Pursuits: A Journal of English Studies https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits <p>Pursuits: A Journal of English Studies is published by the Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus and aims to disseminate high quality research articles in the domain of English literature and language. </p> Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus en-US Pursuits: A Journal of English Studies 2467-9380 Octavia Butler's Bloodchild and the Posthuman Complexities: A Process of Becoming https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65326 <p>This paper examines the human-nonhuman relationship for co-reproduction and co-existence between two species in Octavia Butler's speculative fiction "Bloodchild". The humans called the Terrans and the aliens called the Tlics make a contract for reciprocity to save the futurity of both. This research analyzes Butler's speculation of some posthuman complexities related to identity, gender, reproduction and forceful bonding in the far future. The multifaceted female protagonist T'Gatoi, the male human surrogacy, non-normative pregnancy and experimental birth foreground the horror of dystopian future that Butler attempts to make humans aware of. Based primarily on the textual evidence, the paper uses Donna Haraway's concept of "speculative feminism", Deleuze and Guattari's notion of "becoming" and Rosi Braidotti's theory of critical posthumanities to argue for the author's warning to humanity against futuristic crises and call for a critical thought exercise to retrospect on human tyranny, egotism and sense of otherness. It proposes that overcoming the anthropocentric rule over nature and the "others" for the sake of natural equilibrium and socio-cultural harmony can help instill collective consciousness and promote community building to save this planet and the others for a sustainable future.</p> Alisa Dahal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 1 10 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65326 Spiritual Ecology: A Path to Ecological Existentialism https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65327 <p>This article explores the distinctive opportunities arising from the concept of spiritual ecology, and intersects with religion and ecology, religion and nature, and religion and environmentalism. On one side, these opportunities encompass problematic trends within certain facets of existing ecological aspect entangled with capitalist enclosures and consumerist desires. Conversely, it holds the promise of fostering the commitment to harmony with nonhumans’ existence, and suggests for understanding that transcends the conventional confines of religion. Many works on spiritual ecology embrace a broad multiplicity, questioning how to discern between more favorable and less favorable expressions of spiritual ecology. As this, it upholds the value of diversity while differentiating between the anti-intellectual, individualistic, and capitalistic tendencies within spiritual ecology and those that align more closely with what can be characterized as ecological existentialism or co-existentialism. It emerges as a reaction to the ideals and socio-political frameworks of current periods, which have avoided an intimate connection with the world and its revered nature. Over the past century, it has evolved into an intellectual and practice-oriented discipline, addressing the need to reconnect with the sacred dimensions of the natural world.&nbsp;animism</p> Bhim Nath Regmi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 11 24 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65327 Narrative Remedies: Exploring Therapeutic Expression in Phyllis Alesia Perry’s Stigmata https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65333 <p>This research paper explores the therapeutic dimension of writing as a means of healing, with a specific focus on Phyllis Alesia Perry’s novel, Stigmata. Perry's work serves as a powerful example of how literature can be employed as a therapeutic tool for individuals navigating through trauma and adversity. The paper examines the novel's narrative structure, character development, and thematic elements, highlighting the healing potential embedded in the act of writing. By examining the protagonist's journey and the broader implications for readers, this research aims to contribute to the understanding of literature as a therapeutic medium. Although Stigmata contains various therapeutic dimensions, this paper tries to limit on the scope of scriptotherapy to reach the research end. First, the paper develops Suzette A. Henke's theory of “scriptotherapy” which is supported by Jennifer Lynne Bird’s “Narrative Writing,” and Sayantani Das Gupta and Marsha Hurst’s “Narrative Medicine” on the basis set by Jeffrey C. Alexander’s notion of the “agent of the carrier group,” Ron Eyerman’s notion of “collective representation,” and Dominick La Capra’s notion of “working through” since all these notions directly or indirectly contribute healing the traumatic wounds of people. In reading the novel, the employment of the theories helps discover how Stigmata proves to be therapeutic by analyzing and interpreting the essential and relevant textual evidence. Employment of the already produced literature by the scholars/critics will authenticate the central logic in meeting the research end.</p> Bibha Jha Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 25 35 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65333 Some Dramatic Scenes and Their Significance in Mulk Raj Anand’s Novel Untouchable https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65334 <p>This paper discusses about the dramatic scenes and their significance found in Mulk Raj Anand’s first novel Untouchable. From the deep study in the novel, the early morning scene, the well-scene, the touching scene, the most pathetic scene, the pollution scene, the Chapati-throwing scene and the hockey match scene are found to be focused. Bakha is a key person of the novel who is enthusiastic to hire his senses to adore the satisfaction of environment. His vocation-the duty of searching has destroyed his preferred senses. He discovers happy in nature which influences him, but he notices the impact only in a confined superficial way. It is the tiring schedule and the dirty job of cleaning toilets that have made Bakha unfit of admiring natural prettiness. Thus, the match provides the novelist with yet another occasion to depict the inhumanity of the caste Hindus and the degrading and demoralising effect of untouchability.</p> Bina Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 36 43 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65334 Exploring Trishanku Psyche in Nepali British Diaspora Poetry https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65336 <p>This present paper is an analysis of trishanku psyche in the poetry from the Nepalese British diaspora. It scrutinizes how Nepalese poetry composed at British diaspora celebrates the theme of repulsion and fascination of diaspora people towards their land of origin and land of relocation. Seven different poems written by seven different Nepalese poets living at British diaspora are examined in this paper. For the theoretical underpinnings, insights are borrowed from diaspora theorists, researchers and scholars such as W. Andy Knight, Israel Milton, Makrand Paranjape, William Saffron, Uma Parameshwaran, Nina Glick Schiller, Jani Hiral and Pabitra Bharali. Nepalese diasporic poets from around the world including British diaspora express cultural dilemma, divided loyalty, exploration of identity as well as failure of their dream. In general, their poetry articulates bifurcated subjectivity, belonging to neither-here-nor-there, analogically bearing trishanku psyche in the context of the globalized world.</p> Dhundi Raj Niroula Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 44 56 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65336 Displacement: Trauma of Partition in Intizar Husain's Basti https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65337 <p>This paper examines the heartrending narrative of displacement in Intizar Husain's Basti (1979) through the concept of trauma of partition. Husain’s novel appears as a souvenir of the partition in front of readers. In the novel, Muslim narrator Zakir observes Pakistan's birth as a new nation in 1947. His migration to Pakistan from India after this political change represents the memory of the victims. Bangladesh emerged as a new nation in 1971 during his stay in Pakistan. These strange political upheavals create fear, disillusionment, and suspicion in the narrator’s mind. Therefore, this paper scrutinizes the reverberation of trauma in partition literature through Zakir’s narrative of displacement in Husain’s novel. As a qualitative applied research, the paper draws on ideas of trauma from Cathy Caruth and Jeffrey C. Alexander to analyze Zakir's story of displacement from India. Horrendous events and the period of their reverberation depend upon the intensity of the traumatic experience. The scene of Rupnagar represents Zakir’s memory of pre-partition but it triggers much when he experiences violence and war in Pakistan. The narrator’s dreadful experience survives in his diary, letters, and memoirs. By the way, this study aims to keep the memory of the victims alive to convey a message to the world. Partition is not only the division of geography, it is also the division of beautiful hearts. The division of a nation in the name of any banner obstructs political stability and the prosperity of humanity.</p> Dipendra Raj Regmi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 57 66 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65337 Rhetoric of Female Voices against Patriarchy in A Doll’s House https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65338 <p>This article tries to explore the female subjugation in Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House.&nbsp; Women confronts female domination, torture and other different domestic violence in different societies of the world in different ways. They get misbehaved and branded as secondary persons in the family in many societies of the world. They remain far from the fundamental rights in some cases. In many societies, they face economic, political, social and cultural upheavals. The protagonist of the novel Helmer treats his wife as a doll rather than a vital member of the family. He wants to keep her under his control in every matter of the family though she sacrifices her life for him wholeheartedly.&nbsp; Seeking emancipation in her family, Nora leaves her home, which marks the feminist voices against patriarchal domination prevalent in society. This article employs radical feminism proposed by Ti-Grace Atkinson. Society is a patriarchy in which the class of man is the oppressors of the class of woman. They oppose that the oppression of woman is the most fundamental form of oppression.</p> Dipesh Neupane Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 67 73 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65338 Post-human Bodies in Atwood’s Oryx and Crake https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65339 <p>This paper analyses the human bodies as a site of both aesthetics as well as politics in post-human turn in the novel Oryx and Crake by Margaret Atwood. Questions related to what is a body, who controls it, and what relation does it have to morality at techno-science culture share a negotiation between machine and morality. After the advent of popular culture, the concept of body as cogent and self-bounded entity is blurry one as the discourse of ‘what is a beautiful body’ reflects a growing concern with different approaches of body aesthetics. As seen the novel, Oryx and Crake by Margaret Atwood, we see Crakers— the genetically modified humans as an outcome of Crake’s aesthetics and politics. Jimmy’s father’s involvement in Pigoon Projects designed with the intention of providing human organs for transplantation and Crake’s involvement in creating Crakers—whom Crake had programmed to die at 30 open a new avenue for discussion regarding human identity. Such dimension of body aesthetics is precarious leading to ethical question as progress in science does not only enhance body, it also poses a threat to humanity in entirety. This research is qualitative and interpretive in nature. So, as a researcher, I have brought theoretical insights related to trans-humanism and post-humanism developed by Fukuyama, Braidotti. In the paper, I conclude that though new version of body aesthetics poses a threat to the world itself, it helps to understand how humans have co-evolved with other companion species. Thus, it contributes on the discussion of literary engagement and literary understanding of post humanism.</p> Kamal Sharma Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 74 85 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65339 Cross-Cultural Influences in The Satanic Verses https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65340 <p>The novel The Satanic Verses focuses on the cross-cultural influences and delves into the complexities of cultural hybridity by exploring the collision and blending of diverse traditions, identities, and belief systems. The narrative follows the intertwined lives of two Indian expatriates, Gibreel Farishta and Saladin Chamcha, who survive a terrorist attack on their flight from Bombay to London. Following the miraculous survival, the characters experience a series of surreal and fantastical transformations, blurring the lines between reality and myth. Rushdie's novel is renowned for its exploration of cultural syncretism, where elements of Eastern and Western cultures converge and coalesce. The characters navigate between different cultural landscapes, grappling with questions of identity, belonging, and the clash of civilizations. The narrative traverses various historical and geographical contexts, including India, Britain, and the Islamic world, highlighting the interconnectedness and fluidity of cultural boundaries. Central to the novel is the concept of hybridity, where characters embody multiple cultural identities and negotiate the complexities of their hybrid existence. Through vivid imagery, intricate storytelling, and linguistic experimentation, Rushdie depicts the rich tapestry of cultural influences shaping the characters' lives and experiences. The novel challenges essentialist notions of cultural purity and celebrates the dynamic interplay between diverse cultural traditions. Furthermore, the text explores the impact of colonialism, migration, and globalization on cultural formations, illustrating how power dynamics shape cultural exchanges and encounters. Rushdie critiques the hegemony of dominant cultural narratives and emphasizes the importance of embracing pluralism and diversity in contemporary societies. Overall, "The Satanic Verses" serves as a provocative and illuminating exploration of cross-cultural influences, offering profound insights into the complexities of cultural identity, hybridity, and the ever-evolving nature of human experience in an increasingly interconnected world.</p> Khagendra Neupane Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 86 96 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65340 The Politics of American Values in Barack Obama’s Life Narratives: A Rhetorical Analysis of National Ethos https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65341 <p>Barack Obama weaves a sequence of his personal story rhetorically to evoke American national ethos, with a special emphasis on American values making them an integral part of his memoirs, especially his <em>The Audacity of Hope </em>(2006). This paper interrogates why he narrates the story of typical American values in his political memoir in general and ascertain them in a dedicated section titled ‘Values’ in particular to explore the implicit dimensions of his storytelling. Form the theoretical parameters of Walter R Fisher’s ‘narrative paradigm’ this paper contends that, by way of recognizing (assimilating or internalizing) typical American values, Obama prepares a ground for Fisher’s ‘narrative rationality’ to identify himself with American character and American people, and thereby evokes American national ethos to assume a statesmanship.</p> Mahendra Bhusal Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 97 109 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65341 Karuna Rasa- Aestheticized Pathos as Tragedy in Parashu Pradhan's The Telegram on the Table and A Relationship https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65342 <p>Art and literature essentially depict a life and its emotions; the portrayed emotions in works of art touch the readers’ heart. The readers feel both pain and pleasure in tragedy. The study aims to expose <em>karuna</em> <em>rasa</em>, pathetic, tragic emotions in Parashu Pradhan's <em>The Telegram on the Table</em> and <em>A Relationship </em>from the perspective of the <em>rasa</em> theory. This paper discusses the tragic feelings and pathetic emotions of Nepali people depicted and inferred in Pradhan’s stories; it also analyzes the formation of <em>karuna</em> <em>rasa</em>, pathetic relish in reading his stories. This study is a library research and qualitative research; it has exploited Bharatmuni’s <em>rasa</em> theory as a theoretical tool. The main finding of the research is that the main <em>rasa</em>, emotion is the emotions of pathos, <em>karuna</em> <em>rasa</em> in these stories. The death of Krishna’s wife in the first story and the death of Ganga in the later one generate the pathetic sentiment, <em>karuna</em> <em>rasa</em> in the stories. The sufferings and miseries of Krishna and of Gyancha and Ganga in Kathmandu city in the later one evokes tragic emotions. Pradhan provides ample rooms for <em>rasa</em> evocation in the stories. The Nepali situation and environment intensify <em>karuna</em> <em>rasa</em>, aestheticized pathos and tragic relish in the stories. Although <em>rasa</em> realization may differ from one readers to next, pathetic sentiment, tragic feeling or <em>karuna</em> <em>rasa</em> is evoked in reading stories. The <em>karuna</em> <em>rasa</em> realization posits his writings grandeur in Nepali literature.</p> Mahendra Kumar Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 110 118 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65342 The New Woman Avatar in Chetan Bhagat’s One Indian Girl https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65343 <p>The paper aims at exploring the female protagonist, Radhika Mehta, of <em>One Indian Girl</em> by Chetan Bhagat in the light of the ideals of the New Woman in Indian context. This is an ideal which had emerged in the late 19th century and has had a profound influence to date. It associates women as independent, physically adept and mentally acute, and able to work, study, and socialize equal to men. Having been exposed to many Western countries during her career, Radhika focuses on her status and career, earns more than boys normally does, involves in premarital sex, and shows her individuality. However, she cannot renegotiate the traditional roles altogether. Rather, she tries to evade a critique of power relations within the family and attempt to get the best of both worlds, concretizing existing gender roles and taking on additional new ones.</p> Pawan Baral Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 119 125 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65343 A Journey towards Self-discovery in Joseph Conrad’s The Heart of Darkness https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65344 <p>The research paper sheds light on the self-discovery of Charles Marlow and considers it as a journey of initiation which extends itself to the new unending existence. There is no time and space in it, which remains vacant for advent of a new life. It examines the pursuit of Kurtz, the head of the inner station. This study objectifies both inner and outer stations for a new experiment. This is seen as a self-discovery of one’s inner spirit. These pictures, in the novella, adopt a method depicting both figurative and literal meanings. It is obviously a pursuit of self-discovery focused on the discovery of Africa and the impact of imperialism. It develops two stations are one the people and another their colonial rule. Basically, Marlow’s journey appears to be as if Joseph Conrad presents himself as a cloak of true journey. The paper portrays the physical journey in the Heart of Darkness in which the inner and outer realities are complementary to each another. The inner journey has a profound effect on unconscious thoughts and actions. It shows Marlow’s capability to differentiate between good and evil since he observes how progress implies the moral sense of judgment.</p> Prabhu Ray Yadav Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 126 132 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65344 Gorkha Women as Forgotten Heroes in the Gorkha War Narratives https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65346 <p>This paper aims to focus on how Gorkha women are left behind the curtain in terms of their role in the war history where their male Gorkhas’ bravery only is prioritized. When we turn the pages of the Anglo-Nepal Wars (1814-1816), the writers confidently say that the Gorkha warriors are back supported by women as well as children. However, they are shadowed by the description of the ferocious war performance of male Gorkha warriors such as Bir Bala Bhadra Kunwar, Amar Singh Thapa, Bhakti Thapa and so on. The only question is who the women warriors there are to support them attacking the English troops. Similarly, the Gorkhas serve the British Army and fight for Britain. For a long period during wars, they do not return home. During their service period, their wives remain at home to run all the family affairs such as raising children, caring the old parents, and cultivating land. The wives of those who die, get injured, and go missing have a burden of running family economy. They are compelled to keep all things well in the family. So, are not the Gorkha women as heroes as their male folks? The answer is sure to be- ‘Yes, they are’. This paper will certainly help future researchers in the area and also the government to manage new rules and concepts regarding Gorkha issues.</p> Ram Prasad Rai Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 133 140 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65346 Dalit Consciousness and Voice of Resistance in Pabitra Sunar’s Yugako Āwāj https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65347 <p>The article explores how Nepali literature written on Dalit subjects and issues portrays the socio-cultural, political and economic disparity and injustice experienced by Dalits; and, how the literature expresses dissatisfaction, resistance and protest against it. The article basically aims to explore Dalit consciousness and voice of resistance expressed in poems. For this purpose, the researcher has studied Pabitra Sunar’s anthology of poems “Yugako Āwāj [Voice of the Era] from the concept of class consciousness connecting with Dalit consciousness. Her poems mainly express the agony, pain, suffering, inequality, injustice, discrimination, exploitation and oppression; and, also expresses hope, expectation and revolt for rights, equality, justice, freedom and dignity of Dalits. Fundamentally, the poems portray Nepalese society, socio-cultural, political and economic status of Dalits, and, present the right path for socio-cultural liberation of Dalits. The poems also plea the entire Dalits to revolt against caste system for overall transformation. Moreover, the binary appositions such as pessimism and optimism, dark and light, rejection and acceptance, fear and braveness, discrimination and equality faced by Dalits in society; and, Dalits’ wish for liberation and dignity are the tenets in Sunar’s poems. The researcher has adopted qualitative approach with explorative and analytical methods while studying the poems.</p> Rudra Bahadur Charmakar Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 141 150 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65347 Confrontation between Liberals and Radicals in Amy Waldman’s The Submission https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65348 <p>The paper explores the repercussions of 9/11 in the diversity of the United States of America as portrayed in Amy Waldman’s <em>The Submission</em> published in the aftermath of 9/11 based on the cultural conflicts inherent in American culture. I unfold the problems the minority Muslims experience because of the 9/11 attacks on the US. The implications of the attacks on the intercultural relations of the minorities with the majority community reveal that the prevailing biases against Muslims and Islam as depicted in the text become obstacles to cultural harmony and integrity in American culture. The setbacks Muslims face in the aftermath of 9/11 make the principle of multiculturalism questionable. The paper has investigated into the cultural variables including traditions, behaviors, beliefs and practices of the respective ethnicities particularly American and Muslim in the United States. Such factors have influenced the opinions of both common Americans and the authorities to deal with the people having differences in the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks. Consequently, the liberals including Mo Khan and Claire from both American culture and Muslim minority are forced to suffer the backlash.</p> Saleem Dhobi Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 151 158 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65348 Edna's Struggle Against Oppressions in The Awakening https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65349 <p>This study explores Edna Pontellier's struggle against societal oppressions in Kate Chopin's novel, <em>The Awakening</em>. Edna's quest for self-discovery and liberation from the constraints of late 19th-century societal norms is analyzed through the lens of feminist perspectives. This paper argues that Edna's unconventional behavior signifies a profound challenge to patriarchal norms, emphasizing her pursuit of identity and autonomy. Edna emerges as a symbol of resistance against societal expectations, seeking personal freedom amidst oppressive forces. Furthermore, the study explores the influence of characters like Adele Ratignolle and Mademoiselle Reisz on Edna's journey, highlighting contrasting paths of womanhood and autonomy.</p> Tara Prasad Adhikari Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 159 167 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65349 Peaceful Strategy to Black National Question in Ralph Ellison’s Juneteenth https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65350 <p>This article analyzes the theme of Black national liberation as it appears in Ralph Ellison's novel Juneteenth. The study has relevance to probe into the remedies of Black liberation movement in America. The article addresses on the research problems concerning to the black protagonist's inability to identify and deal with an appropriate path that leads the freedom of blacks in American society. The study analyzes the issues through the research approach (methodology) of the Marxist concept of dialectics. According to this theory, the conflict between society's opposing forces is permanent, while any resolution to it is conditional and only temporary. This idea maintains that the key to the liberation of the oppressed nationality and class is the battle against the oppressor nationality and class. One of the novel's two main protagonists, Reverend Hickman, belongs to the oppressed black nationality and class. Hickman seeks to free the downtrodden Blacks&nbsp;from its constraints, but he chooses the incorrect road by making peace with the country's ruling white class. Hickman believes that the battles of Afro-Americans alone cannot end black national oppression; instead, he looks to some heavenly figure from the white race, such as Abraham Lincoln, to grant Afro-Americans their independence, justice, and equality. Bliss was nurtured by Hickman in the hopes that he would become the American equivalent of Abraham Lincoln, but Bliss betrayed Hickman by becoming into the racial baiting white senator Adam Sunraider. Despite Bliss's betrayal, Hickman continues to have faith in Sunraider. The study reveals that this Hickman's message of peaceful approach while dealing with ruling whites keeps the Afro-Americans weak, far from liberating the oppressed black nationality.</p> Tilak Bahadur Khatri Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 168 180 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65350 Editorial Vol.8(1) https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/65318 <p>Not Available</p> Jwahar Lal Maharjan Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-07 2024-05-07 8 1 10.3126/pursuits.v8i1.65318