Gender Disparities- Issues on Sexual and Reproductive Health; Knowledge and Practices on Decision Making
Sexual and Reproductive health rights are key human rights instruments. Since last few decades, sexual and reproductive health and rights has been recognized as a major topic in the international health and development agenda. Sexual and reproductive rights of women became recognized as universal human rights in 1994, violations of which happen in some reproductive health areas including gender concern. But in the developing countries like ours, patriarchal society rooted deeply that male control over women's mobility, sexuality and reproduction. Men’s control over women’s mobility like imposition of Parda, restriction on leaving domestic space, strict separation of public and private space and limits on interaction between the sexes. Male controls over women’s sexuality like women are obliged to provide sexual services to their men when they desire, the legal and moral values restrict women’s sexuality outside marriage, men may force their women in sex trade. Even in reproduction male control over them. Men also control over women’s reproductive power in many societies by no freedom to decide how many children they want and when, cannot decide to use the contraceptive or terminate the pregnancy. In most of the South Asian countries women are forced to give birth to a son or her place is not secured so she is compelled to give several births if she cannot produce son. Sexual and reproductive health and rights are important rights in themselves, but can also greatly enhance possibilities for empowering girls and women and for achieving gender equality. Reproductive health stresses people rights to sexuality, reproduction, and family planning, and the information to actualize these rights, which has been inseparably linked to development. We examine how sexual and reproductive health and rights interventions can have positive and lasting impacts not only on the health outcomes of girls and women, but can also enable women’s access to opportunities across social, economic and political life. Many efforts had been done in these issues nationally and internationally.
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