Shanti Journal <p>Shanti Journal: A Multidisciplinary Journal is a bi-annual research journal published by Bishwa Shanti Chiran Milan Campus, Bansbari, Kathmandu, Nepal. Shanti Journal publishes articles in a wide range of disciplines in arts and humanities, including but not limited to language, literature, culture, international relation, performance arts, media and communication.</p> Bishwa Shanti Chiran Milan Campus en-US Shanti Journal 2961-1601 <p>This license enables reusers to distribute, remix, adapt, and build upon the material in any medium or format for noncommercial purposes only, and only so long as attribution is given to the creator.</p> The Expression of Psychological Trauma: A Study of Prakash Saput’s Bola Maya and Pir <p>Giving the feelings of real-life situation to the audiences through the expression of physical, mental and psychological pain is common in Nepali music. In this regard, this study aims to analyze the issues of psychological trauma in two songs of Prakash Saput which give the realization of their actual condition to the audiences, and it further discusses the major effects of those inner pains. The study explores a qualitative approach along with unstructured interview as the tool for data collection. In the study, the lyrics and some snapshots of two very popular creations of a popular singer, music director and composer Prakash Saput which clearly replicate the psychological trauma of the people in our society are selected as the major text for research. They are entitled ‘Bola Maya’ and ‘Pir’. A branch of traumatic theory, psychological trauma is taken as a theoretical base for discussion. The songs for analysis were taken from the official You-tube channels of Prakash Saput and the secondary data were collected from authentic sources such as library, google scholar and newspaper articles. To make the research strong, the perceptions of the creator himself, other singers, a researcher who did research in folk music and a listener of the songs were taken through interview and other secondary sources. The finding of the research shows that the creator of such songs creates these sorts of creations to replicate the real-life trauma of the people in our society who are compelled to face different kinds of traumatic situation due to which people have to think several time before going for foreign employment.</p> Suresh Raj Dhakal Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 1 17 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60759 Study of the cultural identity: use of Mongolian Calligraphy <p>Mongolian National Calligraphy is one of the Intangible Cultural Heritages in Need of Urgent Safeguarding of Mongolia that is registered in UNESCO and claimed as a valuable heritage in the project “Mongolian Values”. Therefore, increasing the use of calligraphy is very crucial for maintaining cultural immunity. The research was focused on determining the modern use of Mongolian Calligraphy based on the historical development and its contemporary situation. The data were collected from 300 respondents as general, casual and key informants through questionnaires and in-depth interviews. The questionnaire result has been analyzed both in the SPSS program and in MS Excel Formula Section and confirmed by the experts in linguistics. The final result was interpreted based on the descriptive method. The research result suggested that Mongolian National Calligraphy should be studied at the scientific level and disseminated in public. Therefore, there is a need to integrate multilateral cooperation into a common policy in order to surge the further use of Mongolian National Calligraphy.</p> Gantsetseg S. Enkhzul B. Sumiya T. Ariunaa N. Oyun-erdene T. Enkhmandakh B. Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 18 31 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60762 Non-Performing Assets and Profitability of Joint Venture Banks in Nepal <p>This study examines the impact of non-performing assets and profitability of commercial banks in Nepal. Out of 27 commercial banks, five joint venture banks have been selected as sample based on descriptive and analytical technique. Secondary data was collected from the annual reports of five selected commercial banks for the period of 2011/12 to 2020/21. Data have been collected and analyzed by using mean, standard deviation, and correlation and regression analysis. The profitability in terms of return on assets (ROA), return on equity (ROE) and profitability are selected as dependent variables. Non-performing assets (NPA), capital adequacy ratio (CAR) and total loan to total deposit ratio (TLTD) are taken as independent variables. The finding indicates that NPA has significant impact on the profitability of Nepalese joint venture banks. The result shows that ROE has been found a positive impact on the NPA, CAR and TLTD. Thus, this study concludes that non-performing assets is an important predictor for the profitability of the bank. Therefore, the success of the bank in term of profitability depends on its non-performing assets.</p> Chet Raj Pant Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 32 46 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60763 Dynamic Relationship of the Stock Index with the Trading Volume of the Nepal Stock Exchange: An Empirical Analysis <p>Knowledge about the linkage between the volume and the index of the stock is crucial for market participants and investors to make informed decisions in trading and forecasting the stock market, as understanding this fundamental Linkage enhances investment decisions. This study relies on time series data to objectively explore the dynamic linkage between the index of the stock and the amount of trade on the Nepal Stock Exchange from mid December 2018 to mid-January 2023. The outcome of the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model reflects a long- and short-term substantial positive association between the volume of the trade and returns from the stock in the current timeframe. This implies that a change in volume has both a long- and short-term, small but positive effect on the returns from the stock. Conversely, the lagged-period stock index negatively and significantly impacts the present index of the stock. However, the conclusions drawn from the Granger causality test demonstrate no Granger causation from the volume of the trade to return and vice versa, implying that both variables do not affect each other.</p> Dhaka Ram Kadel Pawan Kumar Patodiya Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 47 64 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60799 Job Satisfaction of the teachers in Kathmandu Metropolitan City <p>This article explores the satisfaction of the teachers who are working in different public and private schools in Kathmandu Metropolitan City. The article aims to identify the factors that satisfy the teachers so that they retain in the school for a longer period of time. The participants of this study were purposively selected. Collecting questionnaires as the means of data generation, this article finds out insights from 194 teachers who have been in the teaching field for more than a year. Most of the teachers found enjoyment in their work, regardless of government, private or community schools. They pointed out the importance of the role of the supervisor as well as the opportunity to attend the training in the job satisfaction. The research shows that overall enjoyment of job depends on the satisfaction with the benefits provided to the respondents.</p> Pradip Bajracharya Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 65 78 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60815 The Demographic Situation of Ageing Population in Nepal <p>The title of the study is “Demographic Situation of Population Ageing in Nepal,” and its main objective is to illustrate and describe the population situation of ageing in Nepal. The population of old age people is increasing day by day which is a challenge for developing countries like Nepal. Due to this, I was curious to study the situation of the elderly people. The ageing trends and situation of older people are analyzed using the census data of 1952/54-2021AD. This article follows descriptive and analytical methods which are based on secondary sources of data. Furthermore, it is based on a literature review, books, journals, articles, and reports. All these are from internet sources. The age structure of the population in Nepal is in increasing trend. Over the years with declining fertility and controlled adult mortality, the old age population has been increasing. The population of elderly people in the country is increasing both in terms of absolute number and as the proportion of the total population which is growing faster than the annual population growth. Because of better healthcare facilities, &nbsp;nutritious food, and awareness. The elderly people have more knowledge, experience, and wisdom. So, they are an asset to the nation. Society or nation can use these qualities of the elderly people in national reconstruction. With the gradual increase in life expectancy at birth and decline in mortality rate, the median age is in increasing trends. In the Nepalese context, the rate of growth in the elderly population surpasses that of the overall population.</p> Shanta Upadhya Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 79 92 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60816 The Representation of the Body in new media, TikTok <p>The representation of the body in new media appears to be focused on navigating gendered norms of the body image, particularly those of masculinity and femininity, and perceived ideals of beauty as a sign of sexual attraction. The goal of this study is to examine how social networks contribute to the development of stereotypes that rely on body visibility. TikTok is one of the most current social networking applications (SNAs) that allow users to create, modify, and share short form films. The research technique offers a self-representation focused content analysis of sample videos. Such analysis examines the impact SNAs have on the formation and expression of users’ notions of beauty and gender through their digital representations of the body.</p> Satya Raj Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 93 105 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60817 Nomadic Lifestyle and Sustainable Livelihood Practices of the Raute <p>The study highlights the significance of the Raute community, their unique traditional lifestyle, and the challenges they have faced with. It emphasizes the importance of protecting and supporting marginalized communities like the Raute, as well as the need for equitable development. The main objective of the study is to identify the traditional livelihood practices of the Raute tribe in Nepal. The research was carried out in different districts but was focused on the Raute tribe from Gurans Rural Municipality of karnali province in Nepal. This study used descriptive research techniques to look at quantitative and qualitative data from 149 people between the ages of 18 and 65. Purposive sampling was used to interview 70 Raute people in this age group as well as the Raute leader (Mukhiya). To validate qualitative findings, primary and secondary sources were used, as well as informal conversations took place with key persons of local authorities. The study revealed that the Raute tribe, which consists of 149 people and has 48 percent women, frequently, shifts their dwellings and uses building materials from the forest. They rely on government assistance and forest preservation activities for income because they lack formal education and employment. Child marriage, dangerous deliveries, a lack of awareness about family planning, and a dependence on conventional medicine are all causes for concern. The Karnali Province has taken steps to preserve Raute culture, however due to environmental changes; poverty and a lack of jobs still exist.</p> Lok Bahadur Oli Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 106 123 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60852 Psychological Trauma in Anand’s Across the Black Waters <p>This paper explores the issue of psychological trauma in Mulk Raj Anand’s novel <em>“Across </em>&nbsp;<em>the Black Waters,”</em> shedding light on the profound impact of World War I on Indian &nbsp;soldiers under British rule. Central to the narrative is Lalu, a sepoy whose journey unveils &nbsp;the stark realities of trench warfare, the constant specter of death, and the brutalities &nbsp;of battle. The soldiers navigate the complex terrain of dislocation and alienation, torn &nbsp;between allegiance to their homeland and serving the British Empire, all while contending &nbsp;with prejudice within the military hierarchy. The aftermath of the war reverberates in &nbsp;the soldiers’ lives, marked by the enduring symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder &nbsp;(PTSD)—nightmares, flashbacks, anxiety, and depression. Through the lens of Lalu’s &nbsp;perspective, this paper exposes the emotional toll exacted on these individuals amidst &nbsp;the multifaceted challenges of war and colonialism. Importantly, the paper employs &nbsp;a novel approach, applying trauma theory as a conceptual framework to delve into the psychological dimensions of the narrative, thereby offering a nuanced understanding of the &nbsp;characters’ experiences in <em>“Across the Black Waters.” </em>&nbsp;</p> Kishor Dhungana Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 124 141 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60855 Social Media’s Influence on Students’ College Selection Processes <p>Colleges have a keen interest in learning how students choose a college. In the present age of science and technology, young students are extremely influenced by social media. This influences how students make decisions while selecting colleges for their higher education. The main objective of this study was to explore the influence of social media on the college choice process of students in higher education. This study deployed a descriptive survey method under a quantitative research design. The sample was selected by stratified random sampling method. Education, Management, and Humanities faculties were considered as strata for this sampling purpose, within the strata, 270 students have been selected containing 90 students from each stratum using the simple random sampling method. The instrument used to collect the primary data for this study was a self-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of various structured items, including several four/five-point Liker t- scales, ranking scales, and multiple-choice questions. Descriptive analyses, t-test, and analyses of variance (ANOVAs) at 95% level of significance were used to identify the purpose of using ICT and effect of social media in college choice process of +2 students for their further study. The finding of this study shows that every faculty, gender, and ethnicity group students equally influenced by social media in their college choice process.</p> Yam Prasad Pandeya Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 142 159 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60867 Nepal’s Foreign Policy: Challenges and Prospects <p>Nepal has undergone tremendous changes since it became republic in 2008. With the promulgation of the new Constitution drafted by the elected people’s representatives in 2015, Nepal has continued to engage with nations beyond India and China. This paper focuses on the foreign policy behavior and strategy of small states in the international system. Further, it explains the behavior and strategies employed by those states by examining several concepts and historic facts and applying them in the context of Nepal. The article states that geo-strategic situation and non-alignment stance of nepal that try to maintain and extend bilateral relations with the immediate neighbors and other actors in the international system, and further integrates them into regional and international frameworks to secure its survival.</p> Mohan P. Lohani Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 160 164 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60882 Subjectivity in Prateek Dhakal’s Parikrama Annapurna <p>Travel writing specially niyatra is becoming popular globally for introducing the hidden culture and location by travelers’ point of view. This research focuses on Prateek Dhakal’s Parikrama Annapurna as niyatra, a travel writing in which the writer expresses his experiences and emotions he has had during the travel. The study helps to promote Nepali niyatra literature globally and make the mountains of Nepal as described in Dhakal’s niyatra known to the world. Dhakal informs the readers about the hills and mountains of Nepal and describes how beautiful are the trekking trails for the nature lover to roam around the snow filled mountains. He explains the readers about the experiences of trekking in the Himalayas. The major objective of the research is to show how the writer’s personality appears in niyatra. For this, the theoretical approach of Byaas, Thompson and Blanton on niyatra literature are used. All of these theorists claim that writers involve in the travel and express their personal thoughts, feelings and emotions they have had during the travel in the writing. The writer steps out of home alone or with friend or friends and completes the travel by the means of transportation or on foot. Several evidences of writer’s appearance in niyatra are presented in the findings. Regarding methodology, the study draws the insights of travel writing and specially niyatra literature of Byaas, Thompson and Blanton as a theoretical framework and adopts descriptive research design for pointing out the voice of author, expression of his self, emotions, experiences and personal matters in the course of travel as conceptual framework. The major findings of the study are that Dhakal goes on trekking with the friends in Annapurna circuit, feels and experiences many things personally, watches mountains and hills and expresses his views and ideas in the text. The main conclusion of the research is that Dhakal expresses his self in the text and his appearance is dominant in Parikrama Annapurna. The text is a travel writing in which the personality of the writer is visible, his voice, feelings, emotions, and personal matters are audible. For the further researcher, use of imagination in travel writing can be another area to investigate in the text.</p> Achut Raj Kattel Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 165 180 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60884 गणतन्त्रोत्तर नेपाली कवितामा लैङ्गिक प्रतिरोध <p>गणतन्त्रोत्तर नेपाली कविता (२०६२\६३–२०७७) मा समेटिएका विभिन्न विषयमध्ये लैङ्गिक प्रतिरोध एउटा अध्ययनीय विषय रहेको छ । यस समयमा नेपाली समाजमा आएको सामाजिक–सांस्कृतिक परिवर्तनले नारीचेतनाको विकासमा ठुलो प्रभाव पारेको छ । तसर्थ यस समयका कवितामा उत्पीडनकारी पितृसत्ताले उत्पीडित महिलामाथि गर्ने लैङ्गिक उत्पीडनविरुद्धको प्रतिरोधलाई केकसरी व्यक्त गरिएको छ भन्ने प्राज्ञिक जिज्ञासाको समाधान खोज्ने प्रयास यस शोधलेखमा गरिएको छ । यस शोधलेखका लागि आवश्यक प्राथमिक तथा द्वितीयक स्रोतका सामग्रीहरू पुस्तकालयीय कार्यबाट सब्कलन गरिएका छन् । लैङ्गिक प्रतिरोधसम्बन्धी यस शोधपरक लेखमा गायत्री चक्रवर्ती स्पिभाकको सबाल्टर्न आवाज र मिचेल फुकोको प्रतिरोध सम्बन्धी मान्यतालाई आधार बनाई तर्क तथा विश्लेषण विधिको उपयोग गरिएको छ । अध्ययनका क्रममा पितृसत्ताले महिलामाथि गरेका सामाजिक–सांस्कृतिक, जातीय तथा यौनिक उत्पीडनविरुद्धको प्रतिरोधलाई गणतन्त्रोत्तर नेपाली कवितामा सशक्त ढंगमा व्यक्त गरिएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> तारादेवी काफ्ले Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 181 198 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60888 सीता—हरण खण्डकाव्यमा ईश्वर <p>वाल्मीकि रामायणको विषयवस्तुलाई उपजीव्य बनाएर लेखिएको लक्ष्मीप्रसाद देवकोटाको ।सीता—हरण खण्डकाव्यमा ईश्वर’ नामक प्रस्तुत लेखमा ।सीता–हरण’ खण्डकाव्यअन्तर्गत ईश्वरीय स्वरूपका विषयमा विवेचना गरिएको छ । विवेच्य खण्डकाव्यमा केन्द्रित रहेर अध्ययन, अनुसन्धान भए पनि ईश्वरसम्बन्धी अध्ययन गरेको नपाइएपछि प्रस्तुत खण्डकाव्यभित्र ईश्वरको खोजी गर्ने उद्देश्यका साथ यो लेख तयार पारिएको छ । देवकोटाको ।।।सीता–हरण’ खण्डकाव्यलाई प्राथमिक स्रोतका रूपमा लिइएको छ भने पुस्तकालयीय कार्यबाट ईश्वरसँग सम्बन्धित पूर्वीय वेद,उपनिषद्, पुराण, समालोचनात्मक ग्रन्थ, इन्टरनेटका विषयसम्बद्ध सामग्री आदिलाई द्वितीयक स्रोतका रूपमा लिइएको छ । स्थापित पूर्वीय ईश्वरसँग सम्बन्धित सैद्धान्तिक मान्यतालाई केन्द्रबिन्दुमा राखेर गुणात्मक अनुसन्धान ढाँचामा आधारित भई ।सीता—हरण’ खण्डकाव्यमा ईश्वरको खोजी गरिनु यस लेखको मुख्य उद्देश्य हो । देवकोटाको उक्त कृतिमाथि ईश्वरीय विषयको खोजी हुन नसक्नु नै मूल समस्या रहेकाले सोही समस्याको समाधानमा यो लेख केन्द्रित छ । लेखलाई व्यवस्थित र पाठपरक विश्लेषण विधि अवलम्बन गरिएको छ । सीता–हरण’ खण्डकाव्यमा देखिएका ईश्वरका विविध स्वरूपको विवेचनाबाट प्राप्त निष्कर्ष यस लेखको नवीनतम ज्ञान प्राप्ति हो । ईश्वरलाई मोक्षदाता, जगत्का स्वामी, मानवीय रूप धारण गरी विविध लीला गर्ने, करुणाकर, प्रकाशवान्, अमृतमय, रहस्यवादी आदि विविध स्वरूपमा प्रस्तुत गरिएकाले विवेच्य कृतिपूर्वीय दार्शनिक पक्षको ईश्वरीय चिन्तनमा आधारित आस्तिक भावनाले ओतप्रोत भएको वैदिक ज्ञानामृतले परिपूर्ण रहेको तथ्य प्रस्तुत लेखको सारांश हो ।</p> नेत्रप्रसाद न्यौपाने Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 199 214 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60929 एकतर्फी यात्राको यात्री ‘म’ निबन्धमा ईश्वर <p>एकतर्फी यात्राको यात्री म’ निबन्धमा ईश्वरचिन्तन शीर्षकको प्रस्तुत लेख दार्शनिक विषय क्षेत्रअन्तर्गत ईश्वरचिन्तनप्रति केन्द्रित रहेको छ । पूर्वीय वैदिक षड्दर्शनका आधारमा ।एकतर्फी यात्राको यात्री म’ शीर्षक निबन्धमा ईश्वरचिन्तन पहिल्याउनु यस लेखको प्रमुख उद्देश्य रहेको छ । यहाँ राजेन्द्र सुवेदीको जीवन–गोप्य लिसबन्दी खाम निबन्ध सब्ग्रहभित्र रहेको ।।।एकतर्फी यात्राको यात्री म’ शीर्षक निबन्धलाई प्राथमिक स्रोतका रूपमा लिई साब्ख्य, योग, न्याय, वैशेषिक, मीमांसा, वेदान्त जस्ता पूर्वीय वैदिक षड्दर्शनको ईश्वरसम्बन्धी अन्य कृतिलाई द्वितीयक सामग्रीको रूपमा लिइएको छ । पूर्वीय वैदिक षड्दर्शनको ईश्वरसम्बन्धी मान्यताका आधारमा विभिन्न साक्ष्यहरूको व्याख्या, विवेचना गरी प्रस्तुत निबन्धमा वैदिक षड्दर्शनको गहिरो प्रभाव रहेको देखाइएको छ । सिद्धान्तका आधारमा पाठको विश्लेषण गरिएकाले यस लेखमा मूलतः निगमनात्मक र आवश्यकताअनुसार आगमनात्मक विधिको पनि प्रयोग गरिएको छ । पूर्वीय षड्दर्शनले ईश्वरलाई सृष्टि, स्थिति र प्रलयको कारण, प्रकृति र पुरुषका बिचको सम्बन्धकारक तत्व, चराचर जगत्को नियामक, परमाणुलाई संयोजन गराउने निमित्त कारण, पदार्थको ज्ञान, पदार्थको चालयमान शक्ति, आत्मा तत्व, ब्रह्म तत्व आदिका रूपमा लिइएको कुरा यी दर्शनहरूको सारका रूपमा उल्लेख गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत निबन्धमा ईश्वरीय चिन्तनका सन्दर्भमा निबन्धकारले आफूलाई कुनै एक दार्शनिक मान्यतामा मात्र अडिक नराखी षड्दर्शनका विभिन्न मान्यतालाई यथास्थानमा प्रयोग गरेको देखाइएको छ, साथै साब्ख्य, वैशेषिक र न्यायदर्शनको प्रयोग तुलनात्मक रूपमा बढी भएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> टीकाराम नेपाल Copyright (c) 2023 Copyright ©2023 Author(s) This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License. 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2 215 224 10.3126/shantij.v3i1-2.60989 Editorial Vol.3 <p>It is our great pleasure to welcome you all in this third issue of Shanti journal. <em>Shanti Journal</em>: A Multidisciplinary Journal is a bi-annual research platform published by Bishwa Shanti Chiran Milan Campus, Bansbari, and Kathmandu, Nepal. It publishes articles in a wide range of disciplines in arts and humanities, including but not limited to language, literature, culture, international relation, performance arts, media and communication.</p> <p>All submitted articles should report original, previously unpublished research results, empirical or theoretical work, and case studies. The articles submitted to the journal must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere. All submission to this journal will undergo a peer review process, and accepted manuscripts will be published as per journal formats.</p> <p>The Shanti journal actively encourages academic writing and publication across a wide range of specializations in the academic and research domains as part of its mission to achieve excellence. Its broad focus encompasses a wide range of topics, including gender studies, children's rights, media, social and cultural sustainability, and both domestic and global issues. It also includes topics like education, health risks, environmental management, and literature.</p> <p>We genuinely appreciate each and every author for their insightful work. We value the thoughtful contributions made by our distinguished reviewers as well as their support of the Editorial Team during the review procedure.</p> Satya Raj Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 Author(s) This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) License. 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 3 1-2