Prāgyik Prabāha 2023-06-12T11:03:23+00:00 Jeevan Bahadur Thapa Open Journal Systems <p class="Default">Prāgyik Prabāha is published by the Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Tribhuvan Multiple Campus Unit, Palpa, Nepal. It includes articles from multiple disciplines and aims to develop professionalism of teachers teaching at Tribhuvan University.</p> Models and Algorithms of Abstract Flows in Evacuation Planning 2023-06-09T13:36:37+00:00 Chhabi Lal Bhusal <p>Flows over time generalize classical network flows by introducing a notion of time. Each arc is equipped with a transit time that specifies how long flow takes to traverse it, while flow rates may vary over time within the given edge capacities. Ford and Fulkerson’s original 1956 max flow/min cut paper formulated max flow in terms of flows on paths. In 1974, Hoffman pointed out that Ford and Fulkerson’s original proof was quite abstract, and applied to a wide range of max flow-like problems. In this abstract model we have capacitated elements and linearly ordered subsets of elements called paths that satisfy switching property. When two paths P and Q cross at an element (node) then there must be a path that is a subset of the first path up to the crossing element and a subset of the second path after the crossing element. Contraflow is a widely accepted solution approach that increases the flow and decreases the evacuation time making the traffic smooth during evacuation by reversing the required road directions from the risk areas to the safe places. In this paper, we integrate the abstract flow with contraflow, give mathematical formulations of these models and present efficient polynomial time algorithms for solving the abstract contraflow problems. &nbsp;</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prāgyik Prabāha Sightless Students and Inclusive Classroom: A Case of a Sightless Girl 2023-06-09T13:42:04+00:00 Giri Raj Upadhayay <p>This study focuses on the classroom practices of a school run by the principles of inclusive policy and its strategies to treat sightless students in the inclusive classroom. The study aimed at exploring the classroom conditions of inclusiveness in a diverse classroom context. In order to attain the objectives, a case study research method was employed in which the data was collected from poor and sightless students who were purposively selected. The required information was collected through interviews and the observation of classroom context. The thematic analysis approach was used to analyze and interpret the data. Accordingly, the recorded data was transcribed at first, then the codes were developed and then the codes were organized into the themes, and ultimately the themes were discussed with reference to the data from the interview and observation. The findings of the study entailed that the sightless student had difficulty to adjust herself in the classroom, she felt that the instructional strategy and the classroom setting was not inclusive as it was expected to be and the classroom was not inclusive though it said to be like that. The problematic students, especially sightless students felt a sort of discrimination in the teaching strategy of their teachers. The study concludes that though the policy of inclusive education and classroom is principally good, the implementation part is quite poor in our diverse classrooms.</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prāgyik Prabāha Management Accounting Practices in Nepalese Manufacturing Companies 2023-06-09T13:46:28+00:00 Keshab Ghimire <p>The general objective of this study was to explore the uses of management accounting practices in Nepalese manufacturing companies. This study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study consists of all listed manufacturing companies under Nepal stock exchange. The study used simple random sampling. Four manufacturing firms were randomly selected for the study. The study therefore involved 5 manufacturing companies located in Kathmandu. The study collected primary data from the respondents. The data collected was both quantitative and qualitative. Analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), allowing the researcher to present the information in form of tables and figures. This study found that the creation and enhancement of awareness among firms of the importance of information for decision making practices as this is the most highly used management accounting practice amongst the Nepalese manufacturing companies. This study concludes that information for decision making practices is the most highly used management accounting practice amongst the manufacturing companies in Nepal, followed by strategic analysis, budgeting, performance evaluation, costing, size and leverage respectively.</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prāgyik Prabāha Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Breast Feeding among Bote Women 2023-06-09T13:50:25+00:00 Khim Bahadur Rana <p>Breast feeding is vital to a baby's health. Milk is unique food adapted to nutritional needs of offspring in mammals. Breast milk is the healthiest food for the child. The main objective of this study is to identify the practice of breastfeeding among the Bote women. In this study, the simple random sampling method was used. Among the 140 Bote households, 52 individual Bote women were selected from the households. The study shows that low literacy, poor income and lack of access to communication lead them to traditional practices. Increasing access to education, communication media, awareness programs and healthcare facilities helps them to improve their knowledge, attitudes and practices about breastfeeding.</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prāgyik Prabāha Social Determinants of Health in Rural and Urban Communities 2023-06-09T13:55:17+00:00 Krishna Bahadur GC <p>The purpose of this study is to better understand the social factors that influence the health of community members. Both a descriptive and a narrative study design were used to create this article. The social determinants of health (SDH), which are non-medical factors that can be changed by social policies and have a major impact on health, have attracted the attention of the public health community during the past two decades. SDH are non-medical factors that can be changed by social policies and substantially impact health. It is clear that there is widespread support for an SDH approach around the world, ranging from national action to global political commitment. The purpose of this study is to explore the social factors that influence the health of community members. However, differences in the conditions in which people are born, raised, employed, and aged result from differences in power, wealth, and resources. Political, economic, and resource allocation decisions made outside the health sector must consider health as a result throughout the social distribution in order to prevent a concentration primarily on increasing production. Health can be considered in any plan, which can help to some extent to ensure that it is considered. By tracking the development of SDH on a global basis and concentrating on how successful policies and implementation plans may be enhanced going forward, standard procedures will be discovered and exchanged. The WHO's attempts to align measures with the SDGs will boost the assessment of progress.</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prāgyik Prabāha Faces of Faceless in Tamang’s Paintings: Claiming for Identity 2023-06-09T13:59:54+00:00 Kumari Lama <p><strong>Correction:</strong> The name of the author was changed from 'Kumai' to 'Kumari' on 03/07/2023.</p> <p>The Tamang community has endured long history of structural hegemony and marginalization. The Rana rulers not only denied their ethnicity, but also enforced them for free labor. The rulers imposed main stream Khas language and Hindu culture looking-down upon their indigenous culture, language and distinct way of life. Moreover, they were always pushed towards the periphery in terms of education, opportunity and the resource-use. Against this backdrop, this paper analyzes Subas Tamang’s paintings exhibited under the title <em>Kaiten: History, Memory, Identity</em> (2021). His paintings memorize atrocious and subjugated past of the Tamang community when they were treated nothing more than a working machine by the powerful local authorities and the rulers. I have focused on three paintings that memorize the Tamang’s history, predicaments and their ravished identity. For the theoretical backing, I have employed Stuart Hall’s concept of cultural studies, concentrating on the issue of representation.</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prāgyik Prabāha Comparison on the Physicochemical Parameters of Five Commercially Available Branded Oils in Tansen Bazar 2023-06-09T14:06:11+00:00 Madhab Gautam Varshal Bhandari <p>Oils are unsaturated triglycerides or lipids which are liquid at room temperature. The physicochemical parameters of oils should be analyzed to assess the quality and functionality of the oil. The parameters like saponification value, acid value, iodine value, and insoluble impurities can identify characteristics of edible vegetable oils available in Nepali market whose characteristics remain indistinct and for this, the quality of individual edible oil also remains unknown. Objective of this research work is to get idea about other applicability of vegetable oils instead of commonly used mustard oils. Five different branded and certified samples of oils: coconut oil, olive oil, castor oil, soybean oil and sunflower oil were collected from different shops of Tansen bazaar for quality analysis. The saponification values, acid values, iodine values and percentage insoluble impurities of the selected oil samples were recorded in the range (178.54-284.70) mg KOH/gm, (0.48-4.48) mg KOH/gm, (8.75-141.2) mg KOH/gm and (0.004-0.078) % respectively. This study showed that all the selected five samples of oils are very good for soap making process or studied coconut oil was observed to produce the best quality soap. Analyzed olive oil was not consumable or good as skin care product either. This study had recommended public not to use pre-heated oil more than one time and also, analyzed sunflower oil had been recommended as the best suitable for all purposes among all samples of oils under study from Tansen.</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prāgyik Prabāha Agency of Trauma in Anand's Untouchable and Roy's The God of Small Things 2023-06-09T14:11:44+00:00 Mukta Bahadur Nepali <p>Mulk Raj Anand's <em>Untouchable</em> (1935) and Arundhati Roy's <em>The God of Small Things</em> (1997) seek to represent the traumatic sufferings of the scheduled castes in the caste-ridden Indian society. The authors of the novels under study are not from the scheduled-castes the traumatic sufferings of whom they have tried to represent in the novels. When such is the case, the problematic resides in the authenticity of voice in the representation of dalits' traumatic sufferings. The traumatic pain of the downtrodden people the authors enact in the novels evokes the affect of sympathy in the readers. However, the big question in trauma theory is not just the sympathy that the authors evoke in their readers towards the traumatized protagonists but whether the evocation carries the direct voice of the authors and the middle voice. The projection of dalit subjectivity accompanied by the academic vocation also evokes the affect of sympathy, besides the construction of pain in the transaction between language and body. The agency of trauma supports the representation of dalits' trauma only when the authentic voice of the authors accompanies the narrativization of pain. Examined in the light of Dominick LaCapra's notion of the middle-voice and Melissa Gregg's idea of communicating investment, this research has come to the conclusion that Anand's representation of dalits' trauma in <em>Untouchable</em> carries the agency of trauma, which is consistent throughout the novel, whereas; Roy's representation of dalits' trauma remains ambivalent vis-à-vis the consistency of the agency of trauma in the novel <em>The God of Small Things</em>. Therefore, the intensity of the agency of dalits' trauma in <em>Untouchable</em> is more intriguing than in <em>The God of Small Things</em>.</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prāgyik Prabāha Apocalyptic Vision in J. G. Ballard’s “Billennium”: An Eco-critical Study 2023-06-09T14:18:04+00:00 Neelam Nepal <p>G. Ballard’s “Billennium” presents apocalyptic consciousness. This paper argues that Ballard uses the rhetoric of apocalypse to visualize the impending disaster caused by the problem of overpopulation. It attempts to analyze the story in the light of Friedrich Buell, Greg Garrard and Lawrence Buell’s concept of apocalypse within environmental discourses. The nature of apocalypse in the story is not the usual presentation of violent or cataclysmic end of everything but comic in the sense that it ‘unveils’ or ‘uncovers’ the weaknesses and follies of human beings such as greed for money and power that are responsible for the looming threats of the problem of overcrowding and loss of space in the near future.</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prāgyik Prabāha Study on Management Practice and Challenges on Beekeeping in Bagnaskali, Palpa, Nepal 2023-06-09T14:22:55+00:00 Pit Bahadur Nepali Apsara Saru Keshab Chokhal Hira Bahadur Rana <p>Beekeeping is the architectural design of hives to increase honey bee productivity. Research methods used between February to December 2021 in Bagnaskali Rural Municipality (Khanigaun and Barangdi), Palpa. This study's aims were to understand beekeeping management practice and investigate its challenges. Random sampling methods were employed by surveys, interviews, and field observations. Throughout the study period, semi-structured interviews with 30 household respondents were performed. They preferred modern hive than traditional hive which were placed backward side of house. Four times a year, respondents collect honey, producing high-quality honey products. The high demand for local honey, the distance to the market, the scarcity of bee colonies, disease outbreaks, etc. were the most frequent challenges in managing honey bee practices. In addition to these, biological pests and predators of honey bees in the current study area included wasps, spiders, ants, beetles, lizards, wax moths, and mites. This investigation adds to the body of traditional knowledge on beekeeping challenges and management. It is necessary to conduct more research on the local honeybee population or sample, diseases, pests, and predators.</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prāgyik Prabāha Unity in Diversity: Federalism in Multiethnic Country Nepal 2023-06-09T14:29:04+00:00 Prakash Rai <p>Federalism, in general and multiethnic federalism, in particular is supposed to be a device to create unity in diversity in multiethnic country. Multiethnic federalism, a form of federalism, in which the territorial government or state is carved out based on nation or ethnic category to enable national minorities to exercise indigenous and ethnic minority rights like self-rule and autonomy is supposed to be a device to create unity in diversity in multiethnic country like Nepal. In Nepal, indigenous nationalities, and Madhesi communities who, historically, have been excluded in state’s institutions, have demanded multiethnic federalism, identity-based federalism on their own term, as an institutional device for their inclusion in the state. They have argued that it is a device to generate unity in diversity through accommodating diversity in the state. But there was no consensus on this issue while making the constitution through the constituent assembly. Some have argued that it would be a 'castist' (Jatiya) state if ethnic-based federalism is adopted. In this article, I have argued that multiethnic federalism is a device to end the nature of the age-old exclusionary Nepali state and an institutional mechanism of healing the inter-ethnic rupture of Nepali society. Indigenous nationalities in Nepal have demanded separation within a state to protect and promote their identity based on democratic values rather than separate from a state of their own. For this purpose, I have reviewed theoretical articles and critically analyze how it creates unity in diversity in a multiethnic country like Nepal.</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prāgyik Prabāha Problems Faced by University Teachers and Students in the Semester System 2023-06-09T14:33:44+00:00 Ram Nath Neupane <p>A semester is a period of six months. This system is very effective in higher education. It is considered more innovative, appropriate, and cooperative than the annual system. It provides the students with an opportunity for continuous learning, assessment, and feedback. However, many teachers and students criticize that they always miss the deadline for course completion so that students cannot engage in extracurricular activities. In this regard, the present study aims to explore the problems faced by university teachers and students in the semester system. To accomplish the objective, the researcher adopted a phenomenological research design under the qualitative method. It is based on the lived experiences of University-level English teachers and students about the semester system at TU. The total population of this study consisted of university EFL teachers and students in Nepal, out of which, the researcher selected only five university EFL teachers and ten students from Tribhuvan multiple campus, Palpa using a purposive sampling procedure. Similarly, the researcher made an interview guideline and then took the interview with the sampled teachers and students to obtain in-depth information. The results revealed that the most of the teachers and students paid more attention to their course contents than to extracurricular activities. Similarly, there are piles of materials in the syllabus; however, most of the important materials are not available in the market. There is no extra facility for economically backward students.</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Prāgyik Prabāha खुसीको खोजी कथासङ्ग्रहमा निहित मनोविज्ञान {The Psychology Underlying the 'Khusiko Khoji'} 2023-06-11T04:43:52+00:00 टंकप्रसाद Tankaprasad पन्थ Pantha <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानमूलक लेख ‘खुसीको खोजी’ कथासङ्ग्रहको विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित रहेको छ । यस कथासङ्ग्रहका लेखक शालिकराम पाण्डे ‘शिला’ हुन् । कथाकार पाण्डेले विभिन्न क्षेत्रका पात्रहरूलाई उपस्थित गराई तिनको मानसिक अवस्थालाई केलाउने काम गर्दछन् । मानवीय मनलाई मिहिन रूपमा छामेर चरित्रको चित्रण गर्ने पाण्डेका कथामा मनोविज्ञान सघन रूपमा आएको पाइन्छ । मानिसका विविध मनोदशालाई कथामा अवतरण गराउने यिनका कथामा यौन मनोविज्ञान सशक्त रूपमा आएको हुन्छ । समाजका यथार्थ घटनालाई कथाको विषय बनाउने पाण्डेका कथाका पात्रहरू मानवीय स्वाभाविक प्रवृत्तिलाई आत्मसात गर्ने गरी चयन भएको छ । कथामा आएका केही पात्रहरू अनुकूल र केही चाहिँ प्रतिकूल प्रकृतिका रहेको देख्न सकिन्छ । मानवीय एषणा रअचेतन अवस्थाको चित्रण पनि यिनका कथामा सघन रूपमा भएको पाइन्छ । यस लेखमा शालिकराम पाण्डेको ‘खुसीको खोजी’ कथाभित्र प्रस्तुत मनोविज्ञानको अवस्थालाई अध्ययन गरिएको छ । कथामा उपस्थित पात्रहरूका चरित्र, तिनीहरूका व्यवहार, मानसिक स्थिति, सामाजिक मान्यता, मनोवृत्ति आदिका आधारमा कृतिको विश्लेषण गरी मनोविज्ञानका विविध पक्षका आधारमा ‘खुसीको खोजी’ कथासङ्ग्रहको अध्ययन गरिएको छ । प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानमूलक लेखमा मनोविज्ञानको सैद्धान्तिक स्वरूपलाई उठान गरी सोही सिद्धान्तका आधारमाशालिकराम पाण्डैद्वारा लिखित खुसीको खोजी कथासङ्ग्रहमा उपस्थित गराइएका पात्रहरू र तिनको मानसिक दशा के कस्तो रहेको छ भन्ने प्राज्ञिक समस्यामा केन्द्रित रही यो लेख तयार पारिएको छ । यहाँ विश्लेषण विधिको उपयोग गरी पात्रका बोली, विचार र व्यवहारका सापेक्षमा कथाहरूको विश्लेषण गरी मनोविज्ञानको कस्तो प्रभाव रहेको छ भन्ने कुराको निष्कर्ष निकाली विश्लेष्य कथासङ्ग्रहको मूल्यनिरूपण गर्ने काम गरिएकोछ ।</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 तोदा उपन्यासमा अभिघात {Trauma in 'Toda's' novel} 2023-06-11T05:13:52+00:00 शंकरप्रसाद Shankarprasad गैरे Gairhe <p>प्रस्तुत अनुसन्धानमूलक लेख ‘तोदा’ उपन्यासको विश्लेषणमा केन्द्रित रहेको छ । ‘तोदा’ उमा सुवेदीको पहिलो उपन्यास हो । प्रस्तुत उपन्यासमा माओवादी द्वन्द्वबाट प्रभावित भई विदेसिएका युवतीहरूले इजरायलमा केयरगिभरको काम गर्नुपरेको विषयलाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । उनीहरूले नेपालमा र इजरायलमा रोजगारीका सन्दर्भमा भोग्नुपरेका अनेक भय, त्रास, भौतिक तथा मानसिक पीडाहरू यसमा अभिव्यक्त छ । बलात्कार, प्रेमको नाममा पाएको धोका, लोग्नेका अन्य स्त्रीप्रतिका आशक्ति र नाजायज सम्बन्ध र आफूप्रतिका बेवास्ता जस्ता घटना, आफन्तहरूले आर्थिक हिनामिना गरिदिएर उत्पन्न पीडालाई उपन्यासमा अभिव्यक्त गरिएको छ । त्यसैगरी जर्मनेली यहुदीहरूमाथि हिटलर र उसको नाजी सेनाले गरेको अन्याय, अत्याचार, दमन, शोषण आफन्तजनहरूको हत्या लगायत भागेर ज्यान जोगाउँदै इजरायल आई पुनर्जीवन यापनमा लागेका यहुदी वृद्धनारीहरूका मनमा बास गरेको हिटलरको भयलाई उपन्यासले प्रस्तुत गरेको छ । मान्छेमा हुने युद्ध, द्वन्द्व आदिकारणले शारीरिक तथा मानसिक रूपमा उत्पन्न हुने अल्पकालीन वा दीर्घकालीन पीडा, भय त्रासलाई अभिघात भनिन्छ । साहित्यमा अभिव्यक्त यस्ता विषयको अध्ययन अभिघातपरक समालोचनाअन्तर्गत गरिन्छ । प्रस्तुतअनुसन्धानमूलक लेखमा अभिघात समालोचनाको सैद्धान्तिक स्वरूपलाई प्रस्तुत गरी त्यही सिद्धान्तका आधारमा प्रस्तुत उपन्यासमा प्रयुक्त पात्रका जीवनमा घटेका अभिघातजन्य अवस्थाको अभिव्यक्ति के कस्तो छ ? भन्ने समस्यामा केन्द्रित रहेर यो आलेख तयार पारिएको छ । यसमा विश्लेषणात्मक विधिको प्रयोगद्वारा पात्रका जीवनमा घटित अभिघातजन्य अवस्थाको पहिचान तथा विश्लेषण गरी उनीहरूका जीवनमा केकस्ता घटनाका माध्यमबाट अभिघातजन्य अवस्थाको सिर्जना भएको छ र त्यसमा कसरी अभिघातको अवस्था सिर्जना भएको छ&nbsp; भन्ने कुराको निष्कर्ष निकाली अभिघातका दृष्टिले विश्लेष्य कृतिको मूल्य निरूपण गरिएको छ ।</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 गाउँको भकारी कथामा वर्गीयता {Classism in 'Gaunko Bhakari' Stories} 2023-06-11T05:26:44+00:00 शारदा Sharada खनाल Khanal <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा शिवप्रसाद पौड्यालद्वारा लेखिएको ‘गाउँको भकारी’ कथामा विद्यमान वर्गीय सङ्घर्ष र प्रतिरोधी चेतनाको अवस्था पहिल्याएर समाजवादी यथार्थवादी दृष्टिकोणबाट अध्ययन विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । शोध्यप्रश्नको रूपमा प्रस्तुत गरिएको जिज्ञासाको प्राज्ञिक समाधानका लागि पाश्चात्य साहित्य सिद्धान्तमा देखा परेर सर्वत्र विकसित भएको माक्र्सवाद सम्बन्धी वर्गीय अवधारणालाई आधार बनाइएको छ । कृतिको अर्थापनका लागि सघन पाठविश्लेषण विधिअनुसार सूक्ष्म पठनद्वारा स्थापित सिद्धान्तका आधारमा सन्दर्भपरक विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्षमा पुगिएकाले यो अध्ययन गुणात्मक प्रकृतिको छ । विवेच्य कथामा प्रस्तुत समाजवादी यथार्थवादी समस्याका विषयलाई मूल प्राज्ञिक समस्या बनाएर त्यसको समाधान खोज्न कृतिमा वर्गीयस मस्याअन्तर्गत पर्ने पूँजीपति वर्गका मानसिकता र व्यवहार तथा श्रमजीवी वर्गका अवस्था र प्रतिरोधी चेतना जस्ता समस्याका आधारमा मात्र अध्ययन विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्षमा पुगिएको छ । नेपाली समाजमा विद्यमान शोषक र शोषित वर्गका मानिसहरूका बिचमा चल्दै आएको अन्तरविरोधलाई कथाको विषयवस्तु बनाएको छ । पूँजीपति वर्गको प्रतिनिधित्व धर्मानन्द साहू र श्रमजीवी वर्गको प्रतिनिधित्व हर्के र रामगोपालले गरेको प्रस्तुत कथामा समाजमा उच्च वर्गले निम्न वर्गमाथि गर्ने गरेका शोषण, दमन, अन्याय, अत्याचार, अवहेलना, र हेपाहा प्रवृत्तिलाई देखाउँदै त्यस्ता प्रवृत्तिका विरुद्ध निमुखा वर्गले गरेको सङ्घर्ष र अप्रत्यक्ष प्रतिरोधी चेतनालाई कथामा प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । कुनै पनि व्यक्ति वा वर्गलाई समृद्धितर्फ डोर्याउनका निम्तिचेतना मुख्य कारक तत्त्व हुने, गरिबीका कारण एक्लै गर्न नसकिने कार्य पनि सङ्गठित भएर गर्न सकेमा&nbsp; समस्याको दीर्घकालीन समाधान गरी समस्याबाट सहजै उन्मुक्ति पाउन सकिने, निमुखाहरू पनि एक ढिक्का भएर आफ्नो जीवनस्तर माथि उठाउने कार्यतर्फ लाग्न सक्ने हो भने धर्मानन्द जस्ता शोषक, सामन्त तथा फटाहाको पनि समाजमा केही जोर नचल्ने र उनीहरू पनि क्रमशः सुधारतर्फ उन्मुख हुनुपर्ने निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत कथाको अध्ययनबाट प्राप्त भएको छ ।</p> 2023-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023