SIRJANĀ – A Journal on Arts and Art Education <p>SIRJANĀ – A Journal on Arts and Art Education is an annual publication of Sirjana College of Fine Arts, Uttar Dhoka Sadak, Lazimpat, Kathmandu-2, Nepal. It is designed to stimulate scholars, and to provide a platform for the publication of significant studies in the field of Fine Arts. It welcomes articles, research papers, and book reviews with a focus on the themes of Fine Arts (painting, sculpture, architecture, culture, visual communications, music, dance, and other forms of visual arts and performing arts).</p> Sirjana College of Fine Arts en-US SIRJANĀ – A Journal on Arts and Art Education 2565-5086 Abstract Paintings and Nepali Context <p>Abstract art as discussed in this essay covers a period of time that spans about sixty years. The introduction of the abstract art in Nepal marks a certain opening in both art education and practice among the artists. The initial challenge of the abstract art was to make it a familiar subject both among the art lovers as well as among those who respected art but were not able to appreciate it fully. A challenging period came when artists began to work towards making abstract art an acceptable and a very useful artistic practice. The tension between skill of the artists and the indifference of the public is a universal problem. But now the gap is being narrowed down everywhere. The concept of abstract art in Nepal comes from education in schools in Europe and India in the initial phase and later in Nepal itself where art pedagogy became a norm in different art schools and colleges. But artists freely made their paintings abstract<br>as the commonly accepted mode of art. Artists of different generations execute abstract paintings without being critical or interpretative about it. But now things are changing in Nepal. New generation artists who are oriented to the abstract and free forms of art are working to develop a system by putting together the art education, practice and very importantly, the level of public acceptance for that. We should carefully review the history and the present status of that. We should also make the art works 'desirable'. The other important character of Nepali abstract painting is that the artists always work in the contact zones of the representational and the expressionist features. I have interpreted that meeting point as a contact zone. This article attempts to give examples of that dynamic process. Nepali abstract paintings mark a new mode of artistic dynamism in Nepal.</p> Abhi Subedi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-13 2022-07-13 8 1 6 21 10.3126/sirjana.v8i1.46652 Mudrā of Vajrayāna – Caryā <p>Mudrā as a divine sign language of the spiritual kind applied in religious rituals is essentially a means of communication and a bridge between physical existence and ultimate emancipation from non-existent existence envisaged in vajrayāna thought process. A pragmatic solution for final release from rebirths. It is a means of visualization for eventual realization. Interaction of sādhana, sādhya and sādhaka paves the way for nirvāņa through the formation of mudrās.</p> Arun Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-13 2022-07-13 8 1 22 33 10.3126/sirjana.v8i1.46653 Ritualization of Space and Body in Mithila Folk Arts <p>This paper revisits the process of formation and ritualistic differentiation of the space of Kohbar and Aripana patterns traditionally painted on the mud walls of honeymoon chamber and the yards for pujas respectively. Kohbar and Aripana are the most celebrated folk art performances in the Mithila region of Nepal (and also in the Madhuvani District of Northern India). Kohbars are the ritualistic invocation through painted diagrams of kamala daha (seven-lotus pond motif) and several symbols of fertility and auspiciousness that are supposed to invite conjugal happiness and fertility power especially for newly married couple. Kohbars are often associated with Tantrism and procreative intercourse of opposite sex. Similarly, Aripanas are intricately designed decorative patterns performed on the sacred floor or yards especially during pujas and other auspicious occasions. The study of ritualization of space is relevant and important while studying folk art forms like Kohbar, Aripana, Ashtimki, etc. because ordinary spaces like yards, walls and floors are given special significance during such performances. These spots become sacred spaces for drawing some divine patterns and installing paraphernalia for specials rituals or pujas. The study basically incorporates Catherine Bell’s ideas on ‘Ritualization of Spaces’ and ‘Improvisation of Rituals’. The method of the study is based on the close observation of selected Kohbar and Aripana paintings as cultural texts. The critical analysis of the contents and performative details is expected to derive some cogent conclusion. This study attempts to pave the way for further studies on a number of similar folk art forms.</p> Bishwo Raj Parajuli Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-13 2022-07-13 8 1 34 44 10.3126/sirjana.v8i1.46655 The Practice of Maṇḍala Art during Tihāra by Newars <p>Tihāra is celebrated on Aswin krishna paksha trayōdaśī, caturdaśī, and Ashwin krishna aum̐ sī, Kartik śukla paksha pratipadā and dvitīyā by all the ethnic groups of Nepal. Even though Tihāra is known as Yamapañcaka, the Newars call it Swonti Nakha:. Although it is celebrated for five days, the three days – Lakṣmīpūjā, Mhapūjā, and kijāpūjā are celebrated as the main days by the Newar community. During these days, jalamaṇḍala, pōtāymaṇḍala, red powdermaṇḍala, tāymandala, pōtāymaṇḍala, new paddymaṇḍala, black soybeanmaṇḍala, gēdāmāsamaṇḍala, ākhēyamaṇḍala, and the dot oilmaṇḍala are placed at the center, and the eight-petal lotus is placed out of the maṇḍalas. The maṇḍalas and the different items used in Swonti nakha: represent five elements. Buddhists consider a maṇḍala as Saṅghamaṇḍala whereas the Hindus believe that a mandala symbolizes various deities. Although the maṇḍala is made for the purpose of worshiping, no uniformity is seen in its features. As the worshipping is done, a spouse of the patriarch sweeps mandalas by a groom from the top to the bottom which is left that night as it is, and immersed its remains in a holy river the next morning.</p> Junu Bāsukalā Rañjitakāra Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-13 2022-07-13 8 1 44 55 10.3126/sirjana.v8i1.46656 ‘Bilampau’: A Heritage – Long Forgotten <p>Unlike some other forms in Nepali Painting, an earlier form known as ‘Bilampau’ remains unknown, relatively. This sense of apathy is regardless of the fact that this genre also boasts many unique features that deserves further academic explorations and need attract deeper discussions. To highlight its importance and explain the diversities, a few select representative examples are chosen to argue.</p> <p>As an earliest example, two painted wood-covers of sacred manuscripts dated 12th century are proffered, how early efforts were made to make a visual story in early medieval times. This is followed by a famous visual story based on Buddhist beliefs for telling Buddhist stories: and now, how it has been reduced to an annual display or as a mere ritual. A visual story of Lord Krishna remains yet one more example. It is created and based on Hindu epic Mahabharata. But the most unique and startling example cited herein has a very unique character. It is created as a visual travel guide or a suggestive map to a prospective pilgrim or a traveler. At present, this exquisite work is in the collection of a museum abroad.</p> Madan Chitrakar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-13 2022-07-13 8 1 56 65 10.3126/sirjana.v8i1.46657 An Analytical Study of Ornaments of Images of the Early Licchavi Period (1st- 4th century CE) Sculptures <p>This paper looks at different types of ornaments belonging to the selected images of the early Licchavi period while identifying, comparing, and analyzing them. It also attempts to find out ancient and local names if they have any. The images that are selected and illustrated for analytical description are excavated ones comprising a few Nepali sculptures. The majority of images are devoid of head ornamentations and are shown with heavy earrings and doughnut-shaped feet ornaments</p> Poonam R.L. Rana Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-13 2022-07-13 8 1 66 79 10.3126/sirjana.v8i1.46658 कलामा मोडर्निज्मः केही धारणा र तर्क (Modernism in Art: Some Concepts and Logics) <p>कलामा ‘मोडर्निज्म’ अर्थात् ‘आधुनिकतावाद’ को अवधारणा पाश्चात्य कलाको ऐतिहासिक क्रमकै शृङ्खला थियो । यस अवधारणाको उत्थान हुनुपछाडि उन्नाइसौ“ शताब्दीको विश्व राजनीतिक परिदृश्यका अतिरिक्त जापानी उडब्लक प्रिन्ट तथा अफ्रिकी कला जस्ता गैर पाश्चात्य कलाका प्रभावको पनि प्रत्यक्ष भूमिका रहेको थियो । सन् १९७० का दशकसम्म आइपुग्दा कलाका क्षेत्रमा हुनुसक्ने रहुनुपर्ने भएभरका नवीन प्रयोग तथा प्रवर्तनहरू भइसकेका थिए, र समकालीन कलाकारहरूले तिनको आवृत्ति गर्ने कार्यलाई मात्र निरन्तरता दिइरहेका हुन् । गैर पाश्चात्य मुलुक र तेस्रो विश्वका मुलुकका लागि मोडर्निज्मको अवधारणा पश्चिमा जगत्भन्दा पृथक रहेको थियो । गैर पाश्चात्य मुलुकका कलाकारहरूले मोडर्निज्मभित्र आफ्ना ‘रुट्स’ (जरा) अर्थात् जातीय, क्षेत्रीय, राष्ट्रिय तथा सांस्कृतिक पहिचानलाई समेट्ने प्रयत्न गरेका थिए, र अद्यापि गरिरहेका छन् ।</p> Navindra Man Rajbhandari Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-13 2022-07-13 8 1 80 89 10.3126/sirjana.v8i1.46660 जाकोमेट्टीका अतियथार्थवादी मूर्तिकलामा अस्तित्वको सङ्कट ( Surrealistic Sculptures of Giacometti: Crisis of Existence <p>सरियालिस्टिक (अतियथार्थवादी) कला आन्दोलनस“ग मूर्तिकार अल्बेर्टो जाकोमेट्टीको संलग्नता छोटो समयसम्म मात्र रहेको थियो, तथापि उनका मूर्ति रचनाहरूलाई यस शैलीदेखि पृथक राखेर चर्चा गर्न सकिँदैन । उनका अतियथार्थवादी मूर्ति रचनामा ‘मास’ अर्थात् पदार्थको आयतनको नियमलाई भङ्ग गरिएकाले तिनमा वास्तविक तथ्यभन्दा भावनात्मक अपिल अर्थात मूर्ति नै रहन नसक्ने अवस्थाको सिर्जना भएको पाइन्छ । जाकोमेट्टीका पछिल्लो कालका कलामा मानव आफ्ना मात्र नभएर प्रकृतिको समेत दबाबमा गुज्रिरहेको वस्तुगत तथ्यका अतिरिक्त अस्तित्वको खोजको अलग धार पाइन्छ । प्रस्तुत लेखमा जाकोमेट्टीका मूर्ति रचना र अस्तित्ववादी विचारबिचको तादात्म्यलाई विश्लेषणात्मक अध्ययन गरिएको छ ।</p> Om Khatri Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-13 2022-07-13 8 1 90 99 10.3126/sirjana.v8i1.46662 Nepali Art: Thoughts & Musings by Madan Chitrakar Review <p>Madan Chitrakar's Nepali Art: Thoughts &amp; Musings presents a mosaic of Nepali art including research articles on Nepali paintings, sculptures and architecture. He has traced the native cultural roots and myths in the artworks including the connection of tradition<br>and modernity. Thematic undercurrents along with stylistic innovation have been presented in flowing language of the veteran art writer and critic. The work points out the different dimensions of Nepali aesthetics. The essays are representative of certain genres, forms and issues. To have the view of holistic picture of Nepal art, more explorations in the uncovered issues are expected from the author.</p> Yam Prasad Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-13 2022-07-13 8 1 100 107 10.3126/sirjana.v8i1.46663 बर्सादी दिनहरू (दोस्रो संस्करण, २०६९) मा व्यक्तिबिम्ब ( Persons Symbolized in "The Rainy Days") <p>प्रकाश सायमी (वि. सं. २०२१) नेपाली साहित्यका विभिन्न विधामा रचना गरिरहेका व्यक्तित्व हुन् । आफ्ना व्यक्तित्वका आयामहरूमा उनी बहुमुखी प्रतिभाका रूपमा उपस्थित भएका छन् । उनको व्यक्तित्वका तीन मुख्य आयाम हुन् — चलचित्र निर्देशक, सञ्चारकर्मी र साहित्यकार । उनको सर्जक व्यक्तित्व उनकै एक सफल निर्देशक र सञ्चारकर्मी व्यक्तित्वकै<br>माझबाट बनेको हो र पछिल्लो समयमा उनी लेखनमा नै ज्यादा सव्रिmय छन् । उनको पहिलो प्रकाशित रचना नेवार भाषाको कविता ‘जीगू ख्वाःपा’ (२०३६) हो भने नेपाली भाषामा प्रकाशित पहिलो रचना ‘माजिमटार बीस किलोमिटर’ कथा (२०३७) हो । त्यसपछि उनका मुक्तक, कविता, निबन्ध र समालोचना विधाका कृतिहरू प्रकाशित छन् । ‘अनन्त यात्रा’<br>(मुक्तक सङ्ग्रह, २०३९), ‘रे ः द म्यान अफ सिनेमा’ (जीवनीपरक समालोचना, २०४९), ‘चलचित्र ः कला र प्रविधि’ (समालोचना,२०५०), ‘ई सलाईका काँटीहरू’ (कवितासङ्ग्रह, २०५६), ‘फिल्म निर्माण र निर्देशन’ (समालोचना २०५७), ‘नेपाली सङ्गीतको स्वर्णिमयुग’ (समालोचना २०५८), ‘संस्करण’ (निबन्धसङ्ग्रह २०६०), ‘वर्सादी दिनहरू’ (निबन्ध सङ्ग्रह२०६६), ‘नेपाली सङ्गीतको एक शतक’(समालोचना २०६६), ‘गालिबको चिहान’ (कविता सङ्ग्रह २०६८), ‘बर्सादी दिनहरू’ (निबन्ध सङ्ग्रह २०६६, दोस्रो संस्करण २०६९), ‘काठमाडौ“ सेल्फी’ (२०७२) तथा ‘काठमाडौ“ मोन्ताज्’ (२०७५) सायमीका हालसम्म प्रकाशित कृतिहरू हुन् ।</p> Geeta Thapaliya Tripathi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-07-13 2022-07-13 8 1 108 117 10.3126/sirjana.v8i1.46665