Research Nepal Journal of Development Studies <p>A publication of Research Nepal, Located at Mahalaxmi Municipality, Lalitpur, Nepal.</p> Research Nepal en-US Research Nepal Journal of Development Studies 2631-2131 <p>© Research Nepal</p><p>Authors will be required to transfer their copyright to Research Nepal.</p> Editorial Vol.6(1) <p>It is an editorial of Research Nepal Journal of Development Studies 6(1)</p> Bharat Prasad Badal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 6 1 v v Madhyapurthimi Tourism: Reviews on Local Development <p>Madhypurthimi is one of the oldest city in the centre of Kathmandu, Kageswarimanahara, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Suryavinayak, Chanhgunarayan, and Mahalaxmi Municipalities of Kathmandu valley. Being such a centrally located venue with historical cultural heritage and values tourism potentiality, the tourist arrival is not satisfactory. Thus to identify the tourism potentiality of historic city Madhyapurthimi, the study has been conducted. The desk study, field survey, focus group discussion, workshop and interactions have been conducted in different occasion to find out the tourism potentials. Agriculture, Art and architecture, Cultural dances and shows, Historical heritage walks, Mask making, Open living museum, Pottery, River and Jungle in city, Riverside walk, Theme all, Tigani Baji, and Vermilion and other festivals are the major tourism products must be sold to the potential tourists inbound as well as outbound.</p> Bharat Prasad Badal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 6 1 1 14 10.3126/rnjds.v6i1.58914 A Case Study of Khaptad Tourism <p>Nepal is one of the most beautiful country in between two big countries China and India. It is also known as the third pole of the earth, because of having world’s highest peak Mt. Everest. Culturally it is the land of emblem of peace- Lord Buddha. Furthermore, it is the land of spectacular mesmerizing nature and unique culture among the world. However, it is sacred and mysterious land and still remains to explore thousands of issues. Among them the Ecotourism is one of the prominent issue. Thus to find out the socio economic status of ecotourism with the reference to Khaptad National park the case study on non-participatory approach in data collection have been conducted. Scenic Attraction, Pleasant Climate, Vegetation, Flora and Fauna, Buki Daha, Danfekot, Patan and Panoramic View, Nagdhunga or Lokhada, Khaptad Daha, Khapar Mando, Sahasra Linga, Upper Triveni River, and the Ashram of Khaptad swami are the basic centre of ecotourism in Khaptad Zone.</p> Bhim Bahadur Khadka Jibaraj Bhattarai Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 6 1 15 23 10.3126/rnjds.v6i1.58915 Opportunities and Challenges of Buddhist Education <p>A review on opportunities and challenges of Buddhists Education is a study to review the Buddhist education. It is difficult to review the challenges and opportunities of overall Buddhist education; however, the review has started its research. It is a qualitative library research based on available resources. Thus it has not tested any hypothesis and visited filed to collect data. In conclusion, there are many opportunities and challenges in Buddhist education in postmodern world. Thus everyone has to grab the opportunities and minimize the challenges as mention in the study.</p> Deepika Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 6 1 24 37 10.3126/rnjds.v6i1.58917 A Methodological Review on Time Series Panel Data <p>It is a general methodological review on Time Series Panel Data. The paper argues that timeseries panel data can be analyzed from more general to the more specific, which is known as a hypothetico-deductive model that includes seven main stages: problem, hypothesis, research design, measurement, data collection data analysis, and generalization. For the interpretation of data, the lean six sigma method can be used to integrate the six sigma concept (focusing on reducing defect products) and the lean concept (focusing on eliminating waste) as the methodology of cycle (DMAIC: define, measure, analyse, improve and control). Multiple regression analysis may suffer from multicollinearity or heteroscedastic, or autocorrelation problem. The variance inflation factors (VIF) is used to check multicollinearity that enabled us to eliminate the problem and select the “best” predictor variable to enter when other independent variables are present. Cronbach's alpha as an index's reliability is a metric used to assess the interval consistency of a set of items from zero (no internal consistency) to unity (perfect internal consistency). The review is applicable for the researchers who want to use time series panel data for the quantitative analysis. It is a general methodological review based on secondary information. To generalize the findings of Time Series Panel Data in the process of generalization, Cronbach's alpha, Hypothetico-deductive model, Lean six sigma method, and Multiple regression analysis are the basic significant statistical attributes.</p> Mahima Oli Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 6 1 38 50 10.3126/rnjds.v6i1.58919 A Review on Educational Policies of Nepal <p>Education is a basic human right. The Constitution of Nepal has specified education as a citizen's right. Education is the basic foundation of the development of any country. Therefore, it is the duty of the government to provide quality education to all its citizens. To this end, the Government of Nepal has adopted the policy of "Education for All' and provided free education up to the secondary school level in community-managed schools. Internet based library method has been applied. It is a Review of the existing status, government policy, NTA policy, and AEPC strategy on the promotion of energy services and internet services were conducted to prepare the action plan. In conclusion, Government of Nepal has realized the importance of the computer education and use of science and technology, information technology, digitization of the curriculum through of use of applications and modern teaching methodology.</p> Nahakul K. C. Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 6 1 51 63 10.3126/rnjds.v6i1.58921 Review on Buddhism for Peace and Conflict Resolution <p>Buddhism is a symbol of peace, harmony, and well-being. It focuses on the development of the inner mind’s enlightened qualities by cessation of suffering and conflict. Buddha taught the four noble truths for understanding these human sufferings. If we don’t understand our suffering it is very difficult to empathize with others. Nowadays, Buddhism is becoming socially engaged, and its ideals have helped to inform a variety of approaches to conflict resolution. The paper is prepared for the dissemination of the essence of Buddhism for social and practical life. This workout has been done to enrich academic standards by presenting general issues, problems, findings, and recommendations written under the research methodologies. How Buddhism defines the cause of conflict, which suttas are found for conflict resolution, and what are the Buddhist concept of peacebuilding and the way to conflict resolution are the major problems of the study and its attribution is applied to social harmony.</p> Puspa Bahadur Gurung Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 6 1 64 70 10.3126/rnjds.v6i1.58923 Social Shocks of Khatwe Women in Simardahi Village of Matihani Municipality in Nepal <p>The study aimed to analyze causes and consequences of social shocks of Khatwe (Marginalized Dalit Community of Dhanusha District) women in Nepal. The quantitative approach and case study research design through household survey techniques were applied. The self-administered questionnaires were filled up by 100 respondents in between January 15 to February 25, 2022. It is an applied descriptive statistical (frequency and Likert scale tabulation) method of data analysis. The study found that Khatwe women are suffering from multiple educational shocks such as Cultural, learning, occupational, and status conscious shocks. Due to the shocks, quality parenting role is not effective that can be noticed in school dropout rate of children and their involvement in household chores. Due to the occupational and status conscious shocks, Khatwe women are encouraging children for joining foreign employment to improve family life and livelihood. However, from learning and cultural shocks, Khatwe children are not getting motivational environment from parents or teachers and compelled to dropouts from higher/educational voyage. The empirical findings are well supported by Marxian perspective on education as well as goral oriented and social capital theories and empirical evidences. Therefore, the study can be a reference for making evidence based policy to the local government for addressing the educational shocks of Khatwe women.</p> Rajan Binayek Pasa Dip Narayan Dwivedy Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 6 1 71 89 10.3126/rnjds.v6i1.58925 Motivation of Student Toward Politics: A Study of Tribhuvan University Campus <p>This article is based on the study conducted in Tribhuban University for the MPhil degree. This study was conducted to find out student’s motivation towards politics, their contribution in academic improvements and shaping the larger countries academic progress. To fulfil this questions, qualitative methods was applied. Data were collected through in-depth interview and case stories. The total three case stories and 15 interviews were taken. Main argument of the article is Free Student Union (FSU) leadership have been concerned with party politics rather academic improvements. This show the overall image of Nepal’s FSU’s looking glass self. There are several motivational factors of the student leaders being engaged in politics. Family background, Political situations, peer groups, institutional effects, class and ideology. Most of them have begun their political affiliation and activities from their school life and few of them have joined the politics at the colleges, where from they were ideologically motivated or were embraced by the political movement of the time.</p> Shankar Poudel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 6 1 90 100 10.3126/rnjds.v6i1.58927 Tourism as a Tool of Women Empowerment: A General Review <p>Tourism is an applicable tool of community development through the women empowerment. The development of tourism in a specified community zone empowers the people from social, economic, political, and psychological dimensions. The paper aims to identify tourism as a tool of women empowerment in community development. To identify tourism as a tool to women empowerment it needs in-depth analysis of issues from intense literature review. It is an intense review of the study on, Tourism as a Tool of Women Empowerment: A General Review. In conclusion, the study identify tourism can be a perfect or a complete tool of women empowerment in any specified community. The identity of the community, culture of hospitality, rites and rituals, household prayers and worship, and livelihood strategies, are the main tourism attractions, in every household is led by women in most of the society.</p> Sharmila Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 6 1 101 106 10.3126/rnjds.v6i1.58928 The Origin and Development of the Kālacakra Tradition in Nepal <p>The Kālacakra tantra and its tradition is a philosophical esoteric Buddhist practice which has its roots in Nepal. This practice has developed and thrived over the centuries. This study dives into the origin and development of the profound Buddhist Tāntrik text, with a particular focus on the contributions of Nepal and in during its formative period. Drawing from various sources, it tries to trace its historical context and transmission of the Kālacakra Tantra. It highlights the significant role played by Nepalese scholars in translating, disseminating and transmitting this esoteric values. The primary sources of this study are Saṃskṛit text such as Vimalaprabhātika and Sekoddeśaṭīkā by are used. The translation a Tibetan text deb ther sngon po by Gö Lotsawa, Blue Annals is also used as the primary source for this study</p> Surya Deep Prasad Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 6 1 107 122 10.3126/rnjds.v6i1.58930 Cause and Effect of Quality Evaluation of Constructed School Buildings <p>“Education is one thing no one can take away from you.” —Elin Nordegren. Such a wonderful precious assets are produced inside the school building. Thus the quality of school building is a causal infrastructure for future dimension of country. Thus the study is about the quality of school building. This study on quality evaluation of constructed school buildings, a case study of public schools of Siyari rural municipality of Rupandehi district, was be conducted during the period from July 2022 to June 2023. From the methodological perspective: Field observation, in-depth interview, focus group discussion and questionnaire survey were the tools for the field investigation. The proposed study was focused on finding out the quality of construction works within the territory of Siyari Rural Municipality of Nepal. The study finds out the level of the quality of the works. Furthermore, the study suggests the appropriate techniques for maintaining the quality of construction works.</p> Susmita Khatri Sewak Bhatta Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-02 2023-10-02 6 1 123 144 10.3126/rnjds.v6i1.58929