SNPRC Journal <p>SNPRC Journal is published by the Research and Publication Committee, Sahid Narayan Pokharel Ramapur Campus, Sainamaina Municipality, Rupendehi, Lumbini Province, Nepal.</p> en-US (Dinesh Panthee) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 10 Jan 2024 08:40:02 +0000 OJS 60 Kautiliya Arthashastra and its Relevancy in Pedagogical Transformation <p>Arthashastra written by Kautilya is a treatise written to train a future king. The treatise has been divided in 15 books. Its first book provides a detail description of education pedagogy and related topic. Chapters on Knowledge, curriculum and the requisite of the learned scholars give an outline of education system in Kautiliya times. At the same time Kautiliya Arthashastra declares that main object of his education and training is to develop mental power of his student. The mental power is control of senses. This article is an effort to analyze the Kutiliya view on education and teaching methodology. The methodology of this study is mainly descriptive and analytical. Modern tools have been used to analyze Kautiliyan education Pedagogy.</p> Baburam Gewali Copyright (c) 2023 Sahid Narayan Pokharel Ramapur Campus Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 English Teachers' Understanding of Cooperative Language Learning and its Opportunities and Challenges in Teaching Writing Skills <p>Cooperative language learning (CLL) is one of the most successful, effective and extensively used learner-centred strategies in teaching writing skills which can help pupils acquire transferable abilities and motivate them to learn the language in pairs and groups in the classroom. The study aimed to explore the English language teachers' understanding of CLL and its opportunities to enhance students' writing skills along with some challenges they encounter in applying it. It was carried out within the theoretical framework of social interdependence theory. To carry out the study, the phenomenological research method was employed. Two English teachers were purposively selected as the participants for the study of two public schools in Rupandehi. The in-depth interview was used as a major technique for collecting information. The study revealed that the English language teachers had a good understanding and positive views toward CLL to enhance the writing skills of the students. The result also indicated that maximized learning opportunities, teacher as a facilitator, addressing mixed ability learners and increased interaction are the opportunities while multi-level and poor educational background of students, lack of regular professional training and collaborative culture, poor class management and less administrative support have been realized as challenges in effective implementation of CLL. The application of CLL can help revolutionize the traditional way of teaching writing skills engaging learners with the assigned writing tasks.</p> Bhim Lal Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 Sahid Narayan Pokharel Ramapur Campus Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Alternative Teaching Method Policies during the Covid-19 Pandemic: Challenges and Effectiveness <p>Alternative teaching methods is a planned and organized activity which operates for alternative teaching and learning. During the COVID-19 pandemic period, the education system was highly affected and students were unable to acquire education in schools. To cope with this situation, the Nepal government released the Student Learning Facilitation Guide, 2077 to support on education system and help student getting education from home. Hence, the paper aims to examine the challenges and effectiveness of alternative teaching methods in Nepal. For this purpose, the research has been carried out with explanatory and descriptive research design. The necessary information for this study was accumulated mainly from secondary sources.</p> Jibnaryan Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 Sahid Narayan Pokharel Ramapur Campus Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Corporate Governance and Performance of Commercial Banks in Nepal <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of corporate governance on performance of commercial banks in. It also examined the corporate governance practices of commercial banks. The study followed quantitative approach and descriptive research design. Multiple regression analysis was used to explore the causal relationship between corporate governance and financial performance of commercial banks. The study revealed a positive relationship of number of board meeting and foreign ownership and bank performance which shows higher the board meeting, foreign investment higher would be the bank performance. However, there was negative relationship of board size and capital adequacy ratio with bank performance indicating higher the board size, capital adequacy ratio would lead lower bank performance. Practices of corporate governance system of financial sector in Nepal is still infant stage however joint venture banks practices are more harmonizing rather than government banks and other banks.</p> Hem Bahadur Thapa Copyright (c) 2023 Sahid Narayan Pokharel Ramapur Campus Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Postcolonial Pedagogy: Practices, Understandings and Experiences of Secondary Level English Teachers <p>The issue of postcolonial pedagogy is a well-established issue in the academia. With the aim of exploring the practices and understanding of postcolonial pedagogy in Nepali context at secondary level of Nepal. The current study had been conducted for enhancing the knowledge of English language teaching. The study explored the practices, understanding and experience of secondary level English teacher on postcolonial pedagogy based on the data achieved from the field. Applying the qualitative research design, the current study revealed the reality of practices of postcolonial pedagogy in Nepali context based on the purposive sampling. The study discovered that the secondary level teachers did not possess clear concepts of postcolonial pedagogy. The teachers' practiced based on Western elitism ideologies and their knowledge was found lacking on postcolonial pedagogy as they were away from the entire ethnic group, their culture. They were less aware of the sympathetic engagement of the learners missing the skills of creating a situation in the classroom and serving hegemonic modes of knowledge.</p> Hota Raj Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 Sahid Narayan Pokharel Ramapur Campus Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness of Dengue Disease among Female Community Health Volunteers of Sainamina Municipality, Nepal <p>Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection that is a major public health problem in Nepal. Female community health volunteers play a vital role in dengue prevention and control by providing health education and services to the community. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the level of dengue awareness among female community health volunteers in Sainamina Municipality, Nepal. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 50 female community health volunteers aged 20 and above, actively engaged in health-related activities in Sainamina Municipality. A structured questionnaire was used to gather information on their knowledge of dengue transmission, symptoms, preventive measures, and available treatments. The findings revealed that 98 percentage of the female community health volunteers had a general knowledge of dengue, but there was some confusion regarding the specific mode of transmission. Their knowledge about the signs and symptoms, transmission routes, and preventive measures was inadequate. Only 74 percentage identified that dengue is transmitted through the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. Additionally, 48 percentage of respondents were able to identify the Aedes mosquito, and 36 percentage knew that there was no specific medicine for dengue patients. Targeted efforts are needed to address the areas of confusion among the female community health volunteers and enhance awareness of comprehensive prevention strategies. It is recommended to conduct training, provide educational materials, and encourage them to share their knowledge with their communities to improve dengue awareness and prevention efforts.</p> Sunita Lamsal Copyright (c) 2023 Sahid Narayan Pokharel Ramapur Campus Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Capital Structure on Organizational Success on pharmaceutical industries in Nepal <p>Capital structure decision is an important prerequisite to becoming a successful organization. The current study focuses on the relationship between capital structure and organizational success. It also tries to investigate the impact of capital structure on organizational success. Data was collected from three pharmaceutical industries i.e. Asian Pharmaceutical, Siddartha Pharmaceutical, and Grace Pharmaceutical. Debt and equity were used as independent variables and sustainability, market growth, and competitive advantages were used as dependent variables structured questionnaires were used and 100 questionnaires were distributed but the data could be only collected from 86 respondents. SPSS version 25 and Microsoft Excel were used for data management. This research implements a correlational research design with descriptive and explanatory research design. Mean analysis has been used to explain the position of variables. Correlation and regression analysis have been used to explain the relationship between variables. The positions of the capital structure were at optimum level and the position of sustainability, market growth, Competitive Advantages, and overall organizational success is above satisfactory. Capital structure decisions significantly impact the success of the Organization.</p> Sagar Gyawali Copyright (c) 2023 Sahid Narayan Pokharel Ramapur Campus Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Foreign Trade on the Economic Growth of Nepal <p>Foreign trade plays a crucial role in fostering economic growth through increasing innovation, efficiency, market expansion, and optimum use of resources. This paper attempts to deal with the effect of foreign trade on the economic growth of Nepal. This study is based on secondary data for the period of FY 1974/75 to 2021/22. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test is used to check the stationary of variables. The Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound testing approach has been applied to establish the long-run relationship between dependent variables: GDP and independent variables, i.e. export and imports. Similarly, an Error Correction Model (ECM) has been conducted to check the speed of correction of short-term fluctuations to the long-run equilibrium. This study found a positive relationship between exports and the GDP of Nepal. However, there is a negative relationship between GDP and imports in Nepal. The negative and significant value of the ECM coefficient explains the equilibrium in the long run, even though there are some fluctuations in the short run. For high economic growth, Nepal should make a proper balance between an export growth strategy and an import substitution policy in foreign trade.</p> Shyam Sunder Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 Sahid Narayan Pokharel Ramapur Campus Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Universality of Art and Literature in P.B. Shelley’s “Ozymandias” <p>Ozymandias is about collapsed statue, constructed by Memnon, of Egyptian king Ramesses II in an empty desert. The people know about malicious King’s viciousness through poetry otherwise, all his city, empire and memorial on his praise have vanished over time. This research paper explores the theme of the universality of art over absolute monarchy, death and time. The hubris and dictatorship of the Egyptian ruler Ramesses II was transitory which faded in the past while the narration of the poem where an unnamed narrator at the beginning connects every normal individual around the world; the poetry establishes itself as the classic one passing down to many generations revitalizing the adept of the sculptor as well. Tyranny is not something to be praised over the years whereas art transfers its beauty to generations. Overall, the poet succeeds to prove the universality of art over absolute monarchy, death, and time. This article is researched through the lens of romanticism and mimetic theory. The romanticism not only centralizes the feelings and emotions of the innocent people who are subjugated to tyrants like Ramesses II but also normalizes the idea that such haughtiness, power and tyranny is common worldwide. Next, mimetic theory reflects the supremacy of imitation in art. This article shows how art is timeless in front of the so-called monarchy because the sculptor and poet of Ozymandias are alive forever but not the monarch.</p> Kamana Aryal Copyright (c) 2023 Sahid Narayan Pokharel Ramapur Campus Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 नेपाली र भोजपुरी भाषाका काल तथा पक्षको तुलना {Comparison of Tenses and Aspects of Nepali and Bhojpuri Languages} <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा व्यतिरेकी विश्लेषणको सैद्घान्तिक पर्याधारको केन्द्रीयतामा नेपाली र भोजपुरी भाषाका काल तथा पक्षको तुलना गरिएको छ । नेपाली र भोजपुरी भाषाका काल तथा पक्षको तुलनात्मक अध्ययन गर्नाका निम्ति यो अध्ययन गरिएको हो । प्राथमिक र द्वितीयक स्रोतका सामग्री तथा वर्णनात्मक, तुलनात्मक र विश्लेषणात्मक अनुसन्धान पद्घतिको उपयोग गरी यस अध्ययनलाई पूर्ण बनाइएको छ । यस लेखमा वर्तमान, भूत र भविष्यत्कालका सामान्य, अपूर्ण र पूर्ण जस्ता सूचकमा केन्द्रित रही उपर्युक्त दुई भाषाको तुलना गरी निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । निष्कर्षअनुसार नेपाली भाषाको वर्तमानकालीन क्रियामा धातुपछि छु, छौँ, छन्, छस् जस्ता सहायक क्रियाको प्रयोग गरिन्छ भने भोजपुरी भाषाको वर्तमानकालिक क्रियामा धातुपछि इँला, इबे, इब, इबा, इहेँ, यी, वलजायी जस्ता सहायक क्रियाको प्रयोग गरिन्छ । नेपाली भाषामा भूतकाल जनाउन धातुमा एँ, यौँ, यो, ई जस्ता सहायक क्रिया प्रत्ययवत्जोडिन्छन्भने भोजपुरी भाषामा भूतकाल जनाउन धातुमा इल, इले, इलीँ, इलयँ जस्ता कालबोधक प्रत्यय जोडेको पाइन्छ । नेपाली भाषामा भविष्यत्काल जनाउन धातुमा नेपछि वर्तमान कालका सहायक क्रिया छु, छौँ, छन्, छ, छस्जोडिन्छ भने भोजपुरी भाषामा धातुमा इहेँ, ई, वलजायी, इब, इबु, इबे जस्ता सहायक क्रिया जोडिन्छ । पूर्ण वर्तमान, पूर्ण भूत र पूर्ण भविष्यत्कालिक क्रियापदका धातुमा अले प्रत्यय जोडी बाटे, बाटीँ, बा, बाट जस्ता वर्तमानकालिक, रहलीँ, रहलयँ, रहल, रहली, रहलेँ, रहलिन्, रहलगय जस्ता भूतकालिक तथा होवलजाइब, होइहेँ, होई, होइब, होइबु जस्ता भविष्यत्कालिक सहायक क्रियाको प्रयोग भएको पाइने निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत लेखबाट प्राप्त निष्कर्ष प्राज्ञिक दृष्टिले उपयोगी र औचित्यपूर्ण रहेको छ ।</p> नारायणप्रसाद Narayanprasad पन्थ Pantha Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 समावेशी दृष्टिले बहुभाषिक कक्षाकोठा व्यवस्थापन र शिक्षणकला {Inclusive multilingual classroom management and pedagogy} <p>प्रस्तुत लेख समावेशी दृष्टिले बहुभाषिक कक्षाकोठा व्यवस्थापन र शिक्षण कलाको प्रयोगगत अवस्था अध्ययन गर्ने उद्देश्यले तयार पारिएको हो। नेपाल बहुभाषिक, बहुधार्मिक तथा बहुजातीय मुलुक भएकाले यहाँका विद्यालयमा भिन्न भाषिक आदि समुदाय जात जाति, लिङ्ग, वर्ग र शारीरिक क्षमता आदि भएका बालबालिकाको उपस्थितिलाई सम्मानका साथ सम्बोधन गरी शिक्षणलाई अगाडि बढाउने शिक्षण कलाको प्रयोगगत अवस्था अध्ययन गर्न उद्देश्यपूर्ण नमुना छनोटलाई आधार बनाई नमुना छनोट गरिएको छ । गुणात्मक ढाँचा र वर्णनात्मक विधि अवलम्बन गरी क्षेत्रकार्य र पुस्तकालयीय अध्ययनबाट सङ्कलित सामग्रीको विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।अध्ययनका क्रममा समावेशी शिक्षाका सम्बन्धमा नेपालले तय गरेका विशेष शिक्षासम्बद्धनीति तथा कार्यनीति, समावेशी शिक्षाको अवधारणा, समावेशी शिक्षाका मान्यता राज्यद्वारा अपाङ्गता भएका व्यक्तिका लागि गुणस्तरीय शिक्षामा पहुँच सुनिश्चित गर्न विभिन्न रणनीतिहरू अवलम्बन गरिएकोअवस्थामा बहुभाषिक कक्षा कोठामा शिक्षण गर्ने शिक्षक त्यहाँका कक्षाकोठा, बालबालिकाको लिङ्ग, जात, भाषा, धर्म तथा फरक क्षमता भएका विद्यार्थीहरूलाई शिक्षकले समावेशी शिक्षाका मान्यताअनुसार नै व्यवस्थापन गरेर शिक्षण गरेको देखिए पनि शिक्षण सामग्री, पाठ्यपुस्तक स्वयम्शिक्षकको भाषासँग पनि भाषिक पृष्ठभूमिसँग सम्बन्धित समस्याहरू देखिएकाले त्यस्ता समस्या समाधानार्थ पाठ्यपुस्तक, सम्बन्धी पाठ्यसामग्री निर्माण तथा शिक्षक व्यवस्थापन कार्यमा ध्यान दिनु जरुरी देखिन्छ ।</p> लक्ष्मी Laxmi आचार्य Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 नेवाः जाति: नेपालमण्डल भित्र र बाहिर {Newa Caste: Inside and outside Nepal Mandal} <p>यस आलेख नेवाः जाति, उनीहरुको संरचना र वसोवास क्षेत्रमा केन्द्रीत रहेर लेखिएको छ । नेवाः समुदाय उपत्यकामा विभिन्न समयमा वसाइ सर्दै आएका विभिन्न प्रजाति, धार्मिक समूहहरू र नश्लको मिश्रणबाट बनेको एउटा बहुजातीय समाज हो। काठमाडौं उपत्यका नैनेवाः जातिको मूलः बास स्थान भए तापनि प्राचीनसमयदेखि नै उनीहरुको वसोवास काठमाडौं उपत्यका वरपरका हालको १२ वटा जिल्लाहरुसम्म फैलिएको थियो।यसलाई क्षेत्रलाई नेपालमण्डल भनिन्छ । ब्यापार र अन्य कारणले गर्दा उपत्यका छोडेर अन्य ठाउँ जाने प्रचलन त नेवाः समाजमा धेरै अगाडी नै थियो। तर पनि आधुनिककालमा भने यस जातिले स्थाइ रुपमै बसाइसराइ गरेको पाइन्छ । जनजाति आन्दोलनको अभिन्न अंग भइसकेको नेवाः जाति समानतामा आधारित थियो। भारतबाट आएका हिन्दू वर्णाश्रम व्यवस्थाबाट प्रभावित समूहहरुको उपत्यकामा रजाइसँगै नेवाः जातिमा विस्तारै जातीये भेदभावबाट सुरु भएको देखिन्छ ।</p> सुदीपसिंह Sudipsingh नकर्मी Nakarmi Copyright (c) 2023 Sun, 31 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000