Rupandehi Campus Journal <p>Rupandehi Campus Journal is published by the Rupandehi Campus, Siddharthanagar-9, Rupandehi, Nepal.</p> Rupandehi Campus en-US Rupandehi Campus Journal 2976-1158 Mathematical Model of the Relationship Between Four Noble Truths <p>Four Noble truths are the foundation for Buddhism and are more significant in Buddha’s teaching. Moreover, the four noble truths and noble eightfold path were taken as a vessel to transcend Buddha’s self-realisation into collective understanding. This paper focuses on investigating the interrelationship between four noble truths using existing mathematical models. The study follows a qualitative research design, inductive approach, and content analysis strategy for collecting and analysing the data. Furthermore, conditional relation and biconditional relation were also applied as a tool for finding the results. The literature suggests that the first major section of four noble truths contains first and second noble truth (related to each other) is related to the realm of death and rebirth whereas the second major section that contains third and fourth noble truths (related to each other) is not the part of cause and effect. However, it was found that the first, second, and fourth noble truths are related to each other by the relation of cause and effect which is shown in mathematical relation (model).</p> Basant Kumar Basnet Copyright (c) 2022 Basant Kumar Basnet 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 3 1 1 14 10.3126/rcj.v3i1.51542 Language Games in Developing Speaking Skills <p>Learning language is bored when learners do not change their learning habits, such as writing words on paper, repeating the same thing in a bored manner, trying to learn by heart or learning passively through the teacher’s explanations. The article tries to show that the students are very attentive and keen to learn if they are presented subject matters with games and interactive way. To help students find language classes, all the aspects and skills and vocabulary in particular more interesting, and to achieve more from games, this article is very beneficial. This article also tries to focus on the effectiveness of using games in the classroom. It also indicates the advantages of language games in teaching all the aspects of language. At last it points out the effective language games that are beneficial in language classroom.</p> Balmukunda Upadhayay Copyright (c) 2022 Balmukunda Upadhayay 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 3 1 15 22 10.3126/rcj.v3i1.51543 Teachers Perception Towards Pre and Post- Teaching Activities in English Language Teaching <p>The present study aims to find out the “Teachers’ Perception Towards Pre and Post-Teaching Activities in English Language Teaching”. The main focus of the study was directed on perception of higher level English teacher towards pre and post-teaching activities in English Language Teaching. The study, being an attitudinal study, is believed to be relevant in offering a realistic picture of the effectiveness of pre and post- teaching activities in ELT. The study was carried out using both primary and secondary sources of data. For primary data, firstly higher-level English teachers have been selected through random sampling procedure. The study was confined with in Rupandehi district to find out the effectiveness of pre and post- teaching activities in ELT. It was found that the higher-level teachers are highly positive towards the teachers’ pre and post-teaching activities in ELT.</p> Madhu Sharma Laxman Jnawali Copyright (c) 2022 Madhu Sharma, Laxman Jnawali 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 3 1 23 32 10.3126/rcj.v3i1.51544 An Inquiry into Universal Grammar <p>Noam Chomsky revolutionized the study of linguistics when his book Syntactic Structures was published in 1957. This book gave birth to the idea of generative grammar, which is a theory about language structure. This grammar made a distinction between deep structure and surface structure, something like what Saussure called langue and parole. Chomsky claimed that language structure is innate or genetically inherited. Consequently, structure is to be found inside the organism and the hypothesis is that we learn language because we are born with a Universal Grammar (hereafter referred as UG) in our head. This study aims to find out if UG is real or just an invention. In order to find the strengths and weaknesses with such a controversial statement, this paper will compare Chomsky’s theories when it comes to language acquisition to the behaviorists’ and the modern cognitive linguistics’ approach to the problem. But before the comparison this paper will explain in detail about the shift of focus in the approach to problems of language. Then, it will present an overview of how language and, in particular, language acquisition was explained by the structuralists and by Chomsky.</p> Min Prasad Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Min Prasad Sharma 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 3 1 33 39 10.3126/rcj.v3i1.51545 Prevalence of Thyroid Problems Among Patients Attending at Siddharthanagar City Hospital <p>Thyroid gland is vital gland. It produces Thyroxine T3 and Tri-Idothyronine T4 hormones which are needed for the growth and development. Iodine is needed for the formation of T3 and T4 hormones. Iodine is found in different food such as sea food, vegetables produced in Iodine rich soil and table salt. The associated problems of thyroid gland are hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of thyroid problems attending at Siddharthanagar City Hospital.</p> <p>It was hospital based retrospective study. Data related to thyroid problems T3,T4 and TSH was collected from hospital laboratory reports . The tests were done using Semi Auto Clia Plate Analyzer of TOSOH India Company.</p> <p>The total number of lab reports was 299 taken for study. Among them the percentage of male and female was 21.7 and 78.3 respectively. The overall prevalence of thyroid problems was 5.9% among general public. The overall prevalence of hypothyroidism was 9.69% and hyperthyroidism was 2.17% respectively. The prevalence of thyroid problems was seen more in female.</p> <p>This study showed that thyroid problem including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism is common. Female population and 21-40 years age group are highly suffered in comparison to male population.</p> Basanta M. Pokharel Namrata Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 Basanta M. Pokharel, Namrata Chaudhary 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 3 1 40 48 10.3126/rcj.v3i1.51546 Role of Digital Technologies for Sustainable Innovation and Value Creation: A Narrative Review <p>The purpose of this review paper is to examine the role of cutting-edge technologies in various aspects of supply chain processes as a part of a strategic plan for driving sustainable innovation. Furthermore, the study also explores the impact of digitization on modernizing supply chain operations from an industry 4.0 perspective for value creation. The study implies a narrative qualitative review for the interpretation of analyzed data from the selected articles and is based on analytical, and logical reasoning to determine patterns, relationships, or trends within the realm of the chosen subject matter for this study. The literature reveals that the implication of cutting-edge technologies as a strategic part of supply chain operations is significantly important for sustainable innovation and value creation of the company. The findings of the study will have implications for the supply chain managers for creating value for their organizations, stakeholders, and customers. Moreover, the study will also provide the essential knowledge for the development of the theory in the same domain for future researchers. &nbsp;</p> Rajan Kumar VK Copyright (c) 2022 Rajan Kumar VK 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 3 1 49 55 10.3126/rcj.v3i1.51547 Teachers’ Professional Development at Public Campuses: Issues and Challenges <p>Teacher professional development is the process of becoming competent teacher. It is an opportunity for teachers to share their knowledge and develop new instructional practices. TPD helps to keep academics up-to-date with the changing world and knowledge. The objective of this study was to explore issues and challenges of teacher professional development in public campuses of Nepal. This study was qualitative approach with a phenomenological design. The participants of the study were three teachers of different public campuses of Rupendehi district selected purposively. The study revealed that teachers of public campuses deserve TPD high significance in the sense that it helps teachers develop various kinds of professional skills, knowledge, and new techniques of teaching. However, Public campuses are facing many challenges which include proper management TPD for faculties of their campuses and there is a gap between policies and practices in implementation of TPD in public campuses of Nepal.</p> Dinesh Panthee Copyright (c) 2022 Dinesh Panthee 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 3 1 56 68 10.3126/rcj.v3i1.51548 Vitalism in Man and Superman and Women in Love <p>This article is an examination into the concepts of will, marriage and male-female relationship in G. B. Shaw’s <em>Man and Superman</em> and D. H. Lawrence’s <em>Women in Love</em>. The article starts will the discussion of the concept of will in both the works and moves on to discuss the works in the light of eugenics, vitalism and further analyze them under the framework of marriage and the male-female relationship. The article concludes that the two works are similar in certain aspects like being influenced by Schopenhauer’s concept of will but they still remain ways apart on other grounds like in their concept of the birth of a superman.</p> Parthivendra Upadhyaya Copyright (c) 2022 Parthivendra Upadhyaya 2022-10-31 2022-10-31 3 1 69 81 10.3126/rcj.v3i1.51549