State, Society and Development: PMPD Perspectives <p><em>State, Society, and Development: PMPD Perspectives</em> is published by the Madan Bhandari Foundation (MBF). It stands as an erudite and peer-reviewed research journal meticulously curated to galvanize scholars and luminaries alike. Its purpose is to furnish a platform of repute for the dissemination of Bhandari’s monumental contributions across a spectrum of domains.</p> en-US <p>Once published, an article in this Journal is not permitted to publish in other journals or similar publications without the permission of the Foundation. Contents and perspectives presented in the articles in the journal are solely of the authors.</p> (Mahendra Bahadur Pandey) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 08 Sep 2023 15:28:25 +0000 OJS 60 Editorial Vol.1 <p>No abstract available.</p> Mahendra Bahadur Pandey Copyright (c) 2023 Madan Bhandari Foundation Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Chronicles of Socialist Feminist Movement in Nepal <p>The women’s movement in Nepal has completed a centenary since Yogmaya Neupane demanded the inception of a Dharma Rajya (righteous governance) in the second decade of the twentieth century. Neupane pioneered her movement to end all kinds of oppression and evil practices prevailing in Nepali society during the Rana regime. The spirit of Neupane’s movement continued to spiral out in all the subsequent movements in the country. In the middle of the twentieth century, the anti-Rana regime movements initiated by political parties also incorporated women’s issues in their policy documents. In this context, the Nepal Women’s Association (NWA) was established under the leadership of Mangaladevi Singh in 1947. The NWA’s major leadership supported the Delhi Accord, alienating some of the leftist women. Consequently, they formed the All Nepal Women’s Association (ANWA) under the leadership of Kamakshadevi Basnet in 1950. Despite their ideological differences, all women’s organizations collaboratively contributed to political and rights movements in the country. The political parties also reciprocated Nepali women’s commendable contribution to democracy. The most remarkable contribution is Madan Bhandari’s “People’s Multiparty Democracy (PMPD): A Program of Nepali Revolution,” which has incorporated the aspiration of the socialist feminist perspective. It has not only incorporated some of the special provisions for equitable rights for women but also influenced all subsequent movements and constitutional and legal provisions. The much-appreciated women’s rights specified in the Constitution of Nepal 2015 resonate with many of the provisions inscribed in PMPD.</p> Binda Pandey Copyright (c) 2023 Madan Bhandari Foundation Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 People’s Multiparty Democracy, the 2015 Constitution, and the Impending Agenda of Land Reform <p>The politics of any country has its sociological foundations. In Nepal, the social aspects of PMPD are equally significant, given that Nepali politics, since the restoration of democracy, has revolved around Bhandari’s political philosophy. This article critically examines its influence on the 2015 Constitution of Nepal, which established Nepal as a socialism-oriented federal democratic republic. Furthermore, the article argues that political parties, especially the CPN (UML), have not fully recognized the implications of this political shift in their strategies for social transformation, particularly concerning the agenda of land reform. Moreover, despite the CPN (UML) having led the government multiple times after the restoration of democracy, Nepal has made limited progress in realizing the social agendas postulated in PMPD. The article emphasizes the need for a critical review of strategies to address the key sociological objectives and to establish the democratic and equitable society envisioned in PMPD.</p> Youba Raj Luintel Copyright (c) 2023 Madan Bhandari Foundation Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Normative Theories of Mass Media: PMPD Perspective <p>In line with Marxist notions regarding the functioning of mass media, Madan Bhandari’s notion of People’s Multiparty Democracy (PMPD) deviates from the legacy of the Soviet communist theory of the press. Although Bhandari has not extensively expounded on media operations, his writings reflect a trajectory toward the establishment of a society built on freedom of expression. As the former Spokesperson and General Secretary of the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) (CPN [UML]), Bhandari’s ideas, thoughts, and aspirations resonated with the Nepali public following the People’s Movement of 1990. During this relatively brief period, Bhandari effectively communicated his message by incorporating elements of Marxism. Bhandari expressed himself through large-scale public gatherings, mass media interviews, and party documents, including the PMPD, which was overwhelmingly adopted by the Fifth National General Convention of the CPN (UML) in February 1993. This paper, employing qualitative and constructivist approaches, concludes that PMPD contains the seeds of a normative theory that envisions a free media environment conducive to plurality, as well as political competition that is both free and healthy in society. Bhandari consistently advocated for plurality and media.</p> Kundan Aryal Copyright (c) 2023 Madan Bhandari Foundation Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Bhandari’s Rhetoric in the 1990s Political Dynamics: Institutionalizing Democracy in Nepal <p>Rhetoric can be described as an art of persuasion, encompassing both words and actions. It is associated with the relationship between an addresser and an addressee in the process of communication. In the early post-1990 era in Nepal, CPN (UML) Secretary General Madan Bhandari emerged as a popular leader with his political philosophy of People’s Multiparty Democracy (PMPD), effectively employing the art of rhetoric to connect with a diverse audience. The rhetorical analysis of Bhandari’s speeches, which covered topics such as monarchy, constitution, parliamentary elections, and the Tanakpur Treaty, had a profound impact on shaping the Nepali psyche. Using rhetorical appeals – logos, pathos, and ethos – Bhandari brilliantly persuaded the intended audience in the post-democracy Nepali society early in the 1990s. Exploiting myths and metaphors, and repetitions and parallelism, Bhandari skillfully projected a sense of hope and expectation amidst contemporary political exigencies. Bhandari’s rhetoric contained substantial democratic values and ideas for socio-economic transformation, which deeply inspired the newly liberated Nepali psyche. With a high level of respect for his audiences, he envisioned a future course of progress and prosperity for Nepal embedded in the principles of People’s Multiparty Democracy, all within the context of global political dynamics. Through a perfect balance of rhetoric and reality, Bhandari not only instilled new hope in the Nepali people but also created an image of an iconic leader dedicated to the welfare of the country and its people. As an innovative political philosophy, PMPD resonates with democratic practice in the Marxist philosophy for the masses that earned him the status of a hero in contemporary Nepali politics, relevant now, and directed to continue for decades in the South Asian geopolitical sphere.</p> Dhruba Karki Copyright (c) 2023 Madan Bhandari Foundation Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 PMPD Perspective on Environment and Development <p>People’s Multiparty Democracy (PMPD) is a creative thought of redefining Marxism in the twenty-first century. It advocates for multiparty competition, the rule of law, and supremacy through competition for leadership. It is also characterized by social justice, human rights, and economic equality. PMPD respects the embedded relationships between women and nature and internalizes the harmony between people and the environment for sustainable development. It acknowledges diversity and differences in society and environment, claiming that colonialism and neoliberalism have commodity nature and destroyed biodiversity, and displaced communities depending on natural resources. Further, it amplifies the access and control of resources to the local people and is utilized with the values as argued in Vedic philosophy, and utilizes the environmental resources with due recognition to the needs of future generations.</p> Prem Sagar Chapagain Copyright (c) 2023 Madan Bhandari Foundation Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Madan Bhandari and His Theory of People’s Multiparty Democracy <p>People’s Multiparty Democracy (PMPD), postulated by Madan Kumar Bhandari in the early 1990s, is a political, economic, and social theory that combines Marxism with specific Nepali attributes. By reviewing the global landscape of socialist movements, Bhandari’s political thought offers a theoretical framework for critically examining Nepal’s evolving production relations based on its contemporary class dynamics. Tragically, Bhandari, who served as the Secretary-General of the Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist Leninist (CPN [UML]), lost his life in a mysterious car accident in 1993. His political journey traces back to the 1960s when he began as a communist party worker during the Panchayat regime under the absolute monarchy. Subsequently, he drew inspiration from the postwar rise of communist parties around the world but went on to reshape Nepal’s unique left movement, setting it distinctly apart from other communist parties in South Asia and beyond. He recognized the need for a joint movement with non-communist groups like the Nepali Congress for the restoration of multiparty democracy, which remained vital in his ideological transformation. Applying a historical explanatory approach, this article explores the factors contributing to the formulation of PMPD while also retracing the evolution of Bhandari’s ideological position in the left movement with Nepali characteristics. Through an examination of the political history and Bhandari’s political philosophy, this article sheds light on the theory of PMPD, which has now become the guiding principle of CPN (UML).</p> Tika Prasad Dhakal Copyright (c) 2023 Madan Bhandari Foundation Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Ultraleftism to Missary of Commoners: Case of Victims of Sexual Violence During Insurgency <p>A decade-long armed conflict resulted in the prevalence of survivors of sexual violence in Nepal. The survivors include those who sustained physical and/or mental harm and social distress due to sexual violence or having such family members. The insurgency launched by the then CPN (Maoist) in 1996 was an act of ultra-leftism. The victims of conflict-related sexual violence (CRSV) are being deprived of justice even after a decade and a half without realization of the agreed transitional justice process as per the Comprehension Peace Accord (CPA). Despite the examples of good practices that exist globally, the CRSV survivors in Nepal have not been acknowledged adequately as a crucial facet of the conflict resolution processes neither in any peace dialogue nor in the CPA and peace-building initiatives pursued afterward. Findings concluded that the conflict resolution processes so far do not mean anything to them as they have neither been part of nor benefited from the claimed ‘peace-building initiatives’in Nepal. This article has revealed that the situation is worrying sum as leaving the survivors behind does not simply lead to failure of the conflict resolution process in Nepal. In explaining PMPD Bhandari states that the communist party can resolve any problem with the help of people amidst the political and organizational works without imposing the security forces. Therefore, while illustrating the severity of incidents and concerns of CRSV survivors, the article has drawn the attention of all stakeholders to ensure the effective participation of the CRSV survivors’ and integrate their issues and concerns into peace-building processes.</p> Shiva Datta Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 Madan Bhandari Foundation Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Origin of People’s Multiparty Democracy from the Perspective of Patriotism <p>Madan Bhandari’s theory of People’s Multiparty Democracy has evolved from a patriotic perspective amidst the intricacies of Nepali geopolitics and contemporary global political dynamics. This theory sheds light on the need-based causes and consequences in the development of PMPD, utilizing historical study as the methodological approach. In this article, the primary argument is in favor of the validity of PMPD within internal geopolitical realities and global political dynamics, considering the perspectives of contemporary Nepali national interests and patriotic values. However, the innovative spirit of Bhandari’s political philosophy has yet to be truly transformed into practice. Furthermore, the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist-Leninist) (CPN [UML]) has struggled to maintain a balance between its rhetoric and reality, given that PMPD serves as its guiding principle in Nepali politics. First, there is perplexity in analyzing the character of Nepali sovereignty accurately in the post-Bhandari era. Secondly, the CPN (UML) leadership still needs to exert efforts to advance the implementation of this philosophy. To substantiate the argument regarding the disparity between rhetoric and reality, circumstantial evidence is provided from political documents and statements made by prominent leaders, among others. The Nepali experience of the PMPD political philosophy is explored using qualitative research methodology.</p> Rajkumar Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 Madan Bhandari Foundation Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of PMPD on Twenty-First Century’s Political Movements in Nepal <p>General Secretary Madan Bhandari’s widely embraced concept, People’s&nbsp;Multiparty Democracy (PMPD): A Program of Nepali Revolution, received overwhelming endorsement during the Fifth Congress of CPN (UML) in 1993. This ideology seamlessly melds democracy and socialism, with distinct Nepali societal characteristics. Originally introduced as a political program, PMPD has since evolved into an indispensable guiding principle in shaping political developments following the restoration of democracy in 1990. In the wake of the publication of the 1848 Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and &nbsp;Friedrich Engels, PMPD stands as a profoundly innovative contribution to communist political philosophy. It stands out for its successful integration of the fundamental tenets of democracy and the well-being of the populace. During a pivotal moment in the global communist movement, marked by the disintegration of the USSR and the downfall of communist governments worldwide, PMPD encapsulates the essence of a New Democracy, embodying the defining characteristics of the burgeoning capitalist democratic revolution within the unique context of Nepali geopolitical dynamics. As a revolutionary concept, PMPD is underpinned by the philosophical cornerstone of opposing feudalism, imperialism, and the stranglehold of comprador capitalism. It achieves this through people-centric programs, active participation in mainstream politics, and the promotion of rational, merit-based leadership. PMPD plays a pivotal role in facilitating a seamless transition from a century-long, centralized unitary system with monarchy to a federal democratic republic. Furthermore, the Constitution of Nepal 2015 incorporates several noteworthy features, including dynamism and flexibility, while firmly afirming the sovereignty and state power vested in the people through periodic elections.</p> Shankar Pokharel Copyright (c) 2023 Madan Bhandari Foundation Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Government Policies, Farm Subsidies, and Agriculture Growth <p>Political ideology serves as the nexus that intertwines various aspects of farming policy formulation, subsidy distribution, foreign grants, and the growth rate of the agricultural sector. This article takes a comprehensive look at the intricate relationship between People’s Multiparty Democracy (PMPD) and the development of farmer-centric policy formulation, the different types of farm subsidies, and their allocation. This examination is conducted by evaluating the various categories of agricultural funding projects and their outcomes, as well as analyzing the performance of the agricultural gross domestic product (AGDP). The descriptive findings of this study illuminate the direct influence of PMPD in shaping pro-farmer policy formulations. Farmers have been benefiting from moderate-level input subsidies designed to facilitate the acquisition of capital assets for the promotion of agricultural technology. These subsidies are sourced from both regular government funds and donor-supported initiatives that have been executed over varying periods. The average subsidy rate remains below 50%, contingent upon its intended purpose. Despite the positive political support, the AGDP has consistently hovered around the 3% mark throughout different development plans. It’s worth noting that not only PMPD but also other political paradigms such as the Panchayat system or multi-party democracy have significantly propelled economic growth. This underscores the need for renewed endeavors to leverage farmer’s equity funds, the government’s routine budget, loans, and grant funds. This study recommends the establishment of a collaborative platform involving farmers, the government, financial institutions, and donors, to successfully execute a growth-oriented business plan. Additionally, the study strongly advocates for three major investments: the establishment of fertilizer manufacturing facilities, hybrid seed production projects, and the creation of a resource center. These investments are crucial for the enhancement of key agricultural value chains.</p> Thaneshwar Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 Madan Bhandari Foundation Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Sustainable Tourism and Community Benefits: Experiences from Yunnan Province, China <p>Sustainable ecotourism has been considered an alternative approach to tourism development specifically to enhance community benefits vis-a-vis the protection of natural and cultural heritage in the indigenous settlements. This study takes the case of the indigenous communities of Xishuangbanna to examine the potential community benefits of ecotourism development and the key issues responsible for promoting sustainable development. It has adopted an exploratory approach to review secondary sources, such as previous research papers and reports specifically on eco-tourism, ethnic cultural heritage, and community development in the Dai villages of Xishuangbanna. Face-to-face and online interviews with tourism academics from China were also conducted. Empirical research conducted by both Chinese and overseas scholars, particularly in the Dai villages of Xishuangbanna, was selected as a reference to perform critical analysis. Findings revealed that local communities have received significant economic benefits from tourism development; however, their local culture and heritage values have been manipulated in the interests of capital and political needs. Indigenous authenticity has been largely influenced by the entrepreneurial interests, bureaucratic mandates, and economic necessities of the local people. As such, the prevailing model of tourism development generally favors the tourism entrepreneurs and the state with less attention to Dai ethnic people. This study suggests adopting inclusive community participation and collaborative efforts to promote sustainable ecotourism and community development in ethnic settlements around the globe especially country like Nepal. The article makes an effort to examine the case of the indigenous communities of Xishuangbanna, the Peoples' Republic of China the theoretical lens of PMPD.</p> Kishan Datta Bhatta, Roger CK Chan, Buddhi Raj Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 Madan Bhandari Foundation Fri, 08 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000