Pravaha 2023-08-29T08:32:14+00:00 Dr. Jitendra Upadhyay Open Journal Systems A multidisciplinary double-blinded peer-reviewed research journal published by the Nepal Commerce Campus, Tribhuvan University, New Baneshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal. Determinants of Non-Performing Loans of Public Commercial Banks 2023-08-24T16:00:59+00:00 Srijana Khadka Ajaya Kumar Khadka <p>The study aimed to examine the effect of profitability on non-performing loans of the Nepalese Commercial Banks. To meet the study’s objectives, three public commercial banks' non-performing loans (NPL) were analyzed using a research methodology that included descriptive and causal comparison methods. The study used a purposive sampling design to select three public commercial banks from 21 populations and used secondary data for the fiscal years 2012/13 to 2021/22. As an alternative data collection technique, the study has 30 observations from the population. This research indicates that remittance and return on equity are significantly associated with non-performing loans. Likewise, remittances negatively influence the NPL of public banks in Nepal, whereas ROE has a favorable effect. NPL was unaffected by GDP, inflation, or ROA to any substantial degree. Researching foreign direct investment and the balance of payments is recommended. Financial institutions should refrain from distributing further credit if they operate under a higher NPL.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Modified Generalized Rayleigh Distribution: Model and Properties 2023-08-24T16:06:01+00:00 Lal Babu Sah Telee Vijay Kumar <p>This article is based on formulation of a new three parameters continuous distribution. Some important properties are discussed here. Different methods of estimation are used for parameter estimation. Validity of the model is tested using different information criteria as well as some graphical plots. For applicability testing, a real data set is taken. For model comparison we have considered some previously introduced probability models and is found that proposed model fits the real life data better compared to considered models. </p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Consumer Behavior towards Cosmetics Products in Kathmandu Valley 2023-08-24T16:20:53+00:00 Bharat Rai Rewan Kumar Dahal Binod Ghimire <p>The article's primary goal is to look at the factors affecting consumers' behavior in buying cosmetics items in Kathmandu Valley. The study examines how one's physical attractiveness might make one feel good about oneself. Most women who use cosmetics are female. In the Kathmandu valley, the demand for cosmetics items is rising quickly. The dependent variable in this study is consumer behavior, and the independent variables are quality, price, personal factors, and loyalty which substantially impact consumer behavior. This study made use of primary data. Using a structured questionnaire and a convenient sampling technique, information was gathered from 189 customers who purchased cosmetics in Kathmandu valley. Valid conclusions were reached using descriptive factor analysis, correlation, and multiple regression analysis. Exploratory factor analysis was done to find the commonalities and composite reliability. The outcome demonstrated that consumer behavior is significantly influenced by product quality, price, and personal characteristics. But it was discovered that loyalty does not significantly influence consumer purchasing behavior toward cosmetic products in the Kathmandu Valley.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Tension Between Obliteration and Regeneration in Walt Whitman’s Selected Poems 2023-08-24T16:27:11+00:00 Madhav Prasad Dahal <p>This article explores the poet’s tension between his fear of environmental obliteration and a hope for spiritual regeneration in Walt Whitman’s poems <em>This Compost</em>. To do so, it applies ecocritical perspective which studies about the relationship of man with the biotic and a-biotic world in the literary text. Walt Whitman, in his poems, unfolds his reverence to the natural world. He celebrates the beauty of everyday life and nature. In these poems, he glorifies nature for its amazing ability to transform every dead, diseased and sick matter into regeneration. He does not see death as an end of life. He finds it as an event to renew life to a beautiful one. In the poems, his mind wrestles with his inner fear of getting in touch with the nature and in the second part he glorifies nature with the faith that it has an amazing capacity of renewing every ugly matter into divine materials for a new life. This study concludes that human being’s relationship with the earth is unbounded and maternal. It portrays how the poet’s fears and apocalyptic visions are ultimately silenced.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Paradigm Shift of Statistical Big Data in Healthcare: Management, Analysis and Future Prospects 2023-08-24T16:37:48+00:00 Dila Ram Bhandari Ron Kenett <p>‘Big data’ is vast describing volumes of information that can work miracles. Multiple attempts designed at highlighting the relationship between big data analytics and benefits for healthcare organizations have been raised. The big data influence on health organization management is still not clear due to the relationship’s multi-disciplinary nature. It has become a topic of special interest for the past two decades because of a great potential that is hidden in it. Numerous public and private sector industries generate, store, and analyze big data with an aim to improve the services they provide. In the healthcare industry, various sources for big data include hospital records, medical records of patients, results of medical checkups, and devices that are a part of internet of things. Biomedical research also produces a significant share of big data pertinent to public healthcare. Big Data and healthcare are precarious to discourse the risk of hospitalization. This data requires proper management and analysis in order to derive expressive communication. There are various encounters associated with each step of handling big data which can only be surpassed by using high-end computing solutions for big data analysis. Providing relevant results for improving public health, healthcare providers are required to be fully equipped with appropriate infrastructure to systematically generate and analyze big data. A well-organized management, analysis, and interpretation of big data can transformation the game by opening new avenues for contemporary healthcare. With a strong integration of biomedical and healthcare data, modern healthcare institutes can probably revolutionize the medical therapies and personalized medicine.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Trading Volume, Trading Price, Trading frequency and Stock Return Volatility of Everest Bank Limited 2023-08-24T16:45:08+00:00 Bashu Neupane Dipendra Neupane Puskar Baral <p>The primary objective of this study is to measure the relationship between stock returns, trading volume, trading frequency and trading price volatility of Everest Bank Limited. We analyzed studies using descriptive studies and randomized comparative studies. A 12-year panel data set was used. 1873 observations are analyzed to draw correct conclusions about the study. Descriptive models provide data on average stock returns, trading volume, and price volatility. EBL investors have faced high risk when investing in stocks for 12 years. There is an important and positive relationship between them. Likewise, volume and price have a positive and significant impact on stock returns.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus The Role of Financial Ratios in Predicting Return on Equity of Commercial Banks 2023-08-24T16:50:58+00:00 Shiva Raj Poudel Subhadra Dahal Rishikesh Panthi <p>The explanatory power of the bank specific financial ratios on return on equity of the joint venture commercial banks operated in Nepal has been examined by using the database of 15 years from 2005/06 to 2019/20. The descriptive and correlational research design have been adopted for the study. The explanatory financial ratios used for the study includes capital adequacy, non-performing loan to total loan, net interest to total assets ratio, deposit to total assets ratio, and investment to total assets ratio. Statistical tools such as descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and the regression analysis have been used as the major tools of data analysis. The results revealed that capital adequacy ratio, net interest to assets ratio and investment to assets ratio have the significant positive impact on commercial banks profitability. In contrast, non-preforming loan to total loan has the significant negative impact on banks' profitability whereas, deposit to total assets ratio has no significant impact on commercial banks' profitability.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Eco-feministic Reading of Sarah Joseph’s Gift in Green 2023-08-24T16:56:30+00:00 Lekha Nath Dhakal <p>This article brings forth the idea of eco-feminism in Joseph’s novel, <em>Gift in Green</em> to critique the male characters such as Dinakaran, Kumaran, Markose and Ambu who involve in so-called developmental works through constructions and the encroachment of the resources of the island turning its agricultural lands into concrete jungles. It also brings the female characters such as Ponmani, Kunjootan, Shailaja, and Karthiyani into limelight, who love and attach themselves with farming, fishing and cultivating. They have passionate attachment with the mother earth. They do not do any harm to the land and the landscape of Aathi. They hate people who come to buy land there. They also do not like people who sell and lease their productive land for money and job. They have special attachment with the water and land of Aathi. They have also protested against the idea of constructing bridge. They also love animals and birds of the island. They are living in a perfect harmony with the nature and its beauty. Female characters are striving to keep the ideal of Aathi intact by performing eco-friendly activities unlike males who are performing eco-inimical activities that finally bring destruction in the island. Hence, women are seen as being domestic, pious, moral, pure, gentle, kind, graceful, simple and beautiful, have soft corner for the nature while men are seen as hard-working, encroaching, industrial, rational, assertive, and independent and proud; none of which is easily connected with nature. Therefore, nature is seen as the embodiment of all the characteristics that women possess.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Status of Stock Market Concentration and Turnover at Nepal Stock Exchange 2023-08-24T17:03:06+00:00 Rajesh Gurung <p>This paper examines the status of stock market concentration and turnover in Nepal Stock Exchange (NEPSE) during the period from Mid-July 2003-04 to Mid-July 2019-20. Despite the NEPSE’s high concentration and low degree of liquidity, the research reveals that stock market concentration and turnover are gradually improving, with the banking sector playing a key role in market concentration. It also finds a negative association between market concentration and stock turnover, meaning that a decrease in stock concentration is accompanied by an increase in turnover (or liquidity) across the study period. This has important policy implications, particularly in terms of reducing the market concentration and improving liquidity. Encouraging family-owned business to go public and attracting international capital flows so as to reduce investment risk and increase confidence of market participants in the capital market of Nepal.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Leadership Support and Organizational Performance: The Mediating Role of Employee Satisfaction 2023-08-24T17:08:17+00:00 Dilli Ram Bhandari <p>This study has been carried out to explore the effect of Leadership Support on Organizational Performance with the mediating effect of Employee Satisfaction in Nepalese Commercial Banks. A survey has been undertaken to gather the data by use of a structured questionnaire from 6 banks. Altogether, 224 questionnaires were used for final analysis. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were taken for data analysis. The collected data were analyzed on two steps. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis.</p> <p>The result of the data analysis revealed that Leadership Support significantly affects Organizational Performance and Employee Satisfaction. Further, Employee Satisfaction showed the direct positive impact on Organizational Performance and it also showed a mediating effect between Leadership Support and Organizational Performance.</p> <p>The findings of this study imply that human factor should be emphasized for a better Organizational Performance and Leadership Support plays a vital role in satisfying and motivating the employees.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Role of Demographic Factors on Emotional Intelligence of Tribhuvan University’s Faculty Members 2023-08-24T17:13:56+00:00 Indira Shrestha <p>The main objective of this study is to examine the role of demographic factors (age, marital status, education, service year, designation, and income)in the level of emotional intelligence of faculty members. The population of the study is faculty members of the central campus of Tribhuvan Univesity and its constituent campuses situated in Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, and Lalitpur districts. The structured questionnaire was distributed to the one hundred and six faculty members to get information regarding the influence of demographic factors on emotional intelligence. The questions related to emotional intelligence were based on the Goleman model (1998). The analytical research design was used by applying statistical tests like frequency, percentage, and one-way ANOVA for analyzing the data. The result revealed that demographic factors like age, education, service year, designation, and income influence emotional intelligence while marital status and gender do not. Some limitations and scope for future research have been discussed.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Does Perceived Organizational Politics Enhance Political Skills? 2023-08-24T17:18:37+00:00 Ganesh Bhattarai <p>The researcher carried out this study to examine the predictive power of perceived organizational politics (POP) on their political skills regarding networking ability, interpersonal skills, social astuteness, and apparent sincerity. To investigate the given hypotheses, this study used a survey methodology, deductive reasoning technique, and positivist research philosophy. Data were collected from the seven hundred and twenty-five employees working in the Nepali Banking industry. Cross-sectional and perceptual data (Likert scale measure) were screened and analyzed employing SPSS. Regression analysis was carried out, keeping the demographic variables' effect constant. Regression analysis revealed that employees' POP enhanced the employees' political skills (i.e., networking ability, interpersonal skills, social astuteness, and apparent sincerity). Though POP significantly boosted all the factors of political skills (i.e., networking ability, interpersonal skills, social astuteness, and apparent sincerity), the predicting capacity differed among the elements. The number of theoretical and particular implications are suggested based on the result of the study.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Human Resource Management Practices and Customer Satisfaction in Hotel Industry 2023-08-24T17:22:23+00:00 Bijaya Bikram Shah Prakash Shrestha <p>Human resource management (HRM) practices are a requirement for each modern company. They cover a number of areas and begin with the hiring of the person and continue throughout their career. The workforce is the driving force behind the lucrative and intensely competitive hospitality industry. A vital requirement for obtaining a healthy position in a highly competitive market is to utilize human resources to their fullest potential. This study aims to examine the function of human resource management techniques in the hotel industry in particular. It also discusses customer happiness, service quality, and HRM practices in hotels. The participants are 315 managers and subordinates who work in different hotels in Nepal. The statistical package for social sciences was used to code and analyze the statistics. The results show that there is a positive relationship between practices of recruitment and training, performance management, delivery of quality in service, and customer satisfaction. However, the results show that there is no relationship between compensation and the delivery of quality service. This study imply that proactive enhancement of human resource strategies is necessary for Nepalese hospitality services to increase the influence on customer satisfaction.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Navigating the New Normal: Performance of Stock Market During Pandemic 2023-08-24T17:27:34+00:00 Dipendra Karki <p>This study analyzes the effect of COVID-19 on the Nepalese stock market. It utilizes data from January 23, 2020, to December 31, 2020, and examines variables such as confirmed cases, deaths, lockdowns, and interest rates. The results reveal a significant negative impact of COVID-19 related variables, interest rates, and lockdowns on the stock market performance, while total deaths had a positive impact. The study also found that all variables studied had a significant influence on the performance of all sectors. These insights are important for investors, market players, businesses, policymakers, and governments to establish recovery action plans and help investors to make better investment decisions.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Explaining Entrepreneurial Success of SMEs Entrepreneurs: The Role of Entrepreneurial Characteristics 2023-08-24T17:31:27+00:00 Prakash Kumar Gautam Ram Bahadur Khadka <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%; margin: 6.0pt 0cm 6.0pt 0cm;">Small and medium sized enterprises have significant role in sustainable economic growth and country. This study aims to investigate the entrepreneurial characteristics predicting entrepreneurial success of small and medium sized enterprises. Following analytical research design, this study collected data using structured questionnaire from 263 entrepreneur managers. Result revealed that entrepreneurial motivation, entrepreneurial self-efficacy, and risk-taking propensity have significant role in predicting entrepreneurial success of SMEs but refuted for entrepreneurial innovativeness. Moderating role of gender was examined in the study. The result advocates that the study contributes to the entrepreneurial competency theory and contributes for policy makers for entrepreneurial growth for sustainable development goals.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus Tax Payers Awareness in Nepal Regarding with Value Added Tax and Income Tax 2023-08-24T17:36:28+00:00 Jitendra Prasad Upadhaya Paras Mani Acharya <p>This study analyzes the moral behavior of Nepalese taxpayers. Additionally, the study seeks to address the underlying reasons for non-compliance. Data were collected by 400 participant questioners and analyzed using thematic analysis. The result suggests that these taxpayers do not have sufficient technical knowledge and perceive the VAT system as complex. Tax knowledge and tax complexity are seen as contributing factors to taxpayer non-compliant behavior. Data is collected using a well-structured questionnaire. For analysis and interpretation, the researcher used the following statistical tools from her SPSS: Based on their analysis and interpretation, the researchers present important findings that the majority of consumers pay tax but are less aware of VAT. Consumers avoid paying tax in Nepal as VAT tends to be high.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nepal Commerce Campus