SCITECH Nepal <p>SCITECH Nepal is published by the Nepal Engineering College, Pokhara University. The SCITECH Nepal has been hosted by the Nepal Journal Online (NepJOL) platform.</p> en-US (Narayan Prasad Koju) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 28 Oct 2022 10:15:30 +0000 OJS 60 From the Editor's Desk Vol.15(1) <p>No Abstract available.</p> Hari Krishna Shrestha Copyright (c) 2020 SCITECH Nepal Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Variational FEM Approach to the Study of Drug Distribution in Dermal Layers in Transdermal Drug Delivery System <p>Today about 75% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve this, transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Transdermal drug delivery is self-contained continuous dosage forms which, when applied to the intact skin, delivers the drug through the skin at controlled rate to the systemic circulation. The present model describes the diffusion of drugs in transdermal drug delivery system. The tissue absorption rate and drug intake rate by blood are taken in an account. The Finite Element Method (FEM) approach is used for the solution with four layers of skin which are taken as discretized elements. The numerical calculation and plotting graphs have been done by using MATLAB.</p> S. P. Pradhananga Copyright (c) 2020 SCITECH Nepal Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Material Management System of Government Building Construction Projects in Kathmandu Valley <p>Material management is an essential element in construction projects. Improper material management systems lead to adverse impact on time, cost and quality of the construction projects. Most of the construction projects have not been completed on time, partly due to the poor material management system. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess status of material management system (MMS) of building construction projects. Sixteen government building construction projects were selected in Kathmandu Valley for determining existing practices of MMS. Questionnaires survey, field visit and key informant interviews (KII) were used to collect the primary data and related literatures and documents available at site were reviewed for collecting secondary data. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used as data collecting tools. MS Excel tool was used to analyse the data. From the study, it is found that manual record keeping system was used for MMS. About 71.43 % of projects did not use automatic loading/ unloading system and did not give priority to the quality of materials for MMS. Nearly 75 % of projects have implemented well managed store house in site as per material type and also focused on centralized storing system. None of the projects used any new technology of MMS in Building Construction Projects. It leads to the cost overrun on Building Construction Projects.</p> Yaman Dhakal, Hari Mohan Shrestha Copyright (c) 2020 SCITECH Nepal Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Occupational Hazards in Building Construction <p>Minor injury to fatality and permanent disablement cases due to accident at the construction sites are one of the highest as compared to the other sector. Hence, there is an urgent need to mitigate this problem. The first step that should be taken is identifying the hazard to ensure a safe and conducive working condition. Therefore, this paper is intended to identify and highlight the hazards that are most commonly found at our construction sites today. The data collection was carried out through a questionnaire forms and checklist survey regarding hazards in construction. The sites include high rise commercial building projects. The study determines six major groups of hazards in relation to works at construction sites such as physical, chemical, mechanical, biological, psychological and physiological hazards. The study was conducted on 50 contractors and 5 building construction sites. The results showed that the most common hazards for the project around the study area are noise, electric shock and vibrations as the major physical hazards; cement dust and sand dust as major chemical hazard; hit by equipment as major mechanical hazard and job dissatisfaction as major psychosocial hazard in building construction projects. Thus, contractors should be responsible and accountable for documenting different types of hazards as they are implementing agent of safety during the construction and development of any project. For this, awareness level should be increased by conducting regular awareness program, along with engineering and enforcement activities.</p> Sunil Shrestha Copyright (c) 2020 SCITECH Nepal Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Study on Road Transportation and Their Status at Shadananda Municipality in Bhojpur <p>Road transport services assist in rising access with the rural-urban linkages. Road convenience can decrease remoteness, motivate collection, production and marketing activities, boost civic facilities and aid to technology transfer. Road construction has been seen to bring about distinguished enthusiasm and observable changes in rural life. Road structure is considered as “the infrastructure for infrastructure”. Though, in the absence of notable standards and coherent guidelines, road construction is carried out in opposing manner resulting in random use and wastage of scarce funds. Municipal Transport Master Plan is arranged for gauging and scheduling the existing road transport structures and accommodations inside the municipality and the surrounding rural municipalities. This study is focused on the interventions of road networks within the municipality.</p> Mohan Dhoja K.C. Copyright (c) 2020 SCITECH Nepal Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Examining the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Alternative Material for the Interlocking Prefabricated Sandwich Panel <p>The paper shows the effective utilization of non-degradable waste material like the hair of humans, Expanded Polystyrene Spheres (EPS), and rice husk fly ash to a final product Fiber-reinforced concrete panel. Concrete fracture, catastrophic failure, spalling of concrete and non-quake resistance, with the application of a load are major problems of the current scenario in the concrete world (Mindess, 2009). This paper tries to solve this type of problem by using the natural fibers and some additives which are under patient right. The researcher of this paper has developed a prefab panel which may be the substitute product of brick, ACC block, interlocking block, EPS panel, and local prefab panel. The utilization of industrial waste to usable products for construction is a major challenge that the researcher has taken. The paper shows that product can be made economical and able to reduce environmental challenges. Ingredients like human hair, EPS, chemical agent, cement, fly ash, water, and fiberboard are utilized in a certain time and fixed condition to complete the formation of the Fiber-reinforced concrete panel. The panel was found to have multi-function like a light in weight, fireproof, and flexibility which was its main USP (Unique Selling Point). The researcher thinks this product might change the perception of Nepalese customer, who thinks prefab as a costly and less strength product. Nepal political instability and dependent culture on foreign country shows an impossible possibility to use an artificial fiber and imported fly ash (ITC, 2017). This paper also presents the Nepalese market perception through the business model canvas, a business strategy that can be taken, hindrance, and the possibility to use human hair fiber, fly ash and recycled EPS to complete finished goods.</p> Roman Man Shrestha, Ajay Khadka Copyright (c) 2020 SCITECH Nepal Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Current Status of Assistive Technology for AAC for People with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Nepal <p>This paper is focussed on the current status of usage of assistive technology for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for the person with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Nepal. ASD is marked by core features including impaired social communication, and restrictive and repetitive behaviours and interest (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Edition: DSM 5). AAC is a specific type of assistive technology that can benefit person with autism (PWA) of all ages by promoting independence, expanding communication and increasing social interactions. The major objective of this paper is to analyse the current status of AAC assistive technology for person with autism (PWA) in Nepal. The paper first analysed the assistive technology in general and then is inclined toward the current status of its development in Nepal. The research methodology of the paper included interviews and discussion sessions. The data were further reviewed based on the reports from the relevant organizations and learning outcomes from different autism related trainings and workshops. The authors visited various organizations related to autism in Nepal, Autism Care Nepal Society (ACNS) and Special School for Disability and Rehabilitation Center (SSDRC) and carried out interviews and discussions and also participated in various autism related training sessions and workshops. The findings of this paper showed that despite the high prevalence rate of autism, there is very less progress in managing ASD in Nepal and that the usage of assistive devices is limited to low tech only.</p> Sachin Shrestha, Amit Shah Copyright (c) 2020 SCITECH Nepal Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Cause of Failure of Municipal Waste Water Treatment Plant in Narayanghad <p>Constructed wetland (CW), combined with other physical treatment units, is considered as an environmentally friendly and sustainable option for waste water treatment of varying scale. The absence of mechanical system makes the CW a low maintenance system but not maintenance free. The maintenance free treatment plant concept was observed in municipal waste water treatment plant in Narayanghad, Nepal largely because of its poor maintenance. Due to the absence of maintenance for a long time, sludge from the primary treatment units started to flow to the wetlands which, in turn, caused the reed plant to wither. From different literatures it was found that high organic solid load was the prime cause for the clogging of the filter medium. Clogging triggered oxygen deficiency at the root of the plant and hindered its growth<em>.</em></p> Ramesh Khanal Copyright (c) 2020 SCITECH Nepal Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Constructed Wetland as a Leachate Treatment Option in Nepal <p>Leachate is a complex and toxic liquid generated in a landfill site that is detrimental to the environment if not managed properly. Constructed wetland is considered as an environmentally friendly and low maintenance cost option for treating leachate. The performance of constructed wetland in the treatment of leachate depends on climatic condition, type of wetland and type of vegetation. Generally, it is observed that high content of organic waste generates leachate of high BOD concentration. Constructed wetland without pre-treatment and <em>Phragmites australis</em> as vegetation can be a possible option for treating leachate.</p> Bibhuti Ojha Copyright (c) 2020 SCITECH Nepal Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Base Isolation Method for Earthquake Resistant Buildings <p>The field of engineering is as dynamic as the world we live in and so is the requirement of innovation in construction industry. One such innovation is base isolation method. From the result of the study, base isolation method is found to be highly optimistic for the safety of structures.</p> <p>We met with different engineers regarding structure engineering and earthquake engineering. Through their recommendation, we visited National Society of Earthquake Technology (NSET) and Earthquake Safety Solution (ESS) which gave us chance to meet with Daniell King and Harry Toward who were researching in Nepal about base isolation method. We visited a village named Sankhu ward No.4 near Nepal Engineering College. We asked people how feasible this project can be. Many people showed positive responses towards it. Then we went to Sankhu Municipality for the collection of secondary data. So especially in developing countries like Nepal, this project will give a lot of benefit. Further it is expected to give better results than other resistive methods.</p> Dibyashree Lohani, Sanyog Kumar Upadhay, Surya Bikram Dahal, Shristi Adhikari, Geetika Shrestha Copyright (c) 2020 SCITECH Nepal Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Vernacular Newar Dwelling- Its Construction Technologies and Vertical Functional Distributions <p>This research examines the construction process and the techniques of vernacular residential dwellings of core area of Bhaktapur city. The physical characteristics of the buildings are rich in their heritage. The investigation mainly concentrates on assembly of building structures, scientific justification behind the technologies and the vertical functional use of the building. The paper takes an integrated view of building technologies and materials assembled by builders. This research attempts to improve the technologies applied by the builders by emphasizing the cultural context which enables us to provide an integrated explanation. The behavior of structure and material is kept as the focus of investigation. The different case study buildings are selected from upper Bhaktapur (East) to lower Bhaktapur (West) with an assumption that the knowledge may be generalized to the other buildings as well.</p> <p>The main findings reveal that Newar residential dwellings are constructed of brick masonry with mud mortar and timber. The architecture of traditional dwelling is a product of different professionals. Different structure assembling techniques in different parts of the building, detail information on building materials and functional space allocation and terminologies used in building construction are described because each terminology is a meaningful invention of our past tradition on building construction technology.</p> Ram Prasad Suwal Copyright (c) 2020 SCITECH Nepal Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Reflecting the Scenario of Earthquake (2015) Affected Communities in Historic Cities of Kathmandu Valley; Hassles or Delays? <p>Along with the establishment of Nepal Reconstruction Authority (NRA) vigorous discussions in bringing attention of communities as major responsibility in heritage conservation had been done in relation to earthquake affected cultural heritage areas in 2015. Likewise, numbers of reconstruction projects had also been forwarded and are being undertaken at different levels of implementation by respective authorities. In a figurative interpretation, NRA is at the verge of completion of reconstruction works in substantial numbers. However, the process of reconstruction still remained ambiguous to the communities of major cultural heritage sites plundering to dilemmas in implementation, of which many are still in disputes. Apart from the monument reconstruction in these areas, reconstruction works of private heritages have plunged into a prime concern on economic development through tourism promos unlikely to keeping cultural heritage essence, while the latter seems awful in fulfilling their basic demands of livelihood. This paper assumes either of these deeds is rampant on the long run of heritage conservation major goals.</p> <p>Thus, it considers major 3 areas concentric to Kathmandu valley heritage sites i.e. Bungamati, Sankhu and Panga that are in the process of reconstruction and identify probable consequences brought over by ongoing enigmas among the communities and authorities in due course of reconstruction. It also seeks to assess them through the prism of authenticity criteria and sustainability measures of heritage assets based on community participation in reconstruction process. Ultimately, it highlights the necessity of instant and rapid reconstruction as well as conservation measures in Kathmandu valley by identifying the real owners, authorities and beneficiaries responsible for keeping intact the heritage resources<em>.</em> &nbsp;</p> Shyam Sunder Kawan Copyright (c) 2020 SCITECH Nepal Mon, 28 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0000