The Spectrum 2024-04-15T07:59:02+00:00 Prof. Dr. Binod Bihari Pokharel Open Journal Systems <p>The Spectrum is an open access, peer reviewed journal published by Triton International College, Kathmandu, Nepal. The scope of journal is interdisciplinary in nature. </p> Hindu Patriarchal Society and the Rise of Modern Female Characters: A Contextual Reading of Selected Modern Nepali Plays 2024-04-13T05:52:38+00:00 Shiva Rijal <p>This paper explores the way the first-generation modern Nepali playwrights Balkrishna Sama (1903-1981), Bimnidhi Tiwari (1911-973) and Vijay Malla (1925-1999) responded to the existing values of the Hindu patriarchal society by creating female characters. It mainly focuses on Indira from Mukunda Indira (1939) by Sama, Sushila from Sahanshila Sushila (1940) by Tiwari and Urmila, and Pratima from Jiundo Las (1955) by Malla. With the insights taken from Western feminism, mainly the ideas of Judith Butler that gender is ‘scripted’, the paper interprets these female characters by contextualizing the plays in Nepal’s social history. It concludes that Urmila and Pratima represent the pain and suffocation of the first-generation educated female youths of the nation who were yet to recognize the harm its patriarchal values have done to its female members. Indira and Sushila are comparatively docile and do not feel the need to break the grand scripts. Malla by projecting the pain and frustration of female characters who live psychologically complex lives shares the message of the urgency of addressing women’s issues with his audiences.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Shiva Rijal Rhetoric of Repairs: Pathos Analysis of Joe Biden’s Victory Speech 2024-04-13T05:57:42+00:00 Purna Chandra Bhusal <p>This paper aims to explore pathos, the prominent emotional appeal, in Joe Biden’s presidential victory speech delivered on 7 November 2020 at Wilmington in the United States of America. The speech was delivered upon the conclusion of the presidential race between Donald Trump and Joe Biden, wherein Biden led the election with 306 electoral votes against Trump’s 232. The paper is informed by three objectives: how Biden’s speech seeks to arouse certain emotions in the audience, what emotions in the audience are triggered, and how those emotions assist Biden in successfully delivering his intent of repair and reconciliation by persuading his audience, the American people. To fulfill these objectives, employing the method of a rhetorical analysis, the paper explicates the speech investigating how the lexical choices in the victory speech appeal to specific feelings and emotions of the audience. The analysis concludes that Biden, the orator, warrants reconstruction and reconciliation by appealing to seven dominant emotions: confidence, trust, optimism, (in)gratitude, empathy, camaraderie, and American pride. Hence, the paper demonstrates the fundamentals of doing a rhetorical analysis and further motivates some aspirants seeking a career in script writing and oratory.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Dream and Archetype: The Perpetuation of Rituals and Myth Enacted in Sparsha 2024-04-13T06:11:21+00:00 Dipankar Senehang senehanglims51@gmail.comne <p>Myths, rituals, and dreams have been common traits of human beings; the underlying structure that underpins the interconnection between them and their inexplicable meanings coherently conjoined within has been a part of investigation. Accordingly, this paper analyzes dreams and archetypes for the formation of rituals in Nabin Chauhan-directed short movie Sparsha in the light of Carl Gustav Jung’s notion of ‘archetype’ and ‘collective unconsciousness’ and Joseph Campbell's understanding of myth. Sparsha presents a contestatory story of father and son because of divergent opinions regarding performing rituals. However, Aarohang, the son, ultimately observes rituals reconciling the discrepancies and difficulties. Against this backdrop, this paper argues that archetype necessitates performing a recursive pattern of behavior that becomes a ritual of a particular group of people, which is an enactment of a myth. In other words, Sparsha represents the conglomeration of archetypes and myths that unconsciously function in dreams, paving the way for observing the myths in the form of rituals. The paper discloses ritual has a long psychological trial deeply rooted in human instinct, conditioned by unconscious force and dream manifestation, and grilled by mythological narratives. This connection is the primary source that fuels the mechanism that perpetuates the domain of rituals thereby clinging to mythology.&nbsp;</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Lady Whistledown: A Modern Tiresias in Bridgerton Bibechana Sharma Timsina 2024-04-13T06:16:31+00:00 Bibechana Sharma Timsina <p>This paper explores Lady Whistledown in the Netflix series, Bridgerton, as a modern Tiresias. The series tells a story of people, especially the socio-economic life of people living in the Regency Era. Throughout the entire series, the character: Lady Whistledown narrates people’s lives through her society paper that exposes the scandalous secrets of people living in the society. Drawing on insights from Joshep Cambell's notion of myths, the paper argues that Whistledown’s narrativization of people’s secrets embeds mythical prominence as it deals with the complexities of people and is indeed an inseparable unit from human life. Although the mythical character belongs to the primordial period, Tiresias stays in the mindset of people in an archetypal mode. This archetypal character holds such a power that audiences fail to eradicate it from their memories as they create different forms in their minds. Consequently, this ultimately presents new forms with novel components that serve to inform humans through the behaviors they present. Whistledown exhibiting the quality of Tiresias exposes the secrets of aristocrats through her writing in the society paper. The analysis shows that she empowers characters and audiences through the playfulness of words and projects herself as a modern Tierasis restoring the elements of myths in modern form and evoking the rage to interrogate the societal norms where representation is treated with disparity. Thus, Whistledown despite being a modern character personifies a mythical character: Tierasis, who resists the discrepancies existing in society.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Entrepreneurial Success Factors of Small and Medium Size Women Enterprises in Kathmandu 2024-04-13T06:19:59+00:00 Dhruba Prasad Subedi Prakash Kumar Gautam <p>This study examines the personal and external factors affecting the success of women entrepreneurs in Kathmandu Valley. To achieve the research objective, the data were collected from the primary source mainly through a structured questionnaire under convenience sampling basis from 384 women entrepreneurs in Kathmandu Valley. Descriptive and inferential statistics have been used to develop the breadth and depth of the study. The results of the study revealed a positive significant association of personal and external factors with the success of women entrepreneurs. The study found stronger factors self-confidence, need for achievement, and risk-propensity. In addition, the study revealed social-cultural factors as the external factors detrimental to women entrepreneurs’ success. This study contributes to the existing theory of entrepreneurial success by incorporating personal and external factors in a holistic approach. </p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) A Study on the Determinants of Employee Turnover in the Academic Institutions of Kathmandu Valley 2024-04-13T06:25:19+00:00 Asmita Khadayat Devid Kumar Basyal Purnima Lawaju Udaya Raj Paudel <p>The purpose of the study is to identify factors influencing employee turnover intention in the academic sector in Kathmandu valley. Explanatory research design is used as the main research paradigm to discover reality. It has used a purposive sampling technique where a total of 404 were interviewed with a structural questionnaire; where data collection is done by using the KOBO Toolbox. The data was evaluated by using both descriptive and inferential statistics.&nbsp;Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyze the relationships between variables using Smart PLS software.&nbsp;The finding reveals that positive supervisor relationships, favorable work conditions, and recognition significantly impact job satisfaction. Job satisfaction, in turn, plays a crucial role in shaping turnover intentions. Identified challenges in salary, recognition, work-life balance, and career growth call for solutions emphasizing employee well-being, recognition, growth opportunities, flexible hours, open communication, and monotony relief.</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 The Author(s) Editorial Vol.2(1) 2024-04-14T07:20:27+00:00 The Editor <p><strong>Editorial<br /></strong>The progress of knowledge within a particular field relies on the exploration, investigation, and realization of new pathways of understanding. Identifying these novel avenues for knowledge exploration is essential in response to temporal and contextual demands. Consequently, genuine research efforts and knowledge creation must align with the exigencies of the time and the significance of their objectives.</p> <p>Taking inspiration from the inaugural edition of <em>The Spectrum</em>, this current issue strives to present more innovative ideas within the realms of social sciences and management studies. Within the humanities and social sciences domain, this edition comprises four articles, each delving into diverse topics. These range from a rhetorical analysis of Joe Biden's victory speech to a reevaluation of the history of Modern Nepali Plays. Furthermore, additional articles explore facets of popular culture such as cinema and web series.</p> <p>Following the journal's commitment to fostering interdisciplinary discourse, the two articles within the domain of Management Science address pivotal issues within their respective spheres. For instance, one article elucidates the factors contributing to the entrepreneurial success of women-led enterprises in the Kathmandu valley, while the other investigates the determinants of turnover within academic institutions in the same locale.</p> <p>Acknowledging the inherent challenges associated with pioneering new areas of study, we nonetheless aspire that our efforts will contribute to the scholarly landscape. Moving forward, we endeavor to incorporate more pressing topics into subsequent editions, recognizing that constructive feedback serves as a catalyst for improvement. Therefore, we earnestly invite critical and sincere commentary to further enhance our scholarly pursuits.</p> <p>The Editor</p> 2024-04-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Triton International College