Scientific Researches in Academia <p>Scientific Researches in Academia is a multi-disciplinary peer reviewed journal. It includes manuscripts from disciplines like business, geographical aspects, environmental aspects, teaching practices, and computer science. This journal is can be an enriched supplement for various academic programs and other research areas.</p> Kasthamandap College of Management en-US Scientific Researches in Academia 3021-9108 Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Quantitative Analysis of Total Flavonoid and Phenolic Content of Some Medicinal Plants Found In Nepal <p><em> A. vulgaris </em>L. (common Mugwort), <em>Nyctanthes arbor-tristis, Utrica diociea </em>also called <em>Titepati, Parijata </em>and<em> Sisno </em>respectively in Nepali, are the species with great importance in the history of medicine and were called the “mother of herbs” in the middle ages. All of them were common herbaceous plants that exhibit high morphological and phytochemical variability depending on the location where they occur. The main objective of this research paper was to identify the different phytochemical constituents qualitatively and quantitatively. The aerial parts of the plants were shaded dried, grinded and soaked in the methanol solvent to prepare the extract. The extracts were, then, examined for the qualitative tests. Different phytochemical constituents (Flavonoids, Phenols, Alkaloids, Steroids, Tannins, Terpenoids, Coumarins, Quinones, and Glycosides) were identified from the methanolic extract of the leaves of plant. Similarly, quantitatively Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) were calculated by using UV/Vis Spectrophotometer. As a result, this study highly supported the medicinal use of the plant species owing their different phytochemical constituents.</p> Ambar Shukla Copyright (c) 2023 Kasthamandap College of Management 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 1 1 1 19 10.3126/sra.v1i1.60092 Pilgrimage Tourism: A Study of Goshaikunda Lake of Nepal <p>Pilgrimage is spiritual tourism to receive heavenly blessings. The study focuses on pilgrimage tourism and its importance. The study highlights adventure tourism and pilgrimage tourism in the context of Nepal. The focus of the article is on the pilgrimage industry in Nepal's Goshaikunda Lake, one of the most revered bodies of water that Lord Mahadev is said to have created to get rid of the effect of poison named Kalkut. The importance of the festival and Goshaikunda in both the Hindu and non- Hindu communities is highlighted in the paper. The principal two ways to Goshaikunda Lake are through Dhunche and Sundarijal, both of which have similar importance and adventure, as well as geographical and natural beauty. The ideal trekking path from Langtang to Helambu has also been created around Goshaikunda Lake. They are also included in the Ramsar wetland list, along with all the lakes associated with it. The paper is qualitative, more descriptive, explanatory, and entirely based on the researchers' personal experience of visiting Goshaikunda Lake as a primary source of data and literature as a secondary source, both of which are collected and analyzed qualitatively</p> Asmit Kuikel Copyright (c) 2023 Kasthamandap College of Management 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 1 1 20 35 10.3126/sra.v1i1.60093 Unveiling Ethical Horizons: A Contemporary Analysis of MBA Students' Perceptions on Business Ethics in Nepal <p>Students are our future generation who are going to have substantial role in Nepal’s business and economy. The basic objective of this study is to understand where MBA students stand on ethical issues. This study was motivated by a need to understand the students better so that we can design our courses on business ethics more efficiently. We compare perceptions among groups of students based on their gender, work experience, age, prior exposure to ethics education and MBA specialization. A survey consisting of 10 small ethical situations were completed by 164 MBA students. The results show that in general MBA students have good perception on Business ethics. The results further indicate that there is no difference in ethical judgement related to gender. The age factor and work experience does not necessarily have a significant impact on ethical awareness. Also, at the same time, there is no evidence to suggest that the MBA major (specialization) and prior ethics education impact significantly on ethical judgement.</p> Krishna Khanal Bikram Prajapati Copyright (c) 2023 Kasthamandap College of Management 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 1 1 36 50 10.3126/sra.v1i1.60094 Practices of Teaching Grammar <p>The 21<sup>st</sup> century is known as the era of meaning-focused communicative approach to teaching of grammar. However, most language teachers are found to still follow transmission-based grammar-oriented approaches. It is known that the success or failure of teaching grammar effectively depends on teachers. Therefore, in spite of teaching of grammar being central to language teaching, it is problematic domain for language teachers. That is to say, what teachers do in regard to grammar instruction is an important issue that needs to be investigated. Therefore, through a classroom observation checklist, the present study investigated Nepalese primary-level English language teachers’ practices of teaching grammar. The results revealed that teachers predominantly prefer the traditional focus-on-formS approach, which indicates that even if new way of teaching grammar have been emerged, the teachers are unable to shift their approach of teaching grammar.</p> Peshal Luitel Copyright (c) 2023 Kasthamandap College of Management 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 1 1 51 58 10.3126/sra.v1i1.60095 Land Use Land Cover Dynamics and its Impacts on Watershed: A Case Study of Mardi Watershed <p>Located in western Nepal near Pokhara city, Mardi Khola watershed is a notable example of degradation in the middle-mountain region. No previous studies in the watershed have delved into identifying, analyzing and storing the bio-physical, environmental, social, economic and demographic information of the watershed to aid the development and timely update of its management and land use plan. Therefore, all watershed management activities in the watershed have resulted in underwhelming outcomes. This study highlighted the Land Use Land Cover (LULC) Change of Mardi watershed area, which has emerged as a significant environmental issue and its impacts on water resources availability at local level resources. LULC change analysis revealed land covers such as forest, built-up area and water bodies was increased while the area under agricultural land and barren land declined between 2001 and 2021. Furthermore, 61% of the households have perceived a decreased availability of water resources such as springs, rivers, and ponds in Mardi Khola watershed over the past few decades for various natural and anthropogenic reasons, which has not only affected the water availability, but overall environmental balance in the watershed. This study generalized the importance to synchronize scientific based watershed information for developing Watershed Management Information System (MIS) at national level to enable sustainable conservation and management of watershed resources of our country.</p> Reshma Maskey Copyright (c) 2023 Kasthamandap College of Management 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 1 1 59 80 10.3126/sra.v1i1.60136 Skill Development: An Empirical Case Study in Nepal Bank Limited <p>What the state of skill development and in what ways the skill development is related to employee effectiveness at Nepal Bank Limited in Nepal are the research issues in this study. The study’s objectives are to determine existing skill development (SD) status and evaluate the relationship between SD and employee effectiveness. This research applied a descriptive and quantitative research design. Primary data have been collected through structured questionnaires. There are 21 commercial banks in Nepal. Nepal Bank Limited was selected as a sample unit based on the lottery technique. A total of 50 respondents were sampled by applying the purposive sampling method. Descriptive statistics were adopted to determine the existing state of skill development and employee effectiveness. The Likert Five-Point Scale was used as an instrument for answering perceptual questionnaire statements. In descriptive statistics, mean values of more than 3.44, and the remaining of them are nearest to 4. No statement has been less than the average value. Furthermore, the minority of the mean values of the statements in this table is more than 4, and the majority of the mean values are nearer to 4. Thus, it can be concluded that employees seem to agree that employee skill development and effective of them are sound. Similarly, the perception of the great majority of employees in almost all questionnaire statements is in favor of an agreement with these statements. Therefore, the conclusion can be drawn that the development of the skill of employees strongly related to employee effectiveness in the Nepal Bank Limited.</p> Rohit Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Kasthamandap College of Management 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 1 1 81 91 10.3126/sra.v1i1.60138 Status and Provision of Personal Permanent Account Number (P-PAN) Withholdees in Nepal <p>The research highlights the fossil print of the income tax system into the modern concept of a permanent tax system. The tax was initially introduced to fulfil the economic need of the state for war and the like. Later on, this became the permanent source of income for the sustainability of the government. Nepal had gone through various reforms in the tax system. Recently, the Government of Nepal made personal PAN cards mandatory from the fiscal year 2019/2020. This study highlights the consequences and impacts of such rule implementation. Onward, it would help to formulate the prerequisites for implementation and help to design policy. Additionally, it advocates for tax literacy among citizens, equal respect for the public and transparency of services provided to the public. This is a mixed type of research and thus deals with both quantitative and qualitative data. Most of the data collected from the government record so-called secondary data and are well cited. This study is interpretive. It was found that 71% had felt an extra burden about taking P-PAN forcefully. IRD should play a vital role in the optimum level of tax collection by bringing new policies, a healthy tax system and making literate on the tax system to the citizens. Also, IRD needs to educate well to the citizens about the benefit of tax paying. Arguably, the study enhanced to create tax awareness and support for healthy tax system practice.</p> Sanjiv Kumar Singh Sabita Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2023 Kasthamandap College of Management 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 1 1 92 107 10.3126/sra.v1i1.60139 Automated Classification of Genetic Mutations in Cancer using Machine Learning <p>Efforts to decipher the genomic data of cancer and its implications for treatment face challenges. Robust preclinical models reflecting human cancer's genomic diversity, along with comprehensive genetic and pharmacological annotations, can greatly aid in this endeavor. Large collections of cancer cell lines effectively capture the genomic diversity and provide valuable insights into the response to anti-cancer drugs. In this study, we demonstrate significant agreement and biological consistency between drug sensitivity measurements and their corresponding genomic predictors from two publicly available pharmacogenomics databases: The Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer. Despite ongoing efforts to identify cancer-related metabolic changes that may reveal vulnerabilities to targeted drugs, systematic evaluations of metabolism in relation to functional genomics features and associated dependencies are still uncommon. To gain further insights into the metabolic diversity of cancer, we analyzed 225 metabolites in 928 cell lines representing over 20 cancer types using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE). The analysis revealed missing data for various features, with certain percentages exceeding 40%, leading to the removal of 12 features according to standard procedures. Further analysis revealed 25 unique chromosomes and 4 unique Variant_Types in the dataset. Model performance assessment showed an accuracy score of 96% using a logistic regression model.</p> Saroj Doranga Rajeev Nepal Pratigya Timsina Copyright (c) 2023 Kasthamandap College of Management 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 1 1 108 123 10.3126/sra.v1i1.60140 Design and Implementation of Voltage Source Inverter using PWM Technique <p>With increasing demand for electricity and diminishing conventional energy resources, there is a pressing need for alternative energy sources. This project aims to construct a Power Inverter that can serve as a reliable power source for heavy equipment. The Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is a power electronic device that converts DC power to AC power at the required output voltage and frequency level. A two-level inverter produces an output voltage source or current with levels of 0 or positive or negative volts DC. A variable voltage Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) inverter produces a near sinusoidal voltage from several levels of DC voltages, with minimum harmonic distortion and variable output voltage. Using MOSFETs and a microcontroller, this project developed a hardware model for a PWM H-Bridge inverter. A potentiometer serves as a tuner to adjust the duration of the gate signals for driving the MOSFETs, which changes the width of the output voltages, thereby achieving pulse width modulation. PROTEUS simulation models were designed to validate the inverter's performance. The proposed project's objective is to design and implement a Voltage Source Inverter using PWM technique.</p> Saroj Doranga Rajeev Nepal Pratigya Timsina Copyright (c) 2023 Kasthamandap College of Management 2023-11-23 2023-11-23 1 1 124 146 10.3126/sra.v1i1.60141