Patan Prospective Journal https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj <p>Patan Prospective Journal (PPJ) is a multi-disciplinary biannual double-blind peer-reviewed research journal published by the Democrat Professors’ Association, Nepal (DEPAN), Patan Multiple Campus Unit (PMC Unit), Patan Dhoka, Lalitpur, Nepal.</p> Democrat Professors' Association Nepal en-US Patan Prospective Journal 2565-5159 तराईका भूमिगत संगठनका मागहरू र सरकारको सम्वोधन https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59084 <p>मधेसी समुदायले मधेसीहरूको हकहितका लागि निर्वाचनमा भाग लिने गरी मधेस केन्द्रित राजनीतिक पार्टीहरूखोलेजस्तै भूमिगत रूपमा सशस्त्र आन्दोलन गर्नेगरी केही भूमिगत संगठनहरू वि.सं. २०५० सालदेखि वि.सं. २०६४सालसम्म पटक पटक खुलेका थिए । सप्तरीका जयकृष्ण गोइतले वि.सं. २०६१ साल साउन ११ गते तराई जनतान्त्रिकमुक्ति मोर्चा खोलेपछि मधेसमा भूमिगत सशस्त्र गतिविधि बढेको थियो । संविधानसभाको निर्वाचन हुनु अघिदेखि नैभूमिगत संगठनहरूले विज्ञप्ती जारी गरेर मागहरू प्रस्तुत गर्ने र सरकारले समेत बार्ताका लागि पत्रहरू पठाउने कामहरूगरिरहेको थियो । संविधानसभाको निर्वाचन पछि संविधानसभा नियमावली, २०७० को नियम ६५ को उपनियम (८)बमोजिम संवैधानिक राजनीतिक संवाद तथा सहमति समितिले ‘संविधानसभा बाहिर रहेका विभिन्न राजनीतिक दल तथा सरोकारवालाहरूसंग वार्ता गरी संविधान निर्माणमा सबैको सहयोग जुटाउनु पर्ने भन्ने उत्तरदायित्व र जिम्मेवारी पुरागर्न संवैधानिक– राजनीतिक संवाद तथा सहमति समितिले मिति २०७१ जेठ ८ गते गठित प्रारम्भिक वार्ता उपसमितिलेसो अनुरूप नेपाल सरकारका सहमति र सहकार्यमा विभिन्न समयमा विभिन्न राजनीतिक दल, सशस्त्र समूहहरूसंगबर्ता गर्दै आएको थियो । यो क्रम वि.सं. २०७५ सालमा सरकारले सांसद सोमप्रसाद पाण्डेको संयोजकत्वमा गठन गरेकोराजनीतिक वार्ता टोली, २०७५ले समेत पटक पटक बार्ताहरू गरेर संझौता गर्ने, कारागार, गृह प्रशासन लगायतलाई पत्रहरू पठाएर निर्णयहरू पठाउने र सुरक्षाको व्यवस्था मिलाउन भन्ने जस्ता कुराहरू गरेको थियो ।पटक पटक बार्तामा बसेर संझौताहरू गर्ने भूमिगत सशस्त्र संगठनहरूले हतियारहरू बुझाउने, आफ्नो सशस्त्रआन्दोलन त्याग्ने कामहरू गरेका भएपनि उनीहरूले आन्दोलनको समयमा उठाएका मागहरूलाई सम्बोधन गर्नुभन्दातत्काल भूमिगत संगठनका मानिसहरूलाई आन्दोलन रोक्न लगाउने र उनीहरूको बन्दी र लागेका मुद्दाहरू खारेज गर्नेआश्वासन सहितको सहमतिहरू भएको पाइन्छ । तर वि.सं. २०८० को भदौ मसान्तसम्म पनि बार्तामा भएकास हमतिहरू कार्यान्वय भएन भनेर सरकारसंग बार्ता गरिसकेका २७ वटा संगठनहरूले साझा रूपमा ‘सहमति कार्यान्वयसहयोग अभियान’ मार्फत सरकारलाई सहमति कार्यान्वयन गर्न दवाव दिइरहेका छन् । सहमतिहरू आंशिक रूपमा कार्यान्वयन भए पनि पूर्णरूपमा कार्यान्वयन भएका छैनन् । यसले मधेसमा पुनः सशस्त्र भूमिगत संगठनहरू सक्रिय हुनसक्ने सम्भावनाहरू बढेर गएको देखिन्छ ।</p> विजयप्रसाद Bijayaprasad मिश्र Mishra Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 272 283 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59084 A Review on Saleem Dhobi’s Politics of Ethnicity in American Literature https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59085 <p>Not Available.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Najia Khan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 284 286 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59085 Lajja: A Critical Examination of Religious Fanaticism in Taslima Nasrin's Novel https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/58936 <p>Taslima Nasrin's novel, Lajja, explores the theme of religious fanaticism and its devastating impact on individuals and society. Published in 1993, the novel offers a poignant portrayal of a Hindu family living in Bangladesh and their struggles in the aftermath of the Babri Masjid demolition in India. This article aims to analyze Nasrin's Lajja in the context of religious fanaticism, examining the narrative's socio-political implications and its significance in promoting religious tolerance and understanding. The research paper follows both descriptive and analytical method, and is based on both primary and secondary sources. Taslima Nasrin’s Lajja served as the primary source while many articles and essays constituted the secondary sources.</p> Himal Giri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 1 8 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.58936 Nepalese Political Leadership in Relief Distribution and Constitution Drafting Process after Earthquake-2015 https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/58939 <p>This paper discusses the characteristics of leadership in Nepalese politics specifically after the earthquake of 2015.With some examples from the context, it argues that leadership like other techniques prioritizes on the elements like caring, problem solving and facilitation. It makes attempts to promote sustainability in the social and capital structure of the nation. Again, it challenges long rooted social problems like discrimination, injustices and inequalities leading towards unity in diversity of culture, tradition and ethnicity. In exercising the power in Nepali society, there are a number of leadership styles like charismatic, authentic, feudalistic, authoritative, democratic, transformational, spiritual, and ethical in practice. However, we find lacking of responsibility in the tendency of exercising leadership in our context. This article highlights the drawbacks like arise of conflict due to the lack of responsibility in leadership. It further discusses attributable factors causing harm in the peaceful and prosperous setting of society. Thus it hopes in developing the culture of responsibility in crafting leadership styles in various sectors of the Nepalese community in times to come for a better social order.</p> Kapil Karki Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 9 15 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.58939 Rai Community and Shifting Cultivation Practices in Eastern Nepal: A Study of Balakhu, Okhaldhunga https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/58940 <p>Shifting cultivation is a form of land use pattern among poor and indigenous communities with a rotation of cultivation and follow in the same unit of land. Thousands of indigenous people, with majority households for subsistence living, are depending on shifting cultivation practices. Shifting cultivation in Nepal, locally called as Khoriya or Bhasme, is a land use practice in which indigenous communities clear and cultivate secondary forests in plots of different sizes, leave these plots to regenerate naturally through fallows of medium to long duration. This practice is in transition these days with rising population of shifting cultivators and demand of more food stuff. This case study demonstrates the relationship among land use practices, people livelihood and health issues of Rai community who have involved in shifting cultivation practices in Balakhu Village of Okhaldhunga.</p> Khila Nath Sapkota Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 16 22 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.58940 Status of Foreign Labour Migration and Impact of Migrants by COVID - 19 in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/58941 <p>The paper based on the status of labour migration and remittances of Nepal in 2014 to 2022. The aims of this paper are to find out the situation of foreign labour migration in Nepal and to examine the impact of COVID-19 on the Outflow of Nepali Migrants. It is descriptive in nature and entirely based on secondary sources of information. The trends in foreign employment are presented for past eight years, 2009/10-2018/19. Although Nepal labour migration report 2022 and prelimanari report of 2021, this report reiterates those trends along with updated data from the past fiscal year to create a single comprehensive report. According to National Living Standard Survey 2011, 56 percent of Nepali households have at least one member of their family working and living abroad. The remittances sent by these members have helped improve the standard of living of Nepali households. In 2020, the remittances sent by migrant workers covered to 23.5 percent of the Nepal’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Therefore, international labor migration plays a huge role in keeping Nepal’s economy afloat. The decision of the youths to go abroad as labor was a strategy to escape from the potential threat, livelihood options, and get new country experience which ultimately became the major source to bring back remittance. Though low- skilled, foreign labor migration has been the major phenomenon for the country, which is now fully dependent on the remittance economy and counts for over one- fourth of the total national income. Nepal has undertaken several policy measures to overcome these anomalies. Although the implementation aspect is fragile to meet the ground reality, and from the notion of strategic intervention, it is necessary to revisit the policy measures to make foreign labor migration safe, secure, and informed choice based.</p> Manamaya Mishra Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 23 34 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.58941 Historical Processes of Power, Knowledge, and Identity Change in Gurungs: With Relevancy to Identity Conflict and Modern Debates in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/58942 <p>The major theme of this paper is to demystify prior theoretical concepts of cultural identity in Gurungs and tries to establish new arguments regarding identity. Most of the previous theoretical contributions found that identity always remains the same and is fixed in a single blood, land, or territory. However, this paper claims that identity cannot be understood as a fixed form, it is always changed and constructed in a historical time frame. Even different forms of cultural and ritual practices in societies have been created in certain time frames and are also being changed. Based on this, the construction of Gurungs’ identity was the consequence of long historical processes and power formation. Recently, many social scientists have argued that culture and identity should not be understood as observing the only objective reality but need to be subjected. It can be interpreted as understanding the long historical migratory processes, contacting different clans, and groups, studying the historical power formations, new knowledge establishments, economic relations, and changes. Gurungs’ identity and culture can only be interpreted by understanding the historical migratory roots in the northern foothills from Mt. Kailash to Kaski, Lamjung, and Gorkha and contact with different kings’ (local king (Kroh) powers, Ghale king powers, Hindu kings’ powers, and modern economic powers) and their formation of knowledge in a historical timeframe. Power is the major key factor in the creation of culture and identity but it does not mean only political power, rather understood as established new knowledge formation in the society.</p> Mani Raj Gurung Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 35 47 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.58942 An Operational Recent Media and Field Study on Tribhuvan University's Academia https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/58943 <p>Tribhuvan University (TU) is the only central and the eldest university in Nepal. It has been the role model of the other universities here and it has own identity globally in the meaning of number of student, provision of various subjects, eco-friendly landscape with the sufficient physical infrastructure and so on. It is still the prime choice of Nepali students whose economy is poor for higher studies, but those who are financially sound, try to go abroad after school level education. Despite TU having enough land property including human resources in comparison to other Nepali universities, the students do not seem fully satisfied in average with the academic activities, some central level educational policies, management system, service and hospitality of the core staffs resultantly unable to perform excellent in the final examination. Keeping old and new some philosophies of education in the mind, for example, Socrates, John Dewey, E. George Payne and some others, this research article renders passionately in the mind of many stakes holder student and teachers at TU’s one constituent campus, Patan Multiple Campus, Patandhoka (Lalitpur) as a sample study through interviews. It reads some lines of the Nepali mass media in the recent so that the related authorities of TU will get feedback for rectification in time in the favor of the nation as well as to reset its own glorious past image in the society, thus, quasi-experimental method works in this article.</p> Manoj Kumar Karna Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 48 61 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.58943 Unity and Diversity of Neplese Culture https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/58944 <p>The Nepalese population is not the product of an intimate miscegenation of a number of diverse races and there can found more racial ramifications, with separate languages and customs connected with them. They may have come from outside or some of them may be traced as aborigine groups, and there may be the evidences of racial, geographical and economic diversities, but so far the "cultural milieux" is concerned it's the out product and supra-product of the common racial contribution of different languages and cultural groups of Nepalese people. We are at present conscious of a common Nepalese Ness of outlook although are some 'agent provocative' of Indian sub-cont endeavoring much to 'discrep and divast' the Nepalese cultural unity discarding Hinduism on the basis of sectarianism, regionalism and so called aboriginalisms. It is, being the source of violence, which can disintegrate the nation ultimately. For the communalists Hinduism is but a 'stratagem or intrigue' created by 'Bahun and Chhetries' for the exploitation, suppression, oppression and recognized as 'Ko domination of and against other castes and ethics groups. They promote the ideas of' Magarata' 'Khasana' 'Sesants' 'Lembuana' 'Kerata' 'Gyu-Rong' (regions of nine chiefs of Gurungs) 'Tharuwana' etc. as new Hindu people with their separate petty states, which may by the later half of the 18th century. Prithivi Narayan Shah, The Hindu King had Conquest and proclaimed" Yo Asala Hindustana ho". His political unification was followed by Codification to legitimatize, the Hindu autocratic authority through Hindu social law. According to them did not change the ideology received as a legacy from the past regime and constitutionally declared Nepal Thanas. The Deur as a Hindu state and kingdom.</p> Murari Krishna Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 62 66 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.58944 Tribhuvan University in Kirtipur; A History of Resistance and Change https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/58946 <p>This paper, focused on the history of establishment of university in Kiritpur, is centered around a question - How the establishment of Tribhuvan University in Kirtipur is associated with a pattern of change influencing the everyday life of the local people? Given the background, this paper has intended to&nbsp; shed light on the history of Tribhuvan University in Kirtipur amidst resistance of the people, particularly on how the process of establishment of the university proceeded at the beginning and, in addition, the impacts on the society and the people of Kirtipur following the founding of a great institution in the history of Nepal. For this purpose, qualitative information has been generated from ethnographic interviews supplemented by focus group discussion guided by a check-list, mainly with the local senior citizen informants above 60 years of age who have witnessed the place and processes from decades. The study shows that the people who were reluctant to welcome the university because it forcefully purchased their land and they were compelled to shift from farming to non-farming occupation had lots of grievances and dissatisfaction with the government. However, over time the urbanization, expansion of market and emigration of the population have found to have brought various aspects of development regarding road and transportation, modern housing and settlement, growth in physical infrastructures associated with education, health and market. Now, people have realized the benefit directly and indirectly in their lives.</p> Pradeep Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 67 80 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.58946 RETRACTED - Characterization and Mode-Locking of Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser for Ultra-Short Pulse Generation https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/58947 <p><strong>Retraction Notice</strong><br />On 4th December 2023 this article was retracted due to numerous errors in the paper. Two of the authors were included without their permission and therefore have been removed.</p> Karan Tharu Phanindra Thapa Dipak Kumar Subedi Rajesh Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 81 98 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.58947 Implications of 9/11 Attacks in Waldman’s The Submission https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/58950 <p>This paper scrutinizes the impacts of 9/11 attacks as portrayed in Amy Waldman’s <em>The Submission</em> that is written in 2011 after a decade of the incident. The research shows that the incident of 9/11 opens up both new challenges and opportunities for the people of the world in general and the Americans in particular. The article explains the reasons for the adversities that minorities and women experience in the aftermath of the attacks as depicted in the novel. As the terrorists are men, the incident of 9/11 is generally seen as a masculine event that overshadows the sufferings experienced by the women characters. The objective of the paper is to explore the repercussions of the attacks in the lives of the women as portrayed in the text. The article pictures the trials and tribulations of women from ethnic minorities of the non-western countries. The paper employs the feminist perspective to analyze the traumatic sufferings of the Asian women. I use the concept of E. Kaplan to analyze the fictional data to investigate into the status of ethnic minorities especially women in the post-9/11 situation in the United States of America. The finding of the research implies that women face more identity crisis than their counterparts in the aftermath of the incident regarding life, liberty and pursuit of happiness which are needed to lead lives with dignity. </p> Rashmi Thapa Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 99 105 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.58950 Factors of the Inflation in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59007 <p>This study examines the impacts of macroeconomic variables on the inflation in Nepal during 1975-2022. The variables considered for the study is limited to the use of broad money supply, real GDP, Indian prices. The results suggest that all variables considered are significant in long run implying that these variables are the determinants of inflation in Nepal. The results are consistent with monetary theory. The money supply and Indian prices cause inflation in the long-run based on an Ordinary Least Squares regression model. The empirical results show that in the long-run, the major determinants of inflation in Nepal are Indian inflation (0.453), real income (0.347),and exchange rate (0.224). In addition, Indian inflation (0.286), the exchange rate (0.141), and government deficit (0.039) have significant effects in the short-run. Finally, the error correction term is found to be negative and statistically significant suggesting a correction of short-run disequilibrium within two years.</p> Reem Prasad Humagai Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 106 115 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59007 The Influence of Social-media on Agenda-setting in Nepali Journalism https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59016 <p>This article examines the influence of social media on traditional media's role in shaping public opinion and agenda-setting in Nepal. Social media has emerged as a powerful medium, surpassing traditional media in terms of influence and reach. Drawing on the theoretical framework of agenda-setting, this study explores the current state of social media in Nepal. Using case studies and interviews with experts as primary sources and considering social media's purpose, use, and impact, the article presents a comprehensive analysis. The findings reveal that social media increasingly plays a stronger role in agenda-setting, while traditional media's ability to shape opinions and facilitate debates is diminishing. With its fast-paced dissemination, affordability, and visible impact, social media has overtaken traditional media in setting the agenda. However, the unrestricted production of content on social media poses risks, as it lacks an editing process. Traditional media, now relying on social media, faces intensified competition. To remain relevant and avoid weakening, news media must invest in content research and adapt to changing usage patterns. Upholding journalistic standards while leveraging the strengths of social media is crucial for traditional media in Nepal.</p> Rishikesh Dahal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 116 127 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59016 Assessment of School Essentials in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59025 <p>This paper examines the importance of educated and trained teachers, updated curricula, latest technologies, efficient management committee, school buildings with spacious playgrounds in executing the educational plans formulated to impart quality education to the youths of the current generation so that they can contribute to the future development of Nepal reaching different positions and places. How can schools perform better and what are the necessities that help to cater quality education? The objective of the article is to revitalize the initiatives be taken and would be taken for the holistic development of the education and educational institutions that are committed to fueling the country with the quality human resources that can affect the multidimensional development in varied approaches. The findings of the paper have been that the digital competencies tremendously significant that can boost up the pedagogical approach. The quality of teachers determines the standard of the schools whether they are public or private. The exploration reveals that the role of frequent training and conferences is indispensable in capacitating the teachers who are one of the most crucial aspects of the educational institutions. The research demonstrates that without the development and motivation of the teachers, even advanced curricula and sophisticated buildings cannot be adequate enough to execute the education plan to ensure quality education. Therefore, the focus of the school management must be on the development of teachers’ competence and career for the sustainable development of the academic institutions.</p> Saleem Dhobi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 128 134 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59025 Drug Addiction and Its Effect on the Urban Society https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59026 <p>This paper based on the drug addiction and its effect on Urban Society. The aims of the paper are to find out the causes of the drugs addiction and to examine the effect of the drug addiction of the society. It was based on Kritipur Municipality ward no 6 and 7, Bhajungle and Chovar area where the huge numbers of drug users are found and also school children are involved in different types of drug abuse as well as they spend more time in this areas. Sample areas and respondents were selected by the purposive sampling method. The data collection method was primary as well as secondary method. Descriptive research design was used and output of data presented by table and pie chart. Drugs addiction is one of the anti-social activities that goes against everything stand for humanity drug include chemical such as tobacco weed heroine, National Institute on Drug Abuse will harness the new opportunities presented by scientific and technological advances, changes to the health care landscape, ongoing criminal by justice reform and a growing public attention on drug use findings in to real world interventions that can maximize limited resource and reach more people.</p> Shakuntala Tripathi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 135 142 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59026 Meta- analysis: Base of Major Social Science Theories https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59028 <p>Meta-analytic techniques in social science analysis are becoming increasingly relevant today. In this article, we will present how a meta-analysis method can be a useful base for sociologists. Different methods for meta-analysis, unique "concept-driven" literature searches. However, this search strategy may limit the researcher's ability to fully exploit the substantial body of pertinent research in fields with high theoretical diversity, such as social science. We tend to adopt a "beat-driven" strategy, where repetitive searches and updated computerized search techniques are used to find more publications cross disciplinary. This measure-based search approach is typically illustrated by two meta-analyses that look at how various social factors affect the all-cause mortality rate. A trend like imperialism might be a jumble of different perspectives on what humanity means. Imperialism, both political and economic, is occasionally mentioned. Imperialism is not limited to historical methods, political or economic facets. Instead, imperialism may be a collection of various human endeavors. To reach a conclusion, systematic reviews and meta-analyses combine the findings of various studies. While meta-analyses of applied scientific discipline analysis may run into practical issues due to the nature of the analysis domain, they are particularly useful for combining evidence to inform policy. Data from secondary sources were used to write this article.</p> Shyam Prasad Phuyel Tara Nath Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 143 151 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59028 Evolving Trends and Patterns of Crime Against Women in Nepal (1997–2020): A Sociological Analysis of Violence Dynamics and Implications https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59034 <p>This study looks at the changing trends and patterns of violence against women in Nepal from 1997 to 2020. The study examines particular types of violence, such as attempted rape, domestic violence, polygamy, trafficking, witchcraft, child marriage, and abortion. Data from the past two decades are analyzed using a quantitative research approach to look for any trends or patterns in the occurrence of various types of violence. The research's overarching goal is to use statistical analysis to evaluate theories related to these trends in order to better understand the prevalence and fundamental characteristics of crimes against women in Nepal. To analyze the gathered data, the research approach uses descriptive statistics as well as hypothesis testing. The findings are interpreted in light of the existing body of knowledge and ongoing investigations into assaults against women. Different trajectories in the frequency of various forms of violence have been revealed by the data analysis. Over time, we've seen a decline in some forms of violence, like domestic violence. Others, such as attempted rape and human trafficking, have shown an upward trend. This study emphasizes how important it is to continue working to address the underlying issues that lead to violence against women. The importance of creating comprehensive programs that prioritize prevention, prompt intervention, and all-encompassing care for survivors is emphasized. The study ultimately serves as a call for continued commitment to the cause and comprehensive strategies for ending violence against women in Nepal. It adds to the ongoing conversation about the safety and wellbeing of women.</p> Sunil Rawal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 152 161 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59034 Atmospheric Turbidity Index on Pokhara https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59036 <p>Population growth, industrialization and other natural processes effects on air-pollution levels and climatic change. Atmospheric turbidity factors are an important parameter for assessing the air pollution. The main objective of this research is to study atmospheric turbidity factors on Pokhara (28.180° N, 83.970° E and 800 m asl), Nepal for a period of one year (2017). The daily data of aerosol optical depth (AOD) are derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) of NASA. Daily, monthly and seasonal variation of atmospheric turbidity index are analyzed. The annual average of Angstrom exponential (α), Angstrom coefficient of turbidity (<em>β</em>) and Linked turbidity (L<sub>T</sub>) are found 1.2 ± 0.2, 0.19 ± 0.17 and 6.7 ± 3.4 respectively. The annual average of visibility is found 3.2 ± 2.5 km. Result of this research work is beneficial for the further identification, impact and analysis of atmospheric turbidity at different places with same geographical condition.</p> Prakash M. Shrestha Suresh Pd. Gupta Usha Joshi Narayan P. Chapagain Indra B. Karki Khem N. Poudyal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 162 172 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59036 Historical Development of the epic Mahābhārata https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59040 <p>This research article deals with the evolution of the epic Mahābhārata in the present form. The study has its relevance to understand the historical origin of the text so that the reader could able to probe its importance in the present context. The article addresses on the research problems concerning to the historicity of Mahābhārata war, the text's stages of development, its authorship and date of production. Is the Mahābhārata war historical or fictional? Is the text written at a timer it is an evolutionary text? Who wrote it and when was it written? The article seeks answers to the aforementioned research questions by applying the methodological tool of the Marxist concept of historical materialism. The study reveals that the Mahābhārata is found to be an evolutionary text and evolves to the present form in three stages. The scholars are not unanimous regarding to the historicity of Mahābhārata war, the text's authorship and its date of production.</p> Tilak Bahadur Khatri Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 173 180 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59040 Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance in Commercial Banks of Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59042 <p>In this study, the effect of corporate social responsibility on financial performance proxied by return on assets with a mediating variable size of the banks proxied by number of employees in Nepalese commercial banks, has been examined to fulfill the objective of identifying the size, status and trend of corporate social responsibility and analyzing the effect of CSR with a mediating variable number of employees on return on assets. An aggregate level of CSR with a mediating variable number of employees have been applied as the independent variable and return on assets have undertaken as the dependent variable in the research framework. Panel data sets of ten years from seventeen Nepalese commercial banks have been observed and tested using correlation coefficients and regression analysis under the approach of deductive, descriptive and analytical research design, to analyze the effect of CSR with a mediating variable number of employees of the organization on return on assets. The findings depicts that the increasing trend of CSR expenditure and return on assets have a significant positive relationship. From the analysis, it has concluded that there is a positive relationship between the variables and the impact of CSR on return on assets, symbolizes increasing in CSR leads to an increase in the financial performance of the banks. Furthermore, it raises the public image of the firm and attracts more investors, customers and well-wishers which supports to increase the business and sustainable growth over the competition. This study demands the implication of CSR practices for all the business organization even if not mandatory from the concerned authority.</p> Top Lal Panthi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 181 192 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59042 Citizen Trust Towards Border Governing Agencies at Border Crossing Points of Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59046 <p>This article based on citizen trusts is the most important lifeline of good governance. Border governance can be achieved only by acquiring citizen trust and confident. The objective of this papers to examine the citizen trust towards border governing agencies at the border crossing points and to analyze various determinant factors of citizens’ trust. The research follows by the sequential explanatory research design using both primary and secondary sources. Primary data are extracted from stratified sampling technique using five points, Likert- scales questionnaire where 1850 responses were acquired from 10 border crossing points of Nepal. The findings shows that border governing has a citizen trust of 65.44 percent and all the determinant factors of citizen trust are correlated. The regression analysis shows that determinant factor of border governing agencies have 85 percent effect in citizen trust. The study suggest on enhancing all the determinant factors of citizen trust of all border governing agencies by incorporating required law necessary to improve border governance of Nepal.</p> Yukesh Upreti Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 193 205 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59046 राणाकालीन नेपालको तालुकदारी व्यवस्था https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59047 <p>नेपाल एउटा भूपरिवेष्टित, अधिकांश भू–भाग पहाडी स्वरूपमा बनेको देश हो । संसारको सबैभन्दा अग्लोहिमालदेखि समथर मैदानसम्मका सबै भौगोलिक स्वरूपमा बनेको यस देशमा बसोवास गर्ने अधिकांश मानिसहरूकोजीविकोपार्जनको मुख्य श्रोत कृषि हो भने देशको राष्ट्रिय आय आर्जनको मुख्य श्रोत पनि जमिन नै हो । राष्ट्रिय आयकोमुख्य श्रोत मानिएको भूमिकर जनताबाट असुलउपर गर्ने नेपालको सनातन प्रचलन नै हो । भूमिकर सङ्कलनप्रकृयालाई प्रभावकारी वनाउन शासकहरूले समय समयमा फरक फरक प्रकारका प्रशासनिक तौरतरिका प्रचलनमाल्याउने गरेको देखिन्छ । यसै सन्दर्भमा यहाँ भूमिकरलाई प्रभावकारी ढङ्गले सङ्कलन गर्न राणा प्रधानमन्त्री चन्द्रशमसेरले लागु गरेको तालुकदारी व्यबस्था पनि एक हो । तालुकदारी व्यवस्था पहाडी क्षेत्रको भूमिकर सङ्कलनसँगसम्वन्धित व्यवस्था हो । यस व्यवस्थाभित्र दुईवटा पद विभाजन गरी अलगअलग कार्यक्षेत्र निर्धारण गरिएको थियो ।पहाडी क्षेत्रमा रहेको पाखो जग्गा जहाँ पानीमा हुने धान खेती हुँदैन त्यसको भूमिकर सङ्कलनको जिम्मेवारी पाएकोब्यक्तिलाई मुखियाको पदवी दिइएको थियो भने धान खेतको कर सङ्कलनको जिम्मेवारी पाएको व्यक्तिलाईजिम्मुवालको पदवी प्रदान गरिएको थियो । यी दुवै पदमा नियुक्त पदाधिकारीरुको नियुक्ति, कामगर्ने कार्यालय र कामकोप्रकृति हेर्दा जुन विशेषता देखिन्छन् त्यो विशेषता अरू कुनै पदाधिकारीहरूमा पाइँदैन । यो व्यवस्था नेपालमा झण्डैझण्डै पञ्चायती व्यवस्थाको अन्त्यसम्म नै अस्तित्वमा रहेको देखिन्छ ।</p> तेजबहादुर Tejbahadur के.सी. KC Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 206 210 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59047 त्रिभय जुजुया स्वपू म्येय् द्वन्द्व https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59049 <p>नेपालभाषा कविता विधाय् तिथिमिति न्हेथनातःगु दकलय् न्हापांगु कविता ‘त्रिभय जुजुया म्ये’ खः । नेपाल संवत्६९१, ६९२ व ६९४ यानाः स्वपू म्ये चिनातःगु दु । उगु म्येय् तत्कालीन जुजुपिं श्रीनरसिंहदेव, श्री पुरन्द्रसिंहदेव, श्रीउद्धवसिंहदेवपिंत सम्बोधन यानाः राजनैतिक, सांस्कृतिक, ऐतिहासिक, साहित्यिक अले सामाजिक खँ उलातःगु दु । इन्दजात्रा महोत्सवय् प्रदर्शन याय्गु च्वयातःगु थुगु म्येदुने छगू शासक जः दथुइ, निगू देया शासक–शासकया दथुइ अलेशासक–जनता दथुइ जूगु द्वन्द्वयात वालातःगु दु । इपिं दथुइ सकारात्मक–सकारात्मक, सकारात्मक–नकारात्मक वनकारात्मक–नकारात्मक द्वन्द्व बालातःगु दुसा थुकि वयाच्वंगु फुक्कं बाह्य द्वन्द्व खनेदु ।</p> त्रैलोक्यमान Trailokyaman बनेपाली Banepali Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 211 220 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59049 अन्तरिम सरकार २०४७: शपथ ग्रहण र पदस्थापन https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59078 <p>कुनै पनि हालतले कांग्रेस कम्युनिष्ट एकजुट हुन नदिने नीति असफल हुँदा पनि जनआन्दोलन विरोधी नीतिलिएको मरिचमान सिंह श्रेष्ठ नेतृत्वको पञ्चायती सरकारले उग्रवादीहरूको हथकण्डा भनेर अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय जगत्लाईअल्मल्याउन खोजे तापनि सफलता पाउन सकेन । जनआन्दोलनको आक्रोस दरबारतर्पm सोझिएपछि पनि अल्मल्याएरआफ्नो स्वार्थ सिद्ध गर्ने राजाको प्रयास एवं चाहना पनि पूरा भएन । जुन कुनै अवस्थामा पञ्चायती व्यवस्थाको अन्त्यबिना जनआन्दोलन नरोकिने घोषणा र प्रतिबद्धताबाट एक इन्च पनि नडगेका जनआन्दोलन कमाण्डर गणेशमान सिंहकोचट्टानी अडानले गर्दा राजा वीरेन्द्रको अल्मल्याउँदै लगेर जनआन्दोलन उपलब्धि विहिन बनाउने प्रयास पनि काम लागेन ।प्रज्ञा भवनको अन्तिम राज प्रयासलाई सफल हुन नदिने भन्दै सडकमा उत्रेर खबरदारी गरेका आन्दोलनकारी जनता एवंतरुण विद्यार्थीहरूले लोकेन्द्रबहादुर चन्दलाई राजिनामा नगरिनहुने बनाएपछि मात्र अन्तरिम सरकार २०४७ गठनको मार्गप्रशस्त भयो । जनआन्दोलन कमाण्डर गणेशमान सिंहसँगको परामर्शपछि विधिवत संवादलाई निर्णायक चरण&nbsp; तर्फ&nbsp; बढाएका राजाले कामाण्डरकै सल्लाहमा कृष्णप्रसाद भट्टराईको नेतृत्वमा अन्तरिम सरकार घोषणा गरेपछि नारायणहिटी राजदरबारमै प्रधानमन्त्रीलाई शपथ ग्रहण गराएका थिए । त्यसपछि सरासर सिंहदरबार पुगेका प्रधानमन्त्री भट्टराईले सार्वजनिक कार्यक्रमकै रूपमा मन्त्रीहरूलाई शपथ ग्रहण गराएर अन्तरिम सरकारको लक्ष्य–उद्देश्य प्रस्ट पारेपछि अन्तरिम सरकार सफल हुने आधार तयार भयो ।</p> बद्रीनारायण Badrinarayan गौतम Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 221 229 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59078 समाजवाद उन्मुख संविधान र श्रमिकको अवस्था https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59079 <p>विगत लामो समय देखिको प्रयत्न स्वरुप नेपालमा संघीय लोकतान्त्रिक व्यवस्था स्थापित भयो । यो व्यवस्था लोकतान्त्रिक मात्र नभई गणतन्त्रात्मक र धर्म निरपेक्ष सहितको नयाँ विशेषतायुक्त पनि थियो । राजतन्त्रात्मक र एकात्मक प्रणालीले सम्पूर्ण समाजको समानुपातिक विकास हुन सक्दैन भनि जनताको चाहना र राजनैतिक दलहरुको अग्रसरताको कारण संविधानसभावाट नयाँ संविधान जसलाई नेपालको संविधान भनिन्छ, कार्यान्वयनमा आयो । यो संविधानले विभिन्न किसिमका मौलिक हक अधिकारहरु नागरिकलाई प्रत्याभूत गरेपनि आशातित रुपमा सफल कार्यान्वयन हुन सकिरहेको छैन । साथै यो मुलुकको कार्यदिशा समाजवाद उन्मुख हुनेछ भने स्पष्टताका साथ संविधानको प्रस्तावना एवम् धारा ४ (१) मा उल्लेख गरेपनि राज्यले समाजवादको यात्राको शुरुवात समेत गरेको पाईदैन । सिमान्तकृत समुदाय या भनौ श्रमजीविहरुको हक हित तथा सुरक्षाका विषयहरु नारामा मात्र सिमित भैरहेकोले समाजको एउटा हिस्सा जुन श्रमिकको रहेको छ त्यो वर्ग चरम अभाव र गरिवीबाट ग्रुजिरहेको र देशबाट पलायन भैरहेको यथार्थता छलएङ्ग छ । अव पनि समाजवाद कार्यान्वयनमा नलाग्ने हो भने संविधानको ओचित्यता विस्तारै लोप हुन जानेछ ।</p> भेषराज Bheshraj घिमिरे Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 230 236 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59079 नेपाली दोहोरी गीतमा सबाल्टर्न https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59080 <p>यो अनुसन्धनात्मक लेख नेपाली दोहोरी गीतसँग सम्बन्धित रहेको छ । दोहोरी गीत नेपाली लोकसाहित्यबाट विकसित भएको विधा हो । दोहोरीगीतमा लोकका विषयवस्तुहरू प्रस्तुत गरिने र लोकले अनुभूति गरेका विषयहरूलाई समेटिने भएकाले प्रस्तुत लेखमा पनि सबाल्टर्नले समाजमा भोगेका पीडा, दुःख र अधीनस्थ हुनु परेको अवस्थालाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । यस लेखमा नेपाली दोहोरी गीतमा माया प्रेमका विषयमात्र नभएर वर्गीय, जातीय र लैङ् िगकविषयहरू पनि रहेको छन् भन्ने अध्ययनको विषय बनाइएको छ । यस अध्ययनलाई प्रभावकारी र विश्वशनीय बनाउनका लागि सबाल्टर्न अध्ययनको सैद्धान्तिक आधार केन्द्रमा राखिएको छ । सबाल्टर्न अध्ययन भारतीय विद्वान रञ्जित गुहाबाट प्रारम्भ गरी ब्रिटिस सांस्कृतिक अध्ययनबाट विकसिकत भएको अध्ययन पद्धति हो । यसमा सीमान्तीकृत वर्गका पीडा, दुःख, अन्याय, अत्याचार, प्रतिनिधित्व, प्रतिरोध आदि विषयहरू समावेश गरिएको हुन्छ । यस लेखमा पनिनेपाली दोहोरी गीतमा सीमान्तीकृत वर्गको अवस्था केकस्तो रहेको छ भन्ने अध्ययनको विषय बनाइएको छ । यसमा अध्ययनलाई निष्कर्षमा पु¥याउनका लागि प्राथमिक स्रोतको सामग्रीलाई युट्युबको माध्यमबाट लिइएको छ भने सामग्री विश्लेषणका लागि विभिन्न दोहोरी गीत र सबाल्टर्न अध्ययनसँग सम्बद्ध विभिन्न विद्वानहरूका समालोचनात्मक लेखहरूर पुस्तकलाई आाधार बनाइएको छ । यो अध्ययनले दोहोरी गीतमा सबाल्टर्न अध्ययन गर्ने विषयमा नयाँ आयाम थप्ने भएकाले महत्वपूर्ण देखिन्छ । यस अध्ययनमा नेपाली दोहोरी गीत मौखिक परम्मपराको हस्तान्तरणमा आधारित विधा भएको र यसमा माया प्रेमका विषयवस्तु मात्र हुने परम्मरागत भन्दा भिन्न समाजमा रहेका सीमान्तीकृत वर्गका समस्याहरूलाई पनि उजागर गरी एकजुट भएर सीमान्तीकृत वर्गको पक्षमा उभिन आह्वान समेत गरिएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> महेन्द्र Mahendra वाग्ले Wgle Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 237 249 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59080 अमरसिंह नाटकमा आङ्गिक अभिनय https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59082 <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा ‘अमरसिंह’ नाटकमा प्रयुक्त आङ्गिक अभिनयको विश्लेषण गर्नुलाई मुख्य समस्याका रूपमा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । यसमा ‘अमरसिंह’ नाटकमा प्रयुक्त आङ्गिक अभिनयको अध्ययन र त्यसले नाटकको प्रभावकारितामा दिएको योगदान देखाउने उद्देश्य राखिएको छ । यस लेखमा प्राथमिक तथा द्वितीयक सामग्रीको सङ्कलन गरिएको छ विश्लेषणात्मक पद्धतिको उपयोग गरी सामग्री विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । ‘अमरसिंह’ नाटकमा नेपाल र अङ्ग्रेजका बिचमा भएको युद्ध र सन्धिको सन्दर्भ, त्यसमा अमरसिंहले दिएको वीरतामूलक योगदान तथा अमरसिंहको जीवनको अन्त्यको सन्दर्भ समेत नाटकीयताका माध्यमबाट प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । पूर्वीय संस्कृत आचार्य भरतले प्रस्तुत गरेका नाट्य अभिनयको सिद्धान्तका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरिएको यस लेखको विवेच्य नाटकमा आङ्गिक, वाचिक, आहार्य र सात्विक चारै किसिमका अभिनयको प्रयोग गरिएको छ । नाटककारको निर्देशन तथा पात्रहरूको अभिनय दुवै स्तरबाट उक्त अभिनय भएको पुष्टि हुन्छ । आङ्गिक अभिनयको शारीर वा शाखा अङ्ग अभिनय अन्तर्गतका शिर, हस्त, उर, पाश्र्व, कटी र पाद अभिनय तथा मुखज वा उपाङ्ग अभिनयअन्तर्गतका आँखा, आँखिभौँ, ओठ, गाला, चिउँडो जस्ताउपाङ्गको अभिनय भएको छ । यी विभिन्न अङ्ग उपाङ्गको अभिनय प्रस्तुत भएकाले ‘अमरसिंह’ नाटक अस्वाद्य बनेकोछ । अभिनयका यिनै प्रकार र तिनले सिर्जना गरेको नाटकीय प्रभावकारिता र गुणवत्तालाई यस अनुसन्धानमा प्रस्तुत गर्दैनाटक अभिनयका दृष्टिले सफल भएको निष्कर्ष दिइएको छ ।</p> शेषनाथ Shesnath पौडेल Poudel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 250 262 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59082 नेपालमा सूचनाको हक र सूचना सदाचार https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59083 <p>नेपालमा सूचनाको हकको प्रचलन र अभ्यास क्रमशः फराकिलो हुँदै गएको सन्दर्भमा सूचना सदाचार (Information Integrity) चासोको विषय बनेको छ । एकातर्फ नागरिकले सूचना मागे वा नमागे पनि सार्वजनिक निकायले आफ्ना गतिविधि अध्यावधिक रुपमा स्वतः प्रकाशन गर्नुपर्ने सूचनाको हक सम्बन्धी कानुनले निर्दिष्ट गरेको प्रावधान सन्तोषजनक रुपमा कार्यान्वयन भएको पाइदैन । अर्कोतर्फ नागरिकले आफ्नो चासोको विषयमा माग गरेका सूचना सहज ढंगले प्राप्त गर्न सकेका छैनन् र प्राप्त गरेकै सूचनामा भर पर्न सकिने अवस्था छैन । यसबाट सूचनाको प्रदुषण बढ्नसक्ने जोखिम छ । प्रस्तुत आलेखमा नेपालमा सूचनाको हकको अभ्यास र सूचना सदाचारका आयाम बारे मामिला अध्ययन र व्याख्यात्मक विधि अपनाएर विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । एकातर्फ सार्वजनिक निकायहरुले समूचित रुपमा सूचना प्रवाह गर्न सकेका छैनन् भने अर्कोतर्फ मिथ्या वा प्रदुषित सूचनाको मात्रा बढ्दै जाँदा समाजमा नकारात्मक प्रभावबढ्दै गएको पाइएको छ ।</p> श्रीराम Shreeram पौडेल Poudel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 263 271 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59083 Editorial Vol.3(1) https://nepjol.info/index.php/ppj/article/view/59099 <p>Not available.</p> Jagat Prasad Parajuli Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-09 2023-10-09 3 01 10.3126/ppj.v3i01.59099