https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/issue/feed Prashasan: Nepalese Journal of Public Administration 2022-04-28T11:03:26+00:00 Bikas Dangol bikas.dangol@nepal.gov.np Open Journal Systems <p>Prashasan: Nepalese Journal of Public Administration is published by the Administration Reform Section, Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration (MoFAGA), Government of Nepal. This journal publishes articles in Policy, Finance, Economics, Public Administration, etc.</p> https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44623 सङ्‍घीयतामा कानुन निर्माणः अवधारणा र अभ्यास {Law making in federalism: concept and practice} 2022-04-25T05:14:23+00:00 रमेश Ramesh ढकाल Dhakal sarallife@gmail.com <p>सङ्‍घीयता कुनै यान्त्रिक अवधारणा नभई समाजको सापेक्षता र आवश्यकतामा&nbsp; विकसित, परिमार्जित र परिवर्तित भइरहने मान्यता र प्रणाली भएकोले कानुन र नीति निर्माण एवम् कार्यान्वयनले सङ्‍घीयताको वास्तविक अभ्यास देखाउँछ। नेपालमा सङ्‍घीयताको पाँच वर्षको पनि अनुभव नभएकोले यसलाई संस्थागत गर्नको लागि सिद्धान्त र नीति तयगर्ने महत्त्वपूर्ण अवसर अझै छ । सङ्‍घीयता सङ्‍घीय एकाइहरूको शक्ति र भूमिकाको लागि होइन, जनताको लागि हो र सङ्‍घीयताले समग्र राष्ट्रियहितको संरक्षण गर्ने हो भन्ने मान्यताबाट कानुन र नीति निर्माण हुनुपर्ने देखिन्छ । सङ्‍घीयताको अभ्यासलाई संवैधानिक लोकतन्त्रको परिधिभित्र रही अघि बढाउने दिशामा सङ्‍घीय एकाइहरूको कानुन निर्माणको कार्यसम्पादनमा विभिन्न प्रश्नहरू उठे पनि पूरै निराशाजनक अवस्थाबनिसकेको होइन। सङ्‍घीय प्रणालीको कानुन निर्माणलाई संवैधानिक समग्रता,सामाजिक विविधताकोव्यवस्थापन, सङ्‍घीय एकाइहरूबिचको अन्तरनिरर्भरता, सरकारको जवाफदेहिता, कुशलता तथा राष्ट्रिय एकताको अवधारणाबाट निर्देशित गर्न सक्नुपर्छ । यसका साथै शीघ्र र सुलभ रूपमा आफ्नो नजिकको बिन्दुबाट सेवाप्राप्त गर्ने जनताको अधिकारको लागि सङ्‍घीयतालाई केन्द्रित गर्नु नेपालको मौलिक आवश्यकता हो ।</p> <p>{Since federalism is not a mechanical concept but a belief and system that is developed, modified and changed according to the relativity and needs of the society, law and policy formulation and implementation show the real practice of federalism. With less than five years of experience in federalism in Nepal, there is still an important opportunity to formulate principles and policies to institutionalize it. Law and policy should be formulated on the premise that federalism is for the people and not for the power and role of the federal units and that federalism protects the overall national interest. Although various questions have been raised in the law-making process of the federal units in the direction of advancing the practice of federalism within the perimeter of constitutional democracy, the situation has not become completely depressing. Legislation of the federal system should be guided by the concepts of constitutional integrity, management of social diversity, interdependence between federal units, accountability of the government, efficiency and national unity. At the same time, it is a fundamental need of Nepal to focus on federalism for the right of the people to be served quickly and easily from their nearest point.}</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44624 वैदिक पुराण र सुशासनक पक्षहरू {Vedic Puranas and good governance aspects} 2022-04-25T05:26:11+00:00 खगराज Khagaraj बराल Baral khagarajbaral@gmail.com <p>Available with fulltext.</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44647 जलवायु परिवर्तनः अवस्था, असर र प्रयासहरू {Climate change: conditions, effects and efforts} 2022-04-26T04:57:34+00:00 विश्वनाथ Bishwonath ओली Oli bn_oli@yahoo.com <p>मानव जाति र समग्र प्राणी जगत्‌को भविष्यसँग जोडिएकाले पछिल्लो समय जलवायु परिवर्तन एक विश्वव्यापी एजेण्डाको रूपमा विकास हुँदै गएको छ। जलवायु परिवर्तनको मुख्य कारकको रूपमा मानिएको हरितगृह ग्याँस उत्सर्जनका कारण विश्वव्यापी तापक्रममा वृद्धिभएको विभिन्न वैज्ञानिक अध्ययनहरूले देखाएका छन्। जलवायु परिवर्तनको प्रभावबाट प्रायः सबै राष्ट्रहरू चपेटामा परेका छन् तर पनि धनी र विकसित राष्ट्रहरूको तुलनामा गरिब र विकासोन्मुख राष्ट्रहरू बढी प्रभावित भएका छन्। जलवायु परिवर्तनको जोखिमको हिसाबले नेपाल विश्वको नवौँ स्थानमा रहेको पाइन्छ। नेपालमा जलवायु परिवर्तनको असर तथा प्रभाव प्रायः सबै क्षेत्रमा परेको पाइए तापनि खास गरेर कृषि तथा खाद्यान्न, जलस्रोत, वनजङ्गल तथा जैविक विविधता, स्वास्थ्य, पर्यटन तथा पूर्वाधारमा प्रतिकूल प्रभाव परेको तथ्यहरू उल्लेख भएका पाइन्छन्। नेपालले सन् १९९४ मा जलवायु परिवर्तनसम्बन्धी राष्ट्रसङ्घीयय महासन्धिको पक्ष राष्ट्र भएदेखि नै जलवायु परिवर्तन व्यवस्थापनसँग सम्बुन्धित कार्यहरू सक्रियतापूर्वक सम्पादन गर्दै आएको छ र आगामी दिनमा पनि यसले निम्त्याउने नकारात्मक असरसँग जुध्दै वर्तमान र भावी पुस्ताको सुरक्षाको लागि समेत सरकारी, गैरसरकारी, निजी क्षेत्र र सबैले हातेमालो गर्दै अघि बढ्न जरुरी छ।<br>{Climate change has been evolving as a global agenda in recent times as it is linked to the future of the human race and the entire animal kingdom. Various scientific studies have shown that global warming has been caused by greenhouse gas emissions, which are considered to be the main cause of climate change. Almost all nations are affected by the effects of climate change, but poor and developing nations are more affected than rich and developed nations. Climate change has been evolving as a global agenda in recent times as it is linked to the future of the human race and the entire animal kingdom. Various scientific studies have shown that global warming has been caused by greenhouse gas emissions, which are considered to be the main cause of climate change. Almost all nations are affected by the effects of climate change, but poor and developing nations are more affected than rich and developed nations. Nepal has been actively involved in climate change management since it became a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in 1994, and will continue to work hand-in-hand with government, non-government, private sector and all for the protection of present and future generations. }</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44650 नेपालको विकास प्रक्रियामा नतिजामूलक कार्यसम्पादन व्यवस्थापन {Effective performance management in Nepal's development process} 2022-04-26T06:51:25+00:00 तीर्थराज Tirtharaj ढकाल Dhakal teerthadhakal@yahoo.com <p>नेपालले करिब दुई दशक अघिदेखि समग्र विकास प्रक्रियालाई नतिजामूलक बनाउन प्रारम्भ गरेको हो। यसका लागि विकास योजना, बजेट र अनुगमन तथा मूल्याङ्कमन प्रणालीमा नतिजामूलक व्यवस्थापनका विशेषतालाई आन्तरिकीकरण गरिएको छ । यस अवधिमा लजिकल मोडललगायत नतिजासम्बन्धी विभिन्न विधि तथा औजारहरूको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । विकास प्रक्रियामा नतिजा सूचक तथा तथ्य तथ्याङ्कवको प्रयोग विस्तार भएको छ । नतिजाप्रतिको जवाफदेहिता सुनिश्चित गर्नका लागि साङ्गसठनिक तहमा आधार पनि तयार भएको छ । तर साङ्ग ठनिक नतिजालाई व्यक्तिगत कार्यसम्पादनसँग जोड्न सकिएको छैन । त्यसैगरी थालिएका प्रयासहरूलाई अझै एकीकृत स्वरूप दिन बाँकी नै छ । नतिजाप्रतिको जवाफदेहिताको पक्ष अझै पनि कमजोर नै रहेको छ । फलस्वरूप विकासको समग्र नतिजाका प्रयासहरूको उल्लेख्य प्रभाव देखिन बाँकी नै छ । यस लेखमा नेपालको विकास प्रक्रियामा नतिजामूलक कार्यसम्पादन व्यवस्थापनको प्रयोग, यसका सकारात्मक परिणाम र कमजोरीहरूका सम्बन्धमा समीक्षा गर्दै सुधारका लागि केही सुझाव प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।</p> <p>{Nepal has been making the overall development process result-oriented for nearly two decades. For this, the features of result management in development plan, budget and monitoring and evaluation system have been internalized. During this period various methods and tools related to results including logical models have been used. The use of outcome indicators and factual statistics has expanded in the development process. The groundwork has also been laid at the organizational level to ensure accountability for the results. But the exact results have not been linked to personal performance. Similarly, the ongoing efforts have yet to be integrated. Accountability for results is still weak. As a result, the overall impact of development efforts remains to be seen. This article reviews the use of result-oriented performance management in Nepal's development process, its positive outcomes and weaknesses, and offers some suggestions for improvement.}</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44653 भ्रष्टाचारका प्रवृत्ति र नियन्त्रणका उपायहरू {Corruption trends and control measures} 2022-04-26T08:55:47+00:00 शिवराम Shivaram न्यौपाने Neupane shivaram2071@gmail.com <p>मुलुकमा सुशासन कायम गरी समृद्ध नेपाल, सुखी नेपालीको उद्देश्य हासिल गर्ने मुख्य जिम्मेवारीमा राज्य निरन्तर रहेको हुन्छ । राज्यका सबै संयन्त्रहरू सुशासनप्रतिको जिम्मेवारीमा संवेदनशील एवम् जवाफदेही हुनसक्दा मात्र सुशासनको अभियानलाई गतिशील गराउन सकिने तथ्य सर्वस्वीकार्य&nbsp; छ । नेपालको संविधानमा उल्लेख भएको सार्वजनिक प्रशासनलाई स्वच्छ, सक्षम, निष्पक्ष, पारदर्शी, भष्टाचारमुक्त, उत्तरदायी र सहभागितामूलक बनाउन राज्यबाट प्रदान हुने सेवा सुविधामा जनताको समान र सहज पहुँच सुनिश्चित गरी सुशासनको प्रत्याभूति गर्ने राज्यको नीतिलाई अनुभूतियोग्य गराउन आवश्यक भएको छ । नेतृत्व तहदेखि कार्यकारिणी तहसम्मका साथै सङ्घी य तहदेखि स्थानीय तहसम्मको संरचनामा संस्थागत रूपमा फैलिँदै गएको भ्रष्टाचार नियन्त्रणको कार्य चुनौतीपूर्णहुँदै गएको छ । भ्रष्टाचार नियन्त्रणका प्रयासहरू अपेक्षित रूपमा प्रभावकारी हुन सकेका छैनन् । यस सन्दर्भमा मुलुकमा विद्यमान परम्परागत एवम् नयाँ स्वरूपमा वृद्धि भएका भ्रष्टाचारका प्रवृत्तिहरूको अध्ययन, अनुसन्धान एवम् विश्लेषण समेत गरी सरकारी, गैरसरकारी, सहकारी एवम् सामुदायिक क्षेत्रका अतिरिक्त निजी क्षेत्रसमेतको भ्रष्टाचारजन्य प्रवृत्तिहरूको नियन्त्रण गर्नु अपरिहार्य भएको छ । यसका लागि शासकीय नेतृत्वको संवेदनशीलता, जिम्मेवारी एवम् कार्यगत अग्रसरता प्रभावकारी हुनुपर्ने आवश्यकता एकातर्फ रहेको छ भने अर्कातर्फ राज्यका सम्पूर्ण संयन्त्रहरूको जिम्मेवारपूर्ण समन्वय, साझेदारी र सहकार्य अत्यावश्यक भएको छ। यसबाट सङ्घीसय तहदेखि स्थानीय तहसम्म व्यापक भएको भ्रष्टाचार न्यूनीकरण भई सदाचार अभिवृद्धि हुनेमा आशावादी हुन सकिन्छ ।</p> <p>{The state has the main responsibility of achieving the objective of prosperous Nepal and happy Nepalis by maintaining good governance in the country. The fact that the campaign for good governance can be accelerated only when all the mechanisms of the state are sensitive and accountable for their responsibility towards good governance is universally accepted. To make the public administration mentioned in the constitution of Nepal clean, competent, fair, transparent, corruption free, accountable and participatory by ensuring equal and easy access of the people to the services provided by the state. It has become necessary to make the policy of the state that guarantees good governance feasible. The task of controlling corruption, which is spreading institutionally from the leadership level to the executive level as well as from the federal level to the local level, is becoming challenging. Efforts to control corruption have not been as effective as expected.&nbsp; In this context, it has become imperative to control the corrupt tendencies of the government, non-government, cooperative and community sectors as well as the private sector by studying, researching and analyzing the existing traditional and new forms of corruption in the country. For this, the sensitivity, responsibility and working initiative of the governing leadership needs to be effective on the one hand and on the other hand, responsible coordination, partnership and cooperation of all the mechanisms of the state has become essential. From this, one can be hopeful that corruption, which has spread from the federal level to the local level, will be reduced and morality will increase.}</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44675 सुशासनका लागि सत्यनिष्ठाको दर्शनशास्त्रीय आधार {The philosophical basis of integrity for good governance} 2022-04-27T06:47:35+00:00 भिष्मकुमार Bhishmakumar भुषाल Bhushal bkb2032@gmail.com <p>Available with fulltext.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44668 निजामती कर्मचारीको आचरण र न्यायिक दृष्टिकोण {Conduct and judicial attitude of civil servants} 2022-04-27T05:19:10+00:00 निराजन Nirajan शर्मा Sharma sharmanirajan1987@gmail.com <p>नेपालको संविधानले सार्वजनिक प्रशासनलाई स्वच्छ, सक्षम, निष्पक्ष, पारदर्शी, भ्रष्टाचारमुक्त, जनउत्तरदायी र सहभागितामूलक बनाउँदै राज्यबाट प्राप्त हुने सेवा सुविधामा जनताको समान र सहज पहुँच सुनिश्चित गरी सुशासनको प्रत्याभूति गर्ने नीति अवलम्बन गर्ने व्यवस्था गरेकाले उक्त व्यवस्थालाई मूर्तरूप दिन आम जनताको सेवामा समर्पित रही कार्य गर्ने निजामती कर्मचारीहरूको महत्त्वपूर्ण भूमिका रहने गर्दछ। त्यो भूमिका निर्वाह गर्ने क्रममा निजामती कर्मचारीहरूका लागि नेपालको संविधान, निजामती सेवा ऐन तथा अन्य कानुनहरूको अधीनमा रही सेवा प्रवाह गर्नुपर्ने हुन्छ । सेवा प्रवाहको क्रममा स्वेच्छाचारी र महत्त्वाकाङ्‍क्षी हुनबाट रोक्न सोही कानुनहरूले आचरणसम्बन्धी व्यवस्थाहरूसमेत गरेको पाइन्छ । तसर्थ निजामती कर्मचारीहरूले उल्लेखित ऐन कानुनको अधीनमा रही सार्वजनिक सेवालाई प्रवाह गर्नसके नेपालको समग्र विकासमा यसले महत्त्वपूर्ण टेवा पुर्‍याउने छ&nbsp; ।</p> <p>{As the Constitution of Nepal has made the public administration clean, competent, fair, transparent, corruption free, accountable to the people and participatory. Employees play an important role. In fulfilling that role, civil servants are required to provide services subject to the Constitution of Nepal, the Civil Service Act, and other laws. The same laws have also been enacted to curb the flow of services from being arbitrary and ambitious. Therefore, if the civil servants are able to provide public services subject to the said Act, it will be of great help in the overall development of Nepal.}</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44655 सदाचार प्रवर्द्धनः भ्रष्टाचार न्यूनीकरणको आधार {Promoting Virtue: The Basis for Reducing Corruption} 2022-04-26T09:45:22+00:00 भविश्वर Bhabishwor घिमिरे Ghimire bhabishor91@gmail.com <p>भ्रष्टाचार र सदाचार मानव आचरण र नैतिकतासँग गाँसिएका शब्द हुन् । भ्रष्टाचार यत्रतत्र सर्वत्र फिँजारिएको छ भने सदाचार दुर्लभ जस्तै अवस्थामा छ । भ्रष्टाचार नियन्त्रण विश्व समुदायकै एक चुनौतीको रूपमा रहेको छ। सीमाविहीन आर्थिक अपराधको रूपमा विस्तार हुँदै गएको भ्रष्टाचारको स्वरूप तथा आयाम पनि क्रमशः परिवर्तन हुँदै आएको पाइन्छ। मुलुकको सामाजिक, आर्थिक एवम् मानवीय विकासको प्रमुख बाधकको रूपमा भ्रष्टाचार रहेको हुन्छ । संसारका सबैजसो मुलुकमा भ्रष्टाचारले आर्थिक विकास र समृद्धि प्राप्तिमा ठुलो चुनौती सिर्जना गरेको छ। भ्रष्टाचारजन्य गतिविधिले समग्रमा राज्यको समृद्धि, आर्थिकवृद्धि, विकास निर्माण, सेवा प्रवाह र सुशासनमा नकारात्मक प्रभाव ल्याउँछ भने शक्ति, अधिकार र सार्वजनिक सम्पत्तिको दुरुपयोग हुन्छ । मुलुकको शासकीय पद्धति, प्रणाली र प्रक्रियामा नै ह्रास पुर्यासउँदछ । सदाचार, इमानदारी, बफादारिता, उच्चनैतिक व्यवहारसँग सम्बन्धित छ । सदाचारिता स्वार्थलाई न्यूनतम् विन्दुमा राख्नेतर्फ प्रेरित गर्ने तत्त्व पनि हो । नैतिक आचरण र सदाचारयुक्त व्यवहारले सुशासनलाई प्रवर्द्धन गर्दछ। स्रोत साधनको संरक्षण, पारदर्शी, नागरिकमैत्री व्यवहार तथा सभ्य कार्यसंस्कृतिले मात्र भ्रष्टाचारको अन्त्य तथा सदाचारको जन्म गराउँदछ।</p> <p>{Corruption and morality are words associated with human conduct and morality. Corruption is rampant, and morality is scarce. Controlling corruption remains a global challenge. The nature and extent of corruption, which is expanding as a border less economic crime, is also gradually changing. Corruption is a major obstacle to the social, economic and human development of the country. Corruption has posed a major challenge to economic growth and prosperity in almost every country in the world. Corrupt activities have a negative impact on the overall prosperity, economic growth, development, service delivery and good governance of the state and abuse of power, authority and public property. The governance system, system and process of the country is deteriorating. It is related to virtue, honesty, loyalty, high moral behavior. Virtue is also the element that motivates us to keep selfishness to a minimum. Ethical conduct and virtuous behavior promotes good governance. Only the protection of resources, transparency, citizen-friendly behavior and civilized work culture can bring an end to corruption and give birth to virtue.}</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44707 राष्ट्रिय सुरक्षाको अवधारणा र चुनौती {The concept and challenge of national security} 2022-04-28T04:03:28+00:00 चिरन Chiran कोइराला Koirala kochiranz@gmail.com <p>सुरक्षित, स्वतन्त्र एवम् सम्मानपूर्वक जीवनयापन मानिसको नैसर्गिक अधिकार हो । मानवीय हित एवम् कल्याण गर्नु सरकारको दायित्व हो ।मुलुकको स्वतन्त्रता, सार्वभौमसत्ता, भौगोलिक अखण्डता, राष्ट्रियता, स्वाधीनता, स्वाभिमान, नागरिकको हकहितको रक्षा, सीमानाको सुरक्षा, आर्थिक समृद्धि र समुन्नति एवम् राष्ट्रिय चाहनाको संरक्षण आर्थिक, राजनैतिक, कूटनैतिक तथा शक्ति प्रक्षेपणका माध्यमबाट गरिने व्यवस्थापकीय क्रियाकलाप नै राष्ट्रिय सुरक्षा व्यवस्थापन हो । परम्परागत अवधारणामा राष्ट्रिय सुरक्षालार्इ एक राष्ट्रले अर्को राष्ट्रमाथि गरिने आक्रमण वा अतिक्रमणको विरुद्धमा लिइने रक्षा नीतिलाई मात्र बुझिन्थ्यो। अहिले मानवीय सुरक्षा, खाद्य सुरक्षा, सामाजिक सुरक्षा, वातावरणीय सुरक्षा आदिलाई मानवोचित व्यवहारका पक्षहरूबाट हेर्ने गरिन्छ । विज्ञान र प्रविधिको विकाससँगै राष्ट्रले अपनाउने सुरक्षाका विविध विषयहरू जस्तैःराजनैतिक, आर्थिक, सामाजिक, कुटनैतिक, सूचना र पर्यावरण आदि समेत यसमा समावेश हुन आउँछन्। आजको सन्दर्भमा विश्वको प्रमुख सुरक्षा चुनौतीको रूपमा पर्यावरणीय सङ्कट, आणविक युद्ध प्रसार,राजनैतिक बहिष्करणएवम् प्रविधिले निम्त्याउने सङ्‍कट मानवीय अस्तित्वको विनाशका कारणका रूपमा रहेका छन् भने उन्नत प्रविधिका कारण पनि जोखिम बढ्दो छ, उक्त जोखिम व्यवस्थापन गर्न शक्तिशाली सङ्‍गठन, उत्तम राष्ट्रिय सुरक्षा नीति, कुशल नेतृत्व, प्रविधिको प्रयोग, साइबर सुरक्षा नीतिको निर्माण र कार्यान्वयन गर्न आवश्यक छ । यसका लागि सरकारको इच्छाशक्ति, कर्मचारीतन्त्रको साथ, सचेत नागरिकहरूको सक्रिय सहभागिता एवम् खबरदारी आवश्यक देखिन्छ ।</p> <p>{Living a safe, free and dignified life is a natural human right. It is the responsibility of the government to safeguard the humanitarian interests and welfare of the country. That is national security management. The traditional concept of national security was defined as a defense policy taken by one nation against an attack or encroachment on another. At present, human security, food security, social security, environmental security, etc. are viewed from the perspective of humane behavior. Along with the development of science and technology, various security issues adopted by the nation such as political, economic, social, diplomatic, information and environment are also included. The traditional concept of national security was defined as a defense policy taken by one nation against an attack or encroachment on another. At present, human security, food security, social security, environmental security, etc. are viewed from the perspective of humane behavior. Along with the development of science and technology, various security issues adopted by the nation such as political, economic, social, diplomatic, information and environment are also included.}</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44717 कोभिड-१९ महामारीमा राष्ट्रसेवक कर्मचारीको भूमिका {The role of civil servants in the Covid-19 epidemic} 2022-04-28T06:21:10+00:00 जनकराज Janakraj पन्त Panta janakpant2006@gmail.com <p>Not available</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44579 International Political Economy (IPE) and Major Agenda of Least Developed Countries(LDCs) in World Trade Organization(WTO) 2022-04-21T16:28:32+00:00 Toya Narayan Gyawali tngyawali@gmail.com <p>International trade is one of the major discourses of international political economy. Under the WTO framework, issues of LDCs are under the regular negotiation process. These days, trade, investment and economic development are getting much attention in the scope of international political economy. The WTO recognizes the least-developed countries, as per the designation by the United Nations. There are currently forty six least-developed countries as per the UN list, in which thirty five are WTO members and eight countries are in negotiation process for the accession. LDCs have exclusive access to certain international support measures particularly in the areas of development assistance and trade. The benefit of joining the WTO differs from country to country and mostly depends on the role of political economy. The common perception is that, the agenda of LDCs in the WTO are not getting proper attention in the negotiation of multilateral trading system. Some of the decisions and agreements are still in the process of implementation. This paper deals with the major agenda of LDCs in WTO in the context of Nepal. Since the government of Nepal has already decided for the LDC graduation, the review and analysis of the agendas are instrumental in order to analyze the possible impact of multilateral trade in our development endeavor.</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44580 Covid-19 and the Future of Work 2022-04-21T18:07:37+00:00 Hiramani Ghimire hiramanighimire@gmail.com <p>Covid-19 is going to have a profound impact on how we manage our work. The increasing tendency to decouple the workforce from the workplace is creating both challenges and opportunities. Amidst fear of decline in staff productivity, experience of this past year shows that employees working from flexible locations, including their own home, are becoming more productive than previously thought. Four major shifts are taking place in the world of work. Firstly, the concept of fixed location of an office is giving way to the idea of flexible locations leading to a reconfiguration of the traditional office. Secondly, managerial focus has moved from efficiency to resilience. Thirdly, control as a management principle is losing ground to trust leading to disintermediation and de-layering of decision-making. Finally, organizational leaders are increasingly emphasizing the need to complement technical skills with social Skills. Much innovation is taking place in all these areas. These shifts are happening not just because of Covid-19. They were already set in motion; the pandemic has accelerated them. Work from home is a good response to the pandemic, but it cannot be an alternative to the office for ever. Going back to the nineteenth century idea of office as a fixed location is neither efficient nor desirable. What we need is a hybrid model. Based on a review of national and international practices adopted as a response to Covid-19, this article argues that the pandemic has given public-sector agencies an opportunity to use available technologies for improving business processes through flexible working arrangements, including the hybrid model. And this process has already started. In many countries, public-sector organizations are catching up with the private sector in terms of introducing the hybrid model. We in Nepal can learn much from this and adapt some of these practices to our specific socio-economic and cultural context.</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44581 Local Level Institutional Self-Assessment System: Technological Innovation in Public Sector 2022-04-21T18:12:19+00:00 Resham Kandel raysum1980@gmail.com <p>After restructuring the governance system from unitary to federal with substantial power and resources to local level, web based Local Government Institutional Capacity Self-Assessment (LISA) system has been introduced as an innovative tool to track the performance of local governments in Nepal. The LISA intends to improve local governance which can be considered as a public sector innovation following the global trend of ICT development and e-governance. The incentive mechanism and institutional readiness are the crucial components to internalize the new system in any organization. The study illustrates that these components are poorly addressed in LISA which challenges the sustainability of the system. Moreover, the analysis shows that the issues of legal ground of the system, rewarding mechanism, IT infrastructures and IT friendly human resources at local level, quality assurance and data security, etc. are not adequately addressed to fully implement the system in future. Furthermore, capacity development and technical backstopping to the local governments are essential to make the system successful in tracking the performance of local levels. In this regard, this article presents a case of web-based institutional performance assessment system implemented at the local level governance.</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44582 Quality of Health Service: Issues and Measures to Improve 2022-04-21T18:19:24+00:00 Dhruba Nepal dnepal@gmail.com Yugal Jyoty Nepal dnepal@gmail.com <p>Health service is considered fundamental right of every citizen in the Constitution of Nepal, so it obviously becomes obligation of the State. Service quality has many dimensions, among them responsiveness towards patients is an indispensable one. Service quality and health service quality are defined differently by different writers. To improve health service quality, some measures are deemed necessary to be taken immediately. Among them, ingraining a culture of quality and use of technology are primary ones. This article focuses on the problems in health quality and some measures to be adopted in order to improve the service quality.</p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44583 ‘Balance’ in Nepali Foreign Policy: Experiences before 1990 2022-04-21T18:25:06+00:00 Santosh Sharma Poudel poudel.santosh@gmail.com <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">‘Balanced foreign policy’ is a term which is frequently used by decision makers, academics, political leaders and general public in Nepal’s foreign policy, especially concerning our immediate neighborhood. The Foreign Policy of Nepal- 2077 also states that Nepal practices balanced and independent (<em>santulit and swatantra</em>) foreign policy. The issue is being debated further in recent years as some felt that Nepal’s foreign policy tilted towards China after the Indian blockade of 2015. However, there seems to be no common understanding of what ‘balance’ means or what does it imply for Nepali foreign policy. Drawing on the foreign policy of Nepal from 1950-1990, this paper argues that Nepal has not practiced ‘balanced’ foreign policy in those years. Nepal has bandwagon with India, diversified its relations, and attempted neutrality. This paper, further, argues that ‘balance’ implies a zero-sum game mentality. Hence, ‘balance of power’ is neither desirable nor achievable. Nepali foreign policy requires a major national discussion on its foreign policy and framing that relies on mutual gains.</span></p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration https://nepjol.info/index.php/prashasan/article/view/44584 Representative Bureaucracy: The Nepalese Perspective 2022-04-21T18:30:29+00:00 Baburam Bhul sagarbaburam@gmail.com <p class="Default"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt;">The purpose of this paper is to reflect the issue of representation of the disadvantaged people in the bureaucracy in terms of the country’s contemporary demographic composition. It also intends to scrutinize the current trends of representation of women along with indigenous community, Madhesi, Dalit, disabled people and people from backward areas in the bureaucracy since the application of a reservation system in Nepal since 2007. Descriptive method has been used for analysis and the results are based on quantitative method used for the analysis and interpretation of the data. This article is based on the secondary data. The content and trend analysis have been made from the published and unpublished data and information in national reports, journals, thesis, newsletters and newspapers. Time series (since 2007) secondary data has been used for the study. The results of the study show that the country’s population consists of 49.50% male and 51.50% female. However, only 25.94% female are being represented and rest 74.06% males are still in dominant in the civil service system of Nepal in 2020. The data depicts that, the civil service has as high as 63.50% Khas/Arya but only 0.60% Muslim, 2.50% Dalit, 15.40% Madhesi and 19.5% indigenous people representations. Moral preference and commitment in recruitment and promotion to retirement is said to be the main reason behind the increasingly mono-ethnic involvement in the civil service of Nepal. Traditionally, males were over-represented in the civil service at all levels. However, the trend has been reconciled in recent years due to the continuing preponderance of female graduates and hence applicants for government jobs. Therefore, the concern over the representativeness of the Nepalese bureaucracy is less on class but more on gender and ethnicity representations. The growing trend of women and other class and ethnicity in civil servants in the recent years is positively expected to achieve the representativeness of bureaucracy with the national face. This article argues that the increasing ration of the representativeness in bureaucracy would ensure equitable, responsiveness, strengthen capacity and legitimacy of the government in the diverse society.</span></p> 2021-10-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ministry of Federal Affairs and General Administration