Pursuits: A Journal of English Studies https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits <p>Pursuits: A Journal of English Studies is published by the Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus and aims to disseminate high quality research articles in the domain of English literature and language. </p> Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus en-US Pursuits: A Journal of English Studies 2467-9380 Quest of Spiritual Knowledge in Paulo Coelho’s Hippie: A Popular Cultural Perspective https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46825 <p>Coelho’s <em>Hippie</em> is based on the time in which Coelho is living the way of a hippie. Spiritual seekers make their way to India and even Nepal in the sixties in search of enlightenment. In the 1960s, the groups of unconventional appearance are associated with a subculture and reject conventional values. The paper tries to meet its objective by explaining how the protagonist cultivates his journey and achieves the spiritual awakening in the end of his journey. This paper explores issues of Quest of Spiritual Knowledge in Paulo Coelho’s <em>Hippie</em> through the lens of popular culture because in the today's world the text is connected to its cultural archetype. It interprets the issue of the hero quest and spiritual education in Coelho’s text and then its connection with popular culture. Coelho’s <em>Hippie</em> relates to how Paulo as well as the other young boys and girls challenge western and non-western concept of culture, and they leave their homes to experiment the world on their own. These youths appear to create and organize the hippie culture, live in separate commune and travel far and wide in quest of peace, freedom and love as protest. To interpret the text, I apply the readings and concepts of Joseph Campbell, John Storey, Ray Brown and Marshall Fishwick as a theoretical framework. The paper argues that although the hippie culture progresses as the counterculture of the 1960s youth movement, the protagonist’s quest of spiritual awakening is an issue of the study.</p> Bidur Rai Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 1 8 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46825 Humanity in Mulk Raj Anand’s Novels https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46827 <p>This paper discusses about the humanity appeared in the Mulk Raj Anand’s novels specially <em>Untouchable</em> and <em>Coolie</em>. Mulk Raj Anand is extremely outstanding as an Indian novelist, reformer, recognized essayist, craftsmanship commentator, editorial manager, a short story author, columnist, and political lobbyist. Anand is accepted by several critics along with Raja Rao, R.K. Narayan and Ahmed Ali, as one of the India's best writers. A writer’s views and attitudes are floored by a number of ways which work upon him since the childhood to funeral. In this sense, Mulk Raj Anand has no exception to it at all. His cultural, social, academic heritage altogether shapes his art, culture and personality as well. A champion of the poor classes in India, Mulk Raj Anand attacks religious bigotry and established institutions in his numerous novels and short stories. This basic philosophy mixed humanism and socialism into the concept of "bhakti". Anand's devotion to socialism and humanism has had a dual effect on his writing. His humanism lends more artistry to the value of his work, while his belief in socialism tends to reduce from their literacy worth. Anand's earlier novels show a sense of horror and disgust against social and economic ills, the novels of the middle period show a greater concern for and with the human heart. It is, however, in the later novels that a healthy combination of the social and personal concerns is achieved. Thus, the art of Anand, gradually gains much in confidence. While the later novels keep the passion for social justice, they sound greater emotional depths. Anand's short stories suffer from problems. Similar to those in his novel. For his realistic portrayals of the social and economic problems suffered by Indians at the hands of British, as well those of other richer and powerful Indians. In exposing the limitations of tradition, Anand’s mood is in fact ruthful, resentful, ironical and satirical, as the subject and the condition demand. Common themes in the Anand’s novels are religious bigotry, hypocrisy, feudal system, east-west encounter, the place of woman in the society, superstitions, poverty, sufferings, misery, hunger and exploitation.</p> Bina Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 9 18 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46827 Biophilia in Kiran Desai's Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46845 <p>This article explores biophilic consciousness in Kiran Desai’s novel,<em> Hullabaloo in the Guava Orchard</em>, from the perspective of Eco-criticism. The prime concern of this study goes to present the prevalence of biophilia representing through its main character, Sampath Chawla who escapes from the modern sense of materialism and human’s relationship with nature and others species, and comes up to the lap of nature where he gets complete happiness. Nature provides what he dreams to achieve in life. The orchard provides him shelter, animals become his friends, and nature provides him knowledge, freedom and peace putting forward the urgent need of maintaining harmonious relation between human, animals and nature. His dream of being a part of nature and its preserver gets symbolically fulfilled as he lives in the orchard with the monkeys, refusing every offer of his family. The study shows ultimate freedom, joy and happiness come from blending of human life with the nature suggesting us to go and enjoy carefully utilizing the nature. The researchers have employed eco-criticism and the eco-critics like Edward O. Wilson, Richard Kerridge and Chryll Glotfelty to form ecological ground for the analysis of the text showing much concern for perseverance, protection and promotion of the nature.</p> Dipak Tamang Madhusudan Sigdel Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 19 25 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46845 The Dialectics of Patriarchal Chauvinism in Susan Glaspell’s Trifles: A Feminist Study https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46846 <p>Feminist critics always champion and cherish their freedom, equality and justice in social status against patriarchal domination. In many societies, males consider themselves superior to females in terms of social, economic, cultural, physical and political status. They are engaged in social activities leaving the women to content themselves with household chores, children and other frivolous activities. This paper explores, how females get dominated in the play <em>Trifles</em> . The dramatic tension in the play arises when men have legal interest whereas the women only collect the trivial things to unravel the murder mystery of Mr. Wright. Men do not care about the trivial things that females always focus in the play. Instead, they mock and laugh at the females’ interest on trivial things. This research employs the feminist criticism proposed by Helen Pankhurst as the conceptual frame work to invigorate the study. She supports women’s rights on the grounds of equality between the genders, meaning that women should receive the same opportunities, rights, authority and treatment as men. It answers the questions: “How are female characters dominated in the play <em>Trifles</em>? and what might be the ultimate consequences of utter male domination in the family?” Overtly or covertly, females always intend to subvert the patriarchal chauvinism through their rebellious activities in the family and society.</p> Dipesh Neupane Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 26 31 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46846 Quest for Destiny in Paulo Coelho's The Alchemist https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46847 <p>In the novel, <em>The Alchemist</em>, Paulo Coelho explores how people attain their destiny. The novel revolves around the story of Santiago (the protagonist), a young Andalusian Shepherd. He dreams of buried treasure in Egypt while sleeping under a sycamore tree in an abandoned church in Spain. He undergoes difficulties and moves to Egypt to discover his destiny. In his journey, he gets assistance from disguised teachers. Ultimately, he finds his treasure not in Egypt, but in the abandoned church, back in Spain. The study has particularly used Jung's theory of shadow, anima, and personality as theoretical tools to analyze the narrative as it delves into the unconscious.</p> Khagendra Neupane Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 32 38 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46847 Toni Morrison’s Beloved: A Study on History, Slavery and Love https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46849 <p>This article makes an effort to describe Toni Morrison’s novel, <em>Beloved</em> as a fusion of History, slavery and love. It also reveals that history of Afro-Americans, slave narrative; love and fantasy are the main assets of the novel. In the novel, she focuses on the horror of the past so that Afro-Americans and the Americans all those who involved with slavery would come face to face with grim reality of the past and rise above it. The novel articulates and embodies a history of slavery of African-Americans and their experiences, which has been apparently, accurately and carefully recovered but is actually uncooked. <em>Beloved</em> directly confronts racism which combines lyrical beauty with an assault on the readers’ emotions and conscience. It emphasizes the legacy of slavery using forms resulting from traditional Back Folk aesthetic. It deals with the life and history of Black American women immediately after the emancipation of slaves in the North. <em>Beloved</em> also presents a tragedy involving mother’s moment of choice, and a love story exploring what it means to be beloved. Thus the novel holds the key to the narrative’s unity. The subject matter is stressful to read and it is also confrontational and painful. The form combines historical realism with magic, slavery and love.</p> Lekha Nath Dhakal Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 39 43 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46849 Exploring Psyche of the Gurkha Soldier in Koirala’s Soldier, Rai’s The Murderer and Bista’s The Andhikhola https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46850 <p>Lahure, ‘Gurkha soldier’ has a unique image and personage in the World; people around the world characterise and praise the braveness and honesty of Gurkha soldiers. But no one describes and contemplates about the psyche and personality of the lahure outside the barracks and battlefields, and treat accordingly them. This research paper explored psyche, motives and mentality of lahures (“Gurkha soldiers”) in Koirala’s <em>Soldier</em>, Rai’s<em> The Murderer</em> and Bista’s <em>The Anthi Khola</em>. This paper exposed the pre-service, in-service and post-service conditions, thoughts and experiences of lahures, and unveils the psychological motives, intentions and personality of lahure in the stories selected. This research has exploited interpretative qualitative approach and utilised psychoanalysis theory to interpret the data from the stories; this theory exposed the mindset and mentality of a person like a lahure. Three stories of different writers are purposively selected to truly exhibit the psyche, persona and mind of lahures in the pre-service, in-service and post-service. The findings are that Koirala manifests the nature and mind sets of a lahure who is on leave and returns to the cantonment; the self of the soldier is ‘other’ to show people, and he also displays his own provocative character. Rai discloses the temperament and perception of ex-lahure in his village; circumstantial evidences and his subconscious forces him to slander and calumniate the accidental act. Likewise, Bista demonstrates the motivation, rationale and intention of lahure and village boys who wish to join army forces; their paramount intention is to pay off debts and earn for bread and butter as well as social status in the village. Rai also exemplifies how the beloveds are psychologically devastated by the lost lahure in wars. They divulged the psychic conditions, individuals’ unique thoughts and experiences of Gurkha soldiers to the particular problems outside the cantonments and battlefields. This research significantly unveils thoughts, provocation, psyche and motives of lahures to the (academic) publics who have heard and described the braveness and honesty of the Gurkha soldiers in the battle fields.</p> Mahendra Kumar Budhathoki Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 44 55 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46850 Composing the Self and Reflecting the Others in Life Writing: Theories and Practices https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46851 <p>Life writing is an art of scripting and concretizing his/her own or others images and audio-visual things with ideas, views, feelings etc. into written form. It subjectivisms on composing the self and stimulates scholars to concretize their views, ideas and feelings in the practical ground of the real world reflecting the others’ lives from narratives of an imaginary world. Oral histories cannot be long lasting as it is said that the originality of the stories, events or incidents might be missing in shifting of time and so life writing theories help to bring the views into practice from the coaxers and coaches to the listeners. Life writers write about the self reflecting on the memory, experiences, identity and embodiment. Agencies play the roles from inner selves and outer impressions and question on the truth. Life writers seek the sites through coaxers, coaches, agencies and story tellers to expose the structuring modes of self-inquiry in different forms of ‘I’ as autobiographical, narrating and historical as addressee or the media in front of the consumers or audiences from one generation to the others. Academic debates in the Writing Departments are serious in its philosophical and theoretical terms and objective of this article is to find out the gaps and reduce the confusion about its tools and techniques. Thus, this article copes to the challenges of Life Writing.</p> Mani Bhadra Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 56 64 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46851 Civic Education through Literature: A Case of Devkota’s “The Lunatic” https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46852 <p>This research paper examines the role of literary texts in implanting and enhancing civic sense with reference to Laxmi Prasad Devkota's poem "<em>The Lunatic</em>.” It primarily aims at excavating the aspects of civic education regurgitated in the poem through close textual analysis. As the process of affecting people’s beliefs, commitments, capabilities, and actions as members of communities, civic education occurs involuntarily from social institutions and communities. literary texts are important resource for civic education as the ideas and experiences depicted in the texts sensitize readers to enhance civic knowledge, civic skills and civic dispositions on the students and to understand their role as active citizens. not only for developing communicative competence, but also for imparting civic education. To meet the complexity of tough academic challenges and expectations, educational institutions including schools and universities aspire to excel in a particular field and fail to cover civic education in their curricula as a separate course material. By teaching literary texts they can fill this gap. While preparation for examinations is afforded priority, value formation, character building, and focusing on building ethical standards in learners are not given adequate emphasis in our university curricula. The poem “<em>The Lunatic</em>” demonstrates that the readers can understand what they should do and how they should behave as a human being. Ultimately this helps in the formation of their personality as a good citizen. Thus, teaching literary texts as a course content is an important ingredient in the overall personality development of learners.</p> Pawan Baral Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 65 74 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46852 Why Academic Writing? https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46853 <p>Yes, writing is really a challenging and a tough work. Academic writing is a technical writing. It differs from general writing. It is a coherent writing of good organization of words, phrases, sentences, paragraphs, ideas and issues, whereas general writing is just the record of something like the data of information. They cannot be put in the same bucket. In academic writing, ideas and details are well combined so that the readers will not be confused to get the intended information. The general writing does not follow all these requirements. Academic writing means the incorporation of organizing, drafting and revising. Chronological order of all the elements is what academic writing is.</p> Raj Kumar Gurung Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 75 82 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46853 Transnational Identity in Anil’s Ghost https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46882 <p>Anil Tessera who is portrayed as the central character in the novel seems to be like Michael Ondaatje who is a transnational Sri Lankan and Canadian writer. Like Ondaatje, Anil carries dual citizenship. On the one hand, the novel shows how Anil returns to Sri Lanka i.e. her home country in the middle of the civil war when the government armies fight with Tamil Tigers and insurgent Sinhalese. On the other hand, the novel mainly focuses on Anil’s transnational identity. The novel reflects different reasons for Anil to carry transnational identity: the dissolution of boundaries and crossborder activities, her return to the home country, her connection to the home country, her sense of loss and displacement, and the conflict between national and transnational.</p> Ravi Kumar Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 83 90 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46882 Dalit Aesthetics and Consciousness in Sharad Poudel's Likhe https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46883 <p>Dalit art and literature has been an inseparable part of Dalit movements in Nepal. It has its own aesthetic characteristics, literary features, paradigms and missions for Dalits’ rights, equality, dignity, and social transformation. However, there is no remarkable qualitative research focusing on Dalit aesthetic perspectives. This research article aims to explore the caste system, social context and consciousness in Dalit literature. It examines the literary paradigms and Dalit aesthetics characteristics and values in literature. For this purpose, the study has employed the emerging concept of Dalit aesthetics and consciousness as a theoretical lens developed by Sharankumar Limbale, C. B. Bharti, Arjun Dangle, Rajarao Dunna and Anju Bala to the novel "Likhe". The study has adopted the exploratory method with a qualitative approach. Findings of the study illustrate that Dalit literature has its own aesthetics features and values and literary paradigms. As a protest literature by its nature, Dalit literature awakens Dalits and backward communities to move against all types of atrocities, caste discrimination, oppression, exploitation. The study further elucidates that the novel "Likhe" portrays the Nepali society and the misery of Dalits. It delivers socio-political messages to establish an equity-based prosperous society through its context, content, plots and characters.</p> Rudra Bahadur Charmakar Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 91 101 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46883 The Projection of the Double in Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46884 <p>The objective of this study is to explore the motif of the double in Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. The double (double goer or alter ego) is the psychic counterpart of a person. Since it stands for psychological projection, it also reveals the darker side of one’s psyche. The monster in Shelley’s novel resembles the double of its protagonist Victor Frankenstein. What Victor cannot show and reflect in the reality has been transformed in the actions of the monster. The monster becomes Victor’s disguises self because it mirrors the deepest psychic instincts of Victor Frankenstein. Likewise, the monster claims that it is Victor’s Adam. Victor’s disguised self has been transferred in every action and dialogue related to the Monster. The whole novel centers around this pivotal point. More than that, the novel implements the narrative structure known as mise en abyme, which imbeds one story within another one. This embedding instantiates the theme of structural double and series of reflections in the novel. The novel implements the paradigm of qualitative research and the concepts of the double as a theoretical lens to expose all these issues of the double in the novel.</p> Sabindra Raj Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 102 109 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46884 Religiosity and Radicalization in Don DeLillo’s Falling Man https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46885 <p>This article analyzes DeLillo’s <em>Falling Man</em>, a 9/11 novel to explore the causes of conflict between the Muslim World and the West. How Islam impacts on their relationship has been the core aspect of discussion in the paper. The paper has found out that there are two paradigms of Islam: fundamentalist and liberal. The former has radicalized Muslim youths in the US universities as exemplified in the case of Hammad, the primary character in the novel. The agents of Islamic fundamentalism including Amir who provokes and prepares youths for suicide bombing have misused Islam for their vested interests. Geopolitics is one of the primary causes of the ongoing conflict between the West and the Muslim World. Radicalization has been found as a very devastating factor among youths as it spoils their future and blinds them to take the physical world meaningless. The author has demonstrated the problems created by the agents of both the West and the Muslim World to implant the seed of hatred against each other. Consequently, the innocent become victims of their heinous intents. Despite advocacy for human values by liberal Americans, Eurocentric mindset prevails as depicted in the novel. Thus, Islamic fundamentalism and Eurocentricism have widened the gap between the West and the Muslim World.</p> Saleem Dhobi Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 110 119 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46885 Sectarian Interpretations of the Bhagavad Gītā https://nepjol.info/index.php/pursuits/article/view/46886 <p>This research article deals with the sectarian commentaries of the <em>Bhagavad Gītā</em>. The study has its relevance to understand the text from the point of view of its orthodox sectarian interpretations. The article addresses on the research problem concerning to the uniformity of the message of the <em>Gītā</em> outlined by its <em>jñāna</em> and <em>bhakti</em> interpretations. The research approach (methodology) adopted for this study is the review-based analysis of the orthodox <em>jñāna</em> and <em>bhakti</em> interpretations of the text. The study has included the interpretations of Sankarācārya, Ramanujācārya, Madhvācārya, Vallabhācārya, Nimbarkācārya and Prabhupada as they represent the leading orthodox commentators of the <em>Gītā</em>. The study discloses that not all the above commentators of the <em>Gītā</em> are unanimous in revealing the concrete and undisputed message of the text. Instead, they interpret the text according to their own philosophy and find in the scripture the essential source of their own teachings.</p> Tilak Bahadur Khatri Copyright (c) 2022 Department of English, Patan Multiple Campus 2022-07-21 2022-07-21 6 1 120 128 10.3126/pursuits.v6i1.46886