies and 1432 higher education institutions associated (constituent and affiliated) are providing mainstream higher education in Nepal. However, providing access to higher education to the increased number of the eligible population still remains a challenge, while on the other hand, the quality of higher education and its significance to local and national primacy has been a concern. In the meantime, planners, policymakers and researchers need timely and relevant data in order to meet the challenge faced in their relevant sectors. Despite having challenges in higher education in Nepal, Tribhuvan University, the oldest and leading university, is producing more Masters, MPhil, and PhD graduates for the nation’s overall development.</p> Milan Acharya, Kamal Prasad Acharya, Kalpana Gyawali Copyright (c) 2022 RMC, Gorkha Campus, Gorkha https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46733 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Native Language in English as a Foreign Language Classes: Teachers’ Lived Experiences https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46734 <p>Along with the prevalence of post-method pedagogy in English language teaching, the use of learners’ native language (NL) in English as a foreign language (EFL) context has become a vital issue. Considering the issue, this article aims to dig into the phenomenon of NL usage with special reference to Nepal. For achieving this objective, I followed a phenomenological study design to explore the teachers’ lived experiences. I purposively selected ten university English language teachers to observe their EFL classes based on age, qualification, gender, and teaching experience. The information obtained from the unstructured classroom observation led me to the four themes such as conditions, reasons, strategies and consequences. The findings reveal that most informants used NL for better and more efficient communication; they used NL in different ways; and learners were at ease, self-assured, and pleased with NL usage. This implies that EFL teachers need to use the learners’ NL sparingly.</p> Nabaraj Neupane Copyright (c) 2022 RMC, Gorkha Campus, Gorkha https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46734 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Practices of Pre-service Science Teacher Education Program: Review and Reflection https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46735 <p>This paper aims to examine the effectiveness of the pre-service teacher practicum program of M. Ed level from the perspective of the campus supervisor of Gorkha Campus, Gorkha. There were altogether six students who appeared in the practicum program, and the researcher was their internal mentor for them. The teaching practice (practicum) program was conducted for about two months in six phases (four on-campus and two in cooperative schools). Based on peer observation and researcher observation analysis for each student-teacher classroom, five findings were identified and interpreted as Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) and related other theories. The analysis indicated that the theoretical, pedagogical knowledge was not much implemented in teaching. Their teaching was more traditional without ICT except for on-campus teaching practice. The obtained pedagogical and content knowledge was not tried to link their teaching with life-world knowledge, except a few student teachers did so. The pedagogical skills mentioned in the peer observation form were not developed fully even after the completion of the theory classes and the end of teaching practice. The critical scientific thinking (SCT) model is new and may be appropriate for the practicum program. This teaching practicum program was insufficient to fill the theory-practice gap using this model.</p> Kamal Prasad Koirala Copyright (c) 2022 RMC, Gorkha Campus, Gorkha https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46735 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting Biology Lesson Motivation in Secondary School Students https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46736 <p>Motivation is a theoretical construct used to explain the initiations, direction, intensity, persistence and quantity of behaviour. It is an important determinant of learning and its outcomes, as expressed in academic performances. The proper study of motivational factors is a prerequisite for students’ effective motivation toward learning. So, a teacher should accept the effect of motivation in the instructional process and should keep knowledge of factors influencing motivation during the learning process. Hence, this study evaluates the factors affecting biology lesson motivation in secondary level students under quantitative research design. The sample of the study was randomly selected 200 students (51.5% girls and 48.5% boys) from grades nine and ten from five government-managed secondary schools. The research data was collected using a questionnaire developed by Glynn and Koballa (2006) as a science lesson motivation questionnaire and adapted by Ekici (2009) as a biology lesson motivation questionnaire. The data were analyzed by applying quantitative procedures using Statistical Program for the Social Sciences. The result generally indicates that students feel biology is an interesting subject with practical value relevant to their lives. Though the students were not confident on their Biology tests and were not receiving grade motivation, they were not greatly worried about the biology tests. Self-determination is the major motivating factor with the highest mean score of 4.170, followed by career motivation (3.890), intrinsic motivation, and personal relevance. Grade motivation has least role in Biology lesson motivation. Moreover, there is a significant correlation (r= 0.592) of intrinsic motivation and personal relevance with self-efficacy and assessment anxiety. There is low correlation between Self-efficacy and assessment anxiety and Self-determination but is significant.</p> Rabin Regmi, Balak Devkota Copyright (c) 2022 RMC, Gorkha Campus, Gorkha https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46736 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Introduction of Gorkha Museum: A Collection of Ancient Treasure https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46737 <p>This article gives a detailed introduction to Gorkha Museum. It has been developed based on the Museum’s monumental and historical treasures stored and exhibited. The narratives from the Chief and the staff of Gorkha Museum helped the author give the Museum’s details. Secondary sources of information have been utilized to develop this write-up. The main aim of this article is to shed light on Gorkha Museum. The readers can get detailed information on the treasures exhibited at the Museum. Gorkha Museum has a collection of historical documents, colophons, oil portraits, traditional musical instruments, weapons, Chaityas, utensils and other sources immensely valuable for providing information and knowledge required in the field of politics, religion, culture, art, literature and architecture of Gorkha from ancient to the modern. Moreover, documents exhibited at the Museum reflect both internal and foreign relations during the Shah rulers (from Dravya Shah to Prithvi Narayan Shah). The Museum, thus, is worth visiting for research scholars, academics and politicians too for enhancing their knowledge of the then Gorkha as a whole.</p> Ram Sharan Baniya Copyright (c) 2022 RMC, Gorkha Campus, Gorkha https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46737 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effectiveness of ICT Tools in Science Education https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46738 <p>The objective of this study, “Effectiveness of ICT tools in Science Education,” was to determine the current status of ICT use among secondary school students and teachers and to explore the problems while using the ICT tools. Simple random sampling was used as the sampling strategy. The instruments used to acquire the required data were student questionnaires and teacher interviews. I used a survey using descriptive data to achieve the study’s goals. Simple statistical tools such as frequency and percentage were used to assess the data. The descriptive technique was used as the analysis procedure for quantitative data. The findings and conclusions were drawn after a thorough review of the data. According to the findings, the participants preferred ICT tools, but there was a lack of information about how to use it. It was discovered that students frequently confront issues such as a lack of access to an e-library and a lack of understanding of computer capabilities. Teachers do not have sufficient ICT tools for teaching them also. There must be included ICT tools in the science curriculum. It is necessary to provide ICT tools, an appropriate time, and ongoing training to increase ICT abilities. It included recommendations for improving ICT in the classroom instructors and students</p> Nabaraj Pandey Copyright (c) 2022 RMC, Gorkha Campus, Gorkha https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46738 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Biogas as a Source of Energy and its Production from Kitchen Waste https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46739 <p>This research was conducted to determine the efficiency of biogas generation from kitchen garbage and to present the various biogas production processes. The anaerobic digestion of kitchen waste produces a valuable energy resource, and the activity-based laboratory approach was applied for this purpose. The anaerobic breakdown is a microbiological process that produces biogas, mainly composed of methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas can be utilized as a source of energy and for a variety of other purposes. On the other hand, any potential applications require knowledge and information on the composition and quantity of components in the biogas produced. Sodium hydroxide must be added to maintain alkalinity and pH in the digester. The cow dung slurry, as well as kitchen garbage, were added to this reactor. This mixed Inoculum was combined to produce biogas in a small-scale activity. The production of biogas and methane from starch-rich and sugary material is determined on a small scale using simple digesters.</p> Narayan Prasad Timilsena Copyright (c) 2022 RMC, Gorkha Campus, Gorkha https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46739 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 English for Engineering Students: A Survey of Pokhara University https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46740 <p>This paper’s main objective was to examine the perception of the English language needs of the engineering students at Pokhara University, Kaski, Nepal, as a part of a curriculum review. The study was carried out to identify the perceived notion of English among the students for their career development, assess if the current curriculum meets the standards, and identify the flaws in the curriculum concerning other universities in Nepal. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used as mixed methods. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire was administered among engineering students of Pokhara University in one constituent college and 14 affiliated colleges. By random sampling method, 326 responses were collected and analyzed through SPSS V.20 for quantitative data, and experts’ opinions were sought from ten responses with purposive sampling for qualitative data. The study’s findings showed that the English curriculum designed for engineering students in Pokhara University doesn’t fulfill the professional needs of the engineering profession. The experts recommended various new topics to incorporate into the syllabus after carefully examining the differences among various curricula of other universities. In addition, teaching English without the effectiveness of labs and tutorials in three credit hours seems illogical. This report will be helpful to the Curriculum Development Center of Pokhara University, the subject committee of English language, planners, teachers, experts and other policymakers.</p> Tek Bahadur Chhetry Copyright (c) 2022 RMC, Gorkha Campus, Gorkha https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46740 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Physical Education for the Students with Disabilities in Nepal in the Era of Digitization https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46741 <p>This study aims to critically analyze the role of physical education as a natural method of coping with challenges posed by technology for children with disabilities in Nepal in the era of digitization. A qualitative research design was applied to approach the phenomenon. The phenomenon was lokked through a critical paradigm based on the demand of research questions. The primary data were collected from the participants using the in-depth interview guidelines. However, the secondary data were collected through a desk review. This study includes only physically disabled students. Khagendra Nawajeev Special School Jorpati was selected purposively as the research site. Five disabled students (from grade 10) and one Health and Physical Education Teacher were also selected purposively as the respondents for the study.</p> <p>Moreover, one person involved in policymaking specifically regarding special needs education was interviewed. The obtained data were analyzed and interpreted thematically using multiple facts and critical views. The study found that students with disabilities using information technology are mentally engaged but have stopped physical activities. Techno-addiction has become a big problem. Just as the addiction to marijuana, hashish, and alcohol weakens the level of human consciousness, addiction to technology weakens the essential human potential. Physical activities are the ultimate prescription, as sports and physical education allow students to get active and live healthier lifestyles even in the era of digitization.</p> Yadav Acharya Copyright (c) 2022 RMC, Gorkha Campus, Gorkha https://nepjol.info/index.php/tej/article/view/46741 Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000