Pragyaratna प्रज्ञारत्न 2024-04-08T09:39:27+00:00 Asso. Prof. Govinda Katwal Open Journal Systems <p>Pragyaratna प्रज्ञारत्न is published by TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus, Tahachal, Nepal. Pragyaratna is an academic forum for the publication of articles in different streams of education including but not limited to: Nepali, English, Maths, Science, ICT, Health, Political science, History, Population and Economics.</p> Policy Knowledge Gap Among Senior Citizens 2024-04-05T02:20:16+00:00 Khem Kumar Bhurtel Parmila Basnet Shalikram Sigdel <p>The Nepalese government provides various allowances, including old age, widow, disability, and nutritional grants, to improve the quality of life for economically and socially disadvantaged individuals. This study assesses the relationship between knowledge on old age allowance policy/facility and their Quality of Life (QOL) among senior citizens of Biratnagar, a metropolitan city of Morang district. The study used a cross-sectional survey design to measure the current status of senior citizens in Biratnagar, a metropolitan city, and identify their quality of life. Independent variables like knowledge on Old Age Allowance (OAA) public transportation concession and seat preservation, government waiver on treatment fees free health service for 75+ patients, government's social security/welfare policy, spend the allowance, and opinion on current old age allowance were quantified. The sample size was calculated using Raosoft online calculator, with 370 senior citizens selected. The study in Biratnagar investigated senior citizens' quality of life using WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and interview, establishing a link between quality of life and old age allowance. The paper examined the quality of life (QOL) of senior citizens in Biratnagar, focusing on policy factors. Most of the seniors received old age allowance and used government facilities. However, a significant percentage was ignorant of the policy, resulting in poor QOL. The majority of respondents reported using facilities provided by government offices and hospitals, but there was a lack of knowledge about related policies. The study would be beneficial to have the positive impact so that the concerned stakeholders would initiate on the policies and old age allowance (OAA) on senior citizens' quality of life.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit Government Incentives for Schooling Girls from Slum Families at Community Schools and Their Academic Activities 2024-04-05T07:00:37+00:00 Thuma Kumari Paudel Govinda Prasad Adhikari <p>This cross-sectional study examined the way government scholarship influences female students from low-income families. This study has described the government scholarships offered in community schools and examined the impact of the scholarship on female student's academic achievement. The purposive sampling and QUAN-Qual. procedure were employed in this study to choose community schools and study areas. The socio-economic position of parents (who live in slum areas), their caste/ethnic variation (majority of them are Dalit and Janajati), and other factors led to select the study. For the study, all 247 eligible respondents girls from slum dwellings, ages eight to eighteen years were included. Data were gathered using a semi-structured interview schedule and a self-structured questionnaire. The student attendance register was used to identify the respondents. There were mainly two types of scholarships (residential and non-residential). It focused on target groups, including girls. Major incentive providers were the government, municipalities, NGOs, and the private sector and they focused on money, materials, and stationery. Nearly half of the respondents have received scholarships, and two-thirds have decided to use incentives for their studies. The incentive has a positive relationship to increase classroom activities and their educational performance. Nearly one-fourth of students have appealed for increased scholarship amounts, as they cannot cover their total expenses.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit Gopal Pandey's Contributions to Nepali Mathematics through "Wyakta Chandrika" 2024-04-05T07:05:52+00:00 Sher Singh Raikhola <p>This study reviews the pioneering work of Gopal Pandey and his influential textbook "Wyakta Chandrika" in shaping Mathematical education in Nepal. Beginning with an overview of the historical context of education in Nepal, including the establishment of formal schooling and the contributions of early scholars, the research focuses on Pandey's life and his journey as a Mathematician. It examines the content and significance of "Wyakta Chandrika," highlighting its role in imparting Mathematical knowledge and fostering cultural awareness among students. Additionally, the study analyzes the impact of Pandey's innovative methods, such as the trinomial method for finding cube roots, and explores the evolution of Mathematical literature in Nepal following the publication of "Wyakta Chandrika." Through an analysis of the book's contents and its implications for Mathematical education, this research provides insights into the enduring legacy of Pandey's work and its continued relevance in contemporary Nepali Mathematics.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit भाषाशिक्षकको पेसागत विकासका कार्यक्रमको प्रभावकारिता: न्यारेटिभ विश्लेषण 2024-04-05T07:08:59+00:00 शक्तिराज नेपाल <p>यस लेखमा मैले भाषाशिक्षककै जीवन्त कथा तथा स्मरणको विश्लेषणका आधारमा भाषाशिक्षकको पेसागत विकासका कार्यक्रमको प्रभावकारिताको विश्लेषण गरेको छु । भाषाशिक्षकको पेसागत विकासका लागि गरिएका कार्यक्रमहरूको प्रभावकारितासम्बन्धी भाषाशिक्षककै जीवन्त अनुभवको खोज तथा विश्लेषण गर्नु नै यस अध्ययनको उद्देश्य राखेको छु । नेपाल सरकारले विभिन्न चरणमा शिक्षकको पेसागत आधारभूत तथा पुनर्ताजगी तालिम, गोष्ठी, कार्यशालालगायत विभिन्न कार्यक्रमहरू विशिष्टीकृत गरेर तालिम प्रदान गरेको छ । उक्त कार्यक्रमसँग सम्बन्धित शिक्षककै अनुभवको विश्लेषण गर्न उत्तरआधुनिकतावादी दार्शनिक आधार तथा गुणात्मक अध्ययन पद्धतिअन्तर्गत न्यारेटिभ खोजको ढाँचालाई अपनाएको छु । गहन अन्तरवार्तामार्फत् सामुदायिक विद्यालयको प्राथमिक तहका दुईजना नेपाली भाषाशिक्षकको जीवन्त कहानीलाई सङ्कलन गरेको छु भने उक्त कहानीलाई लिखतमा उतारेपछि कोडिङ् तथा थिमेटिक विश्लेषण गरेको छु । शिक्षकका जीवन्त अनुभवलाई पेसागत विकासका तालिमको प्रभावकारिताको वर्तमान अवस्था, कक्षाकोठामा देखिएको प्रभाव, चुनौती तथा समाधानार्थ प्रयास जस्ता कुरालाई मुख्य रूपमा थिमेटिक आधार बनाई विश्लेषण गरेको छु । उक्त विश्लेषणअनुसार भाषाशिक्षकले तालिम लिएपश्चात् शिक्षणमा कहीँ न कहीँ प्रभाव परेको, विद्यार्थीको विविधतालाई सम्बोधन गर्ने चुनौती देखिएको, कक्षाकोठामा देखिएको बहुभाषिकताका कारण कक्षाकोठा व्यवस्थापनमा सुधार गर्न नसकिएको, शिक्षकलाई अझै उत्पे्ररणा र वृत्ति विकासका कार्यक्रम निरन्तर प्रदान गरिराख्नुपर्ने जस्ता प्रतिक्रिया पाएको छु । प्रस्तुत अध्ययनबाट शिक्षकको विकासका लागि प्रदान गरिने कार्यक्रमको प्रभावकारिताको मूल्याङ्कन गर्न तथा उक्त मूल्याङ्कनबाट शिक्षकको विकासका थप कार्यक्रमको तय गर्न एवम् योजनालाई हेरफेर गर्न पनि सहयोग पुग्ने भएकाले यस लेखको उपयोगिता रहेको देखिन्छ ।</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit Transforming Physics Education: Harnessing the Potential of Concept Mapping Across Cognitive Domains 2024-04-05T07:13:37+00:00 Bishnu Kumar Dahal <p>This study aimed to investigate how concept mapping affects student performance in physics education across different cognitive areas. It concerns a study conducted at Tribhuvan University-affiliated education campuses in Kathmandu and Bhaktapur districts, employing a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test design. The investigation delves into the efficacy of concept mapping as an instructional tool to enhance student learning outcomes in physics education. The research design included a Control group with 70 participants and an Experimental group with 95 participants. The study showcased superior posttest performance in the Experimental group compared to the Control group across Knowledge, Understanding, Application, and Higher levels of cognitive domains. These findings underscore the effectiveness of Concept Mapping in enhancing student performance, positioning it as a promising educational strategy in physics instruction. The study employed the Kuder-Richardson 21 test to validate the instrument's reliability (coefficient of 0.78) and utilized SPSS version 20 for data analysis. Concept Mapping proves effective in enhancing physics education, demonstrating notable improvement in student achievement across various cognitive domains. Finding of the study revealed that Concept Mapping effectively improved posttest outcomes, emphasizing its beneficial influence on students' understanding and utilization of physics principles.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit Contextualizing Socio-Cultural Theory on Language Teaching and Learning in Nepal 2024-04-05T07:16:19+00:00 Tek Mani Karki Rita Devi Karki <p>Grounded in the socio-cultural theory (SCT) of learning, this study postulates that cognitive development is intricately tied to social interactions, highlighting the significance of cultural and social contexts in shaping an individual’s learning experiences and intellectual growth. Utilizing the content analysis methodology, the study systematically analyzes three key constructs—social interaction, the more knowledgeable other (MKO), and the zone of proximal development (ZPD)—drawing from Vygotsky’s seminal works to contextualize these constructs to enhance the language teaching and learning process within the specific cultural framework of Nepal. The findings reveal insights into the application of SCT in Nepalese language education. Social interactions, crucial in Vygotsky’s theory, find significance in Nepal’s communal spirit, influencing language learning positively. MKOs, both human and symbolic, play an essential role in shaping language learning, aligning with Nepalese values and linguistic diversity. The ZPD framework is applicable in Nepal’s diverse educational landscape, addressing individual differences and accommodating cultural nuances in which the scaffolding technique has a fundamental role in bridging linguistic gaps and fostering a collective journey toward linguistic proficiency. Overall, Vygotsky’s SCT demonstrates relevance and adaptability in the unique cultural and linguistic context of Nepal, offering insights into educational policies and practices.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit Explore The Mid-day Meal Policy in the Context of Retention in School Education 2024-04-05T07:20:13+00:00 Durga Devi Ghimire <p>Explore The Mid-day Meal Policy in the Context of Retention in School Education: A Teacher's Perspective from Lalitpur District. Nepal's midday meal policy, aimed at improving children's health and educational access, is a critical component of its national education system. However, limited research has explored this policy from the viewpoint of community school teachers. This study addresses three pivotal research questions: The funding for midday meals is adequate. The allocated funding is fully utilized. The program enhances education quality and reduces dropout rates due to midday meals. In-depth interviews with Lalitpur district teachers, where the midday meal policy is active, provided qualitative data. Ethical considerations safeguarded participants' identities and opinions. Teachers expressed concerns about insufficient funds for midday meals, requiring additional local contributions. Nevertheless, they reported that the granted funds were fully utilized, supporting students' nutrition and local farmers. The program positively impacted education quality and reduced dropout rates. This study underscores the midday meal policy's challenges and successes, highlighting the importance of supplementary financial support for student nutrition. It also emphasizes the program's multiple advantages, including improved education quality and lower dropout rates, especially among disadvantaged students. The provision of a midday meal program in schools can have a positive impact on student retention This research offers vital insights into Nepal's midday meal policy's impact on the education system. It emphasizes the ongoing need for financial support to sustain and enhance the program, ultimately benefiting children's comprehensive development.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit Tax Structure in Nepal: Its Impact on the Real Economy 2024-04-05T07:22:58+00:00 Toya Nath Bhattarai <p>The objective of this paper is to study the tax structure of Nepal and its impact on the real economy. The data collected from various published data sources like Economic Survey of Nepal, Nepal Rastra Bank, World Bank, IMF and other institutions are used to test regression models to reach at conclusion of the research paper. This article reviews the structure of Nepal's tax systems and looks at how they affect economic growth, redistribution of income, and macroeconomic stability. Studies reveal that Nepal's relatively higher dependency on direct taxes restrains economic expansion, however not as much as in the "Rest of the World." Still, Nepal's greater reliance on direct taxes does not appear to materially reduce economic volatility or income inequality, unlike most other countries.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit नेपाली र माझी भाषामा व्याकरणात्मक कोटिको तुलना 2024-04-05T08:40:03+00:00 वासुदेव गौतम <p>नेपाल बहुभाषिक देश हो । यहाँ करिब १२४ ओटा भाषाका वक्ताहरु रहेका छन् । विश्वमा बोलिने विभिन्न भाषा परिवारहरुमध्ये नेपालमा छओटा भाषा परिवारका भाषाहरु बोलिन्छ । ती भाषा परिवारमध्ये भारोपेली भाषा परिवारे एक हो । यसै परिवारभित्र बोलिने भाषा हो माझी भाषा । यो भाषाका बक्ताहरु वि.सं. २०७८ सालको जनगणनाअनुसार करिब १० हजार अर्थात् ०.०१२ प्रतिशत छन् । यो भाषाका वक्ताहरु विभिन्न नदीका किनारमा छरिएर बसेबास गर्दै आएका छन् । यिनीहरु माछा मारेर आफ्नो जीविकोपार्जन गर्दै आएका छन् । माझीहरुले बोल्ने भाषा भएकाले यो भाषाको नाम माझी भाषा रहेको छ । यो भाषा पिछडिएको भाषाको वर्गमा पर्दछ । त्यसैले यो भाषाको बारेमा कँही कतैबाट खोज अनुसन्धान भएको पाइँदैन । यसैकारणले यस्तो पिछडिएको भाषाको अध्ययन अनुसन्धान गर्नु नै यो अध्ययनको मुख्य उद्देश्य रहेको छ । नेपाली र माझी भाषाको व्याकरणात्मक कोटिको तुलनात्मक अध्ययन गर्दा लिङ्ग, वचन, पुरुष, काल, पक्ष सबैमा व्यतिरेकी पाइन्छ ।माझी भाषामा पनि आफ्नै किसिमको व्याकरण व्यवस्था रहेको कुरा नै प्रस्तुत अध्ययनको प्राप्ति हो । यो प्राप्ति गर्नको लागि प्राथमिक स्रोत र द्वितीयक स्रोतलाई अध्ययनको विधि बनाइएको छ । प्रस्तुत अध्ययनले दोस्रो भाषाको रुपमा नेपाली भाषा शिक्षण गर्दा महत्वपूर्ण सहयोग पुर्याउँदछ । माझी भाषाको व्याकरण व्यवस्थाका आधारमा विमातृभाषी शिक्षकले माझी भाषाका वक्ताहरुको लागि नेपाली भाषा शिक्षण गर्दा यो अध्ययनले महत्वपूर्ण टेवा पुर्याउँने कुरामा आशा गर्न सकिन्छ ।</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit Difficulties in Studying Abstract Algebra at the Undergraduate Level 2024-04-05T08:44:08+00:00 Yagya Prasad Gnawali <p>This study has attempted to explain the major challenges that undergraduate students face when learning abstract algebra. Students at the undergraduate level totaling one hundred twenty (120) were chosen as the sample size. In this study, the survey design is based on the positivist paradigm. Probability sampling was used to select the students of undergraduate level. For the validation of this study, self-administrated Likert type questionnaires were employed, along with extensive discussion with mathematics teachers who have taught and are presently teaching algebra at the undergraduate level. According to survey results, there were four main reasons—Formalism and Rigor, Lack of Prior Knowledge, Teaching and Learning Technique, Assignment and Assessment, -that hindered the students’ ability to learn abstract algebra. The research outcomes in terms of motivation, self- esteem and challenges of the respondents will be helpful to understand the nuances of teaching and learning abstract algebra at higher education in Nepal.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit Mathematics Self-efficacy among Secondary Level Students 2024-04-05T08:51:20+00:00 Krishna Chandra Paudel Shree Prasad Ghimire <p>Low level of mathematical self-efficacy in students lessens their drive to study, which could culminate to poor mathematical outcomes. The objective of the paper was to figure out the level of mathematical self-efficacy among secondary level students. For this study quantitative paradigm was adopted, data were collected from the survey from 402 secondary school students of grade 9 to 12, randomly selected from two institutional and two community schools of Kathmandu. To measure the level of mathematics self-efficacy, the 14 items pertaining to mathematics self-efficacy were borrowed from MSEAQ prepared by May (2009). The alpha coefficient of the Self-efficacy scale was 0.91 and from the component matrix, each items have a factor loading greater than 0.4. A medium level of math self-efficacy but the lack of uniformity in mathematics self-efficacy was found. The mean mathematics self-efficacy score of male students was higher than female; the self-efficacy was slightly higher in institutional school than community school students. The mean self-efficacy score of grade 12 students was found highest and grade 9 was found least. The math self- efficacy was statistically significantly different based on gender and based on grade, but not based on types of school. The findings of this study indicate the need of stakeholders sustaining a support system that includes counselling, motivation, parental and teacher support, and other means to enhance students' mathematics self- efficacy.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit Perceptions towards Online System of Teaching and Learning Mathematics 2024-04-05T08:55:18+00:00 Siddhi Raj Joshi <p>This research paper discusses on the online mode of teaching/learning mathematics especially during the period of COVID-19. The main objective of the study was to analyze the perceptions of students’ and teachers’ towards online system of teaching/learning mathematics. The study was carried out using case study. Four students studying mathematics at B. Ed. level and two teachers teaching at the same level were the participants of this study. Findings of the study showed that online class was less Interactive and there were complications due to Poor Connections. On the other hand, Flexible Learning and Opportunity to Learn in Self Pacing were found to be positive aspects of the system. At the same time, the research concluded two major challenges: challenge of Immediate Feedback and challenge Monitoring Students’ Activities during the class.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 वर्णविन्यासगत समस्या र यसको समाधान 2024-04-05T08:57:58+00:00 दावा शेर्पा <p>प्रस्तुत वर्णविन्यासगत समस्याको शोध लेख गुणात्मक अध्ययन ढाँचको द्वितीय स्रोतमा आधारित रहेको छ । नेपाली भाषा शिक्षण सिकाइमा वर्णविन्यासगत त्रुटिका प्रश्नहरूमा उठेका समस्याको समाधानमा केन्द्रित गर्नु नै यस लेखको प्राज्ञिक उद्देश्य रहेको छ । प्रस्तुत लेखमा ह्रस्व/दीर्घ, ब/व, पञ्चम वर्ण, शिरविन्दु/चन्द्रविन्दु, हलन्त/अजन्त, पदयोग/पदवियोगजस्ता समस्याको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । नेपाली भाषाको शुद्घशुद्घिमा तत्सम, तद्भव र आगन्तुक शब्दका आ–आफ्नै वर्णविन्यासगत नियम हुन्छ । तत्सम शब्द (वीज/बीज, विना/बिना), तद्भव शब्द (दश/दस, दुबै/दुवै), आगन्तुक शब्द (लिम्बु/लिम्बू, खुसी/खुशी), हलन्त र अजन्त शब्द (भरपाइ/भर्पाइ, खरदार/खर्दार), ह्रस्व र दीर्घ (ठुलो/ठूलो, मुजुर/मयूर), क्रियाविशेषण शब्द(ढलीमली, झिलिमिली), मिलित क्रिया (गरिरहनु/गरी रहनु/गरि रहनु) जस्ता विवादस्त हिज्जेमा एक रूपता गर्नुपर्ने छ । तद्भव र आगन्तुक शब्दको अगाडि र बिचको इकार र उकार ह्रस्व लेखिन्छ भने तत्सम शब्दादिमा इकार र उकार ह्रस्व लेखिने तथा इकार र उकार दीर्घ लेखिने तत्सम शब्दकोे वर्णविन्यासको अध्ययन गरिएको छ । ‘ब’ र ‘व’ तथा पञ्चम वर्णको उच्चारण अनुस्वारमा वैकल्पिक शिरविन्दु र अनुनासिक स्वरमा चन्द्रविन्दुको प्रयोग गर्ने तथा पदयोग र पदवियोगको वर्णविन्यासगत प्रयोगको अध्ययन गरिएको छ ।</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit Practices of Semester System Master's Program at Mahendra Ratna Campus Tahachal 2024-04-05T09:01:18+00:00 Bhawani Prasad Mainali <p>The purpose of the study is to analyze the practices of semester system master's program at MRC, Tahachal. Semester system effectiveness and success depend upon its implementation practices. The qualitative case study research design is used in this study. Teachers, students, the assistant campus chief, department heads, and non-teaching personnel involved in this program were the research participants. The research site was MRC, Tahachal. The tools used for gathering information for the study were interviews, general observations, and document analysis. I have used a qualitative methodology to examine and interpret the data, which includes editing, summarizing, organizing, classifying, and drawing conclusions. The study concludes that the current implementation practice of semester system has been partially implemented. Most students don't continually engage in the teaching and learning process in the classroom. Regarding the semester system program, neither the teachers nor the students are happy. The roles and responsibilities of the department and campus administration have not been carried out to the anticipated level of expectation. The efficacy of the internal assessment system has been lacking. The dean's office and its duties are not perceived as being more beneficial to the semester system's implementation. Since the main stakeholders have not actively engaged in the semester system program's activities, they ought to routinely and cooperatively participate in developing the campus's teaching and learning environment. Stakeholders generally agree that the semester system is beneficial when applied in its intended spirit.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit Perceived Employability Variations Across Specializations Subjects in the Faculty of Education at Tribhuvan University 2024-04-05T09:03:59+00:00 Basudeb Khanal <p>This study explores the level of perceived employability among education students, examining the multifaceted dimensions of skills and competencies crucial for success in the professional realm. Employability extends beyond technical proficiency, encompassing a range of attributes contributing to adaptability and effectiveness. Perceived employability, a subjective assessment of one's ability to secure and maintain employment, plays a pivotal role in shaping individuals' career approaches. A quantitative and exploratory approach was employed, utilising a cross-sectional survey and questionnaire within the context of Nepal's Faculty of Education at Tribhuvan University. The study involved 271 final-year students, employing proportional random sampling and statistical analyses. While education students express high confidence in various employability dimensions, a nuanced categorisation reveals a dual nature of 'presence' and 'consolidation' levels across competencies. Furthermore, specialisation subjects significantly influence perceived employability, with science majors showing higher levels. The study underscores the imperative for a comprehensive understanding of employability factors, emphasising the substantial impact of major subject choice on education students' confidence and readiness for future careers. The findings provide insights for academic institutions, policymakers, and students to enhance strategies for bridging the gap between education and employability in the Nepalese context.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit Parental Behaviors During Menstruation among female students 2024-04-05T09:07:39+00:00 Shanta Upadhya <p>The study "Parental Behaviors during Menstruation among Female Students" embodies that good parental behavior involves talking openly about periods, giving girls the products they need, giving emotional support, and teaching them about staying clean and healthy during menstruation. How parents handle the stigma around periods also reflects their behavior. The purpose of the study is to examine the parental behaviors during the time of menstruation. Using quantitative and descriptive methods, the study selected 250 students by simple random sampling from the 650 enrolled on the two component sites. These campuses were chosen by convenience sampling from a pool of 22 in the Kathmandu Valley. Parents play a crucial role in providing emotional support, guidance, and education to their daughters about menstruation, empowering them to navigate this natural biological process with confidence and understanding. It examine that the diverse views on menstruation. While many respondent believed it as natural and don't limit activities, some follow traditional beliefs that restrict interactions with males and certain activities. Family practices also vary, from isolation to prioritizing hygiene. Such types of study can be done in affiliated campus and used qualitative research design.</p> 2024-04-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 TUTA, Mahendra Ratna Campus Unit