Orchid Academia Siraha 2024-05-09T09:49:19+00:00 Asst. Prof. Anil Kumar Mandal Open Journal Systems <p>Orchid Academia Siraha is published by the Research Management Cell (RMC), Suryanarayan Satyanarayan Morbaita Yadav Multiple Campus (SSMYMC) Siraha. OAS is a multidisciplinary peer reviewed journal that publishes research and review articles from different disciplines that contribute to teaching-learning, education and research sector.</p> Editorial Vol.2(1) 2024-05-08T17:36:12+00:00 Anil Kumar Mandal <p>Not Available.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, SSMYMC, Siraha Stress Distribution Analysis using ANSYS of the Nose Landing Gear of STOL Aircrafts Considering Runway Gradient: A Simulation Study 2024-05-08T16:37:46+00:00 Bharosh Kumar Yadav Ramhit Yadav K. Sudhakar <p>Landing gear failures are a major cause of aircraft failures because they are an integral part of the aircraft's development. According to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 50% of all aircraft failures occur during take-offs and landing. The landing gear of a short take-offs and landing (STOL) aircraft has had its static and dynamic forces analyzed analytically and numerically. SOLIWORKS is used to model the landing gear, and ANSYS is used to perform the numerical simulation results. Following it, the model is examined for stress and deformation with the boundary conditions and computed loads into account. This study uses structural finite element analysis (FEA) to analyze the nose gear's stress behavior and displacement during landing, as well as to assess the effect of the runway gradient. Utilizing a comprehensive numerical simulation, the landing gear of a real material Twin-Otter STOL aircraft has been demonstrated to be subjected to a dynamic force of 3653.26N, a pneumatic pressure of 1.59MPa, a bead pressure of 7.97MPa, and a vertical force of 1672.31lbs on level runways, or runways with no gradient. These findings will increase the level of confidence of aircraft manufacturers to make necessary appropriate design of STOL aircraft’s landing gear. It may can decrease the aircraft accidents and increase human life safety ultimately saving valuable time and resources too.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, SSMYMC, Siraha Effects of Digital Resources in Science Teaching and Learning in Secondary Schools: A Study in Siraha District 2024-05-08T17:25:37+00:00 Rajeshwer Prasad Yadav <p>The availability of digital resources has increased dramatically in school setting. The main objective of the study is to find out the use of digital resources in the science classrooms and its pedagogical impact on school-level science teaching and learning. The study followed descriptive design. For the study, 12 secondary (community-6, institutional-6) among 17 secondary schools that run Class 11 and 12 in science stream were randomly selected. All science teacher including lab instructors were the participants of the study. Observation forms and questionnaires were used as research tool. Percentage and Spearman’s correlation test were performed by using SPSS version 20. The results showed that digital resources were generally available in the classrooms but were not widely used. Furthermore, the science teachers who had excellent knowledge regarding digital resources and abilities had better performance than those with less knowledge and skill regarding digital resources as they work less aware of pedagogical implications of digital resources. Science teaching impacts were found to be significantly influenced by teachers’ age, experience, information communication and technology certifications, and teaching strategies. In the end, it was discovered that competencies of digital resources directly improved science teaching and learning results, enabling a paradigm shift away from conventional teaching techniques.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, SSMYMC, Siraha Exploring Experiences of Science Education Teachers on Professional Development 2024-05-08T12:54:41+00:00 Kamal Prasad Acharya Rishi Ram Subedi <p>Maintaining current pedagogical strategies and remaining cutting-edge with regular updates is crucial in the field of science education, where professional development is a foundation for developing effective teaching and learning. In an effort to pinpoint issues and provide solutions, this study explores the condition of professional development among science education teachers at the Faculty of Education, Tribhuvan University (TU-FOE), Nepal. The study uses a qualitative research design that includes in-depth interviews and document analysis to provide knowledge of the professional development genre. The study's findings shed light on the complications faced by science education teachers, such as a lack of resources and support, institutional policies, technological barriers, professional burnout and a lack of opportunities for collaboration. These challenges highlight the potential link between the need for creative, specialized professional development opportunities that meet the changing demands of the sector and the requirements for science education. Therefore, the TU-FOE authority minimizing these issues and launching the professional development programme for enhancing the quality of science education teachers to improve the quality of teaching and learning in the Faculty of Education, Tribhuvan University.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, SSMYMC, Siraha Rights and Safeguarding of Children: A Qualitative Investigation in Arghakhanchi 2024-05-08T13:17:55+00:00 Milan Acharya <p>In Nepal, there are many intricate issues surrounding child abuse and neglect, especially in rural areas. The objective of this research is to give a thorough knowledge of these problems that goes beyond simple information. The study uses a qualitative methodology and was carried out in Arghakhanchi. It involved two focus group discussions (FGDs) and five one-on-one interviews. The study, which takes a rights-based methodology, identifies inadequacies in child protection and takes into account the intersectionality of gender and poverty in rural Nepal. Qualitative information was analyzed by making themes, sub-themes, and categories. The study looks into a number of pieces of information that affect children's rights, including cultural norms, socioeconomic situations, and the efficiency of safety. The content that has been identified is financial resources, social values and beliefs, family dynamics, and service structures. It is found that dysfunctional homes, early pregnancy, school dropouts, exploitation, homelessness, child labor, and physical and emotional abuse are the hindrances to child rights. The findings placed a strong emphasis on community-based insight that can play a major role in defending children's rights. The ramifications go beyond guiding policy and community-based initiatives, with the goal of enhancing the general welfare of children in comparable rural environments in Nepal.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, SSMYMC, Siraha Transforming Food, Embracing Inclusivity: Nepal's Journey towards Sustainable Food Systems 2024-05-08T13:32:06+00:00 Rajesh Paudel P. B. Nepali H. K. Panta G. D. Acharya <p>This study explored Nepal's dynamic food practices, examining the interplay between traditional rural and evolving urban contexts. The country's food system harmoniously integrates age-old agricultural wisdom with the changing demands of urbanization. In rural landscapes, communities craft a resilient tapestry using diverse crops, agroecological practices, and a profound respect for nature, ensuring steadfast food security even in challenging environments. Conversely, urbanization introduces convenience through supermarkets and processed foods, albeit with associated costs such as escalating health issues, food waste, and social inequalities. To bridge these disparities, a focus on inclusivity and resilience is imperative. Strategies include empowering rural women, investing in infrastructure, and safeguarding traditional knowledge for sustainable food security. Urban food policies should emphasize local markets, encourage healthy choices, and minimize waste. In essence, navigating Nepal's food system transformation necessitates a delicate balance between tradition and adaptation, aspiring towards a future where comprehensive food security and well-being flourish for all.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, SSMYMC, Siraha Practices of Inclusive Education at the Schools in Nepal 2024-05-08T15:04:25+00:00 Hikamat Bahadur Khatri <p>This paper attempts to analyze the practices of inclusive education at the schools in Nepal. The central theme of study was to analyze the practice of inclusive education in the classroom and it’s challenges. This paper used a qualitative research design in an interpretive way. Data sources, such as interviews with head teachers, teachers, and students, and field observation was conducted in the Palungtar Municipality of Gorkha district. The participants, respondents and study site were purposively selected. The study finding is that the inclusive education approach is not fully implemented at the school level, highlighting the importance of implementing such an approach. This approach is relevant to address the different capabilities of students in the classroom. This approach is particularly relevant in the classroom of Nepal as it effectively teaches students from diverse backgrounds, which both teachers and students appreciated this inclusive educational approach. However, inclusion practice is important and crucial for addressing deprived, disadvantaged, and marginalized groups of education.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, SSMYMC, Siraha Case-Marking System in Saptariya Tharu: A Typological Perspective 2024-05-08T15:12:04+00:00 Mahesh Kumar Chaudhary <p>This paper explores the system of case marking in the Saptariya Tharu spoken in various districts of Nepal. Saptariya Tharu is identified as a nominative and accusative language, and studies are conducted to explore its case markers and postpositions. The paper discusses nominative case, accusative-dative case, locative case, genitive case, ablative case, instrumental case, and comitative case and highlights their use and examples. In addition, the paper compares the Sapataria Tharu case marking system with other Indo-Aryan languages spoken in Nepal's Terai region. It points out that most languages in this region also have nomenclature-accusation patterns. Furthermore, this article notes the similarities between these languages, emphasizing the absence of ergative case markers and the differences between instrumental, genitive, dative, and locative markers. The research concludes that it reveals a rich case-marking system of Saptariya Tharu in a broader context of the Indo-Aryan languages spoken in Nepal's terai region, highlighting its unique linguistic characteristics and typological similarities with neighboring languages.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, SSMYMC, Siraha Health Equity through Structural Adjustment by Nepal for Public Health 2024-05-08T15:20:29+00:00 Khem Kumar Bhurtel Parmila Basnet Shalikram Sigdel Keshar Jung Magar Sita Ram Ghimire Ganga Ram Paudel <p>The study states at Nepal's healthcare system, emphasizing structural changes and obstacles to enhanced health of people. The federal system prioritizes social determinants, healthcare personnel, quality access, community involvement, and the impact of globalization on health while providing comprehensive services despite decentralization and collaboration. With an emphasis on social justice and the promotion of public health, this paper investigates Nepal's healthcare system and health equity in the context of globalization. Reviewing data, policy, implementation, and literature assists it to analyze and draw conclusion. In discussing Nepal's shift from a unitary to a three-level federal government structure, the article highlights the consequence of developing policies and programs that promote social justice and equity in health. In addition to calling for a massive effort by the public health community to discuss and analyze health crises related to globalization and develop social justice-based strategies for a world where health for all is a reality, it suggests that a single strategy should be developed to address health crises.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, SSMYMC, Siraha The Legacy of the Khasa Chhetris: Unraveling Ancient Roots, and Cultural Traditions 2024-05-08T15:40:58+00:00 Chakra Bahadur Karki Neel Kumar Chetri <p>The Khasa Chhetris are an integral group of the Nepali society. The Nepali language (Khaskura) is believed to have sprung from the tongues of the Khasas such as Mugali, Achhami, and mainly Sinjali or Jumli spoken in the Karnali region. This paper seeks to make the representation of the Chhetris as the direct descendants of the ancient Khasas, and to highlight their distinct traditions and customs from the historical perspective. It argues that the Khasas are the ancient settlers of western Nepal having the amalgamation of shamanic and Vedic traditions. Their matrilineal society transformed into patrilineal framework owing to the accumulation of wealth in the hands of males and the consequent idea of private property. This study would encourage the scholars to look at this issue from the perspectives or the oral narratives of the Khasa Chhetris.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, SSMYMC, Siraha Interrelation Between Online Instruction and E-Resources in Higher Education 2024-05-08T15:56:23+00:00 Yogendra Thapa <p>To measure the interrelationships between online instruction and e-resources in higher education is the objective of this study. Four hundred students who are studying for a master degree in Kathmandu Valley are randomly assigned. A correlational research design is applied within the nonexperimental study with a positivist philosophical background. Data are collected once through a semi-structured questionnaire. Relationships were identified using chi-square and logistic regression through Stata 14. The results show that the majority of students have limited access to e-resources. Less than one-third of students have utilized online resources. Students' satisfaction and perception of effective online instruction were more likely to utilize e-resources. The study concludes that online modes of instruction have limited success in utilizing online resources. The majority of students have limited access to e-resources and mainly depend on printed materials. The study suggests that practical-based training for utilizing online resources should be provided to enhance proficiency in technology and awareness of e-resources.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, SSMYMC, Siraha Use of Instructional Materials for Teaching Social Studies 2024-05-08T16:03:57+00:00 Binod Kumar Yadav <p>Instructional materials are both human and non-human resources used in teaching and learning activities. Social studies is an integrated subject that encompasses various subjects, such as economic, social, and cultural activities, but this subject can effectively be taught by using instructional materials. The main purpose of this paper is to enlist and describe various instructional materials used while teaching social studies in the classroom. The study was descriptive in nature. Secondary sources such as reports, books, journals, magazines and articles were used to achieve purposes of the study. Textbooks, magazines, newspaper, table, graphs, maps, radio, television are the instructional materials used during teaching social studies. Social studies are centered to old tradition in their teaching-learning activities. As social studies subject is multi-dimensional subject, it is better to use useful teaching materials to make teaching-learning activities effective, easy and long lasting.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, SSMYMC, Siraha शिक्षक सिकाइले पेसागत व्यक्तित्व निर्माणमा खेल्ने भूमिका {The Role of Teacher’s Learning in the Development of Professional Personality} 2024-05-08T16:17:29+00:00 रामदेव Ramdeo मण्डल Mandal <p>शिक्षकको पेसागत विकास भनेको शिक्षकलाई पेसाप्रति पूर्ण रूपमा समर्पित भई कर्तव्यनिष्ठ, अद्यावधिक र कार्यकुशल बनाउने पद्धति हो । प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा कुन माध्यमको शिक्षक सिकाइले पेसागत व्यक्तित्व निर्माणको कुन पक्षमा योगदान दिन्छ भने विश्लेषण गर्नु यसको उद्देश्य रहेको छ । प्रस्तुत अध्ययन गुणात्मक ढाँचामा संरचित रहेको छ । पुस्तकालयीय अध्ययन, अनुसन्धानमूलक लेख, विधुतीय सामग्री र पत्रपत्रिकाहरू बाट द्वितीय स्रोतका सामग्री सङ्कलन गरी वर्णनात्मक विधिद्वारा विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनमा नवीनतम सूचना प्रविधिलाई सिकाइमा उपयोग गरी स्वनिर्देशित, ज्ञानप्रति अद्यावधिक, अनुसन्धेय विषयलाई प्रकाशन र प्रसारण गरिएको छ । जसले गर्दा शिक्षकको वृत्ति विकासमा टेवा पुगेको छ । शिक्षकसँग संज्ञानात्मक ज्ञान, सिप, चिन्तनशील विचार, कार्यप्रतिको प्रतिवद्धता, स्वःमूल्याङ्कन, नयाँ शिक्षण कौशलको ज्ञान,पेसाप्रति प्रतिवद्धता,पेसागत विकासको लागि योजना निर्माण, अनुभवको साटासाट, जर्नलहरूको निर्माण, भ्रमण अनुसन्धान कार्य आदिलाई वैयक्तिक परिप्रेक्ष्यसँग जोडिएको हुनाले व्यक्तित्व निर्माणमा सहयोग पुगेको छ । शिक्षकको व्यक्तित्व निर्माणको लागि विद्यालय परिवार, सामुदायसँग शिष्टाचारको व्यवहार गर्नुपर्दछ । इमान्दारी पूर्ण जिम्मेवारी वहन गर्नुको साथै सकेजति सेवामा नै समर्पित रह्नुपर्ने हुन्छ । शिक्षकको नेतृत्वदायी भूमिकाले व्यक्तिलाई सक्रिय बनाउँछ, जसले गर्दा व्यक्तित्व निर्माणमा मदत पुग्दछ l तसर्थ व्यक्तित्व निर्माणमा शिक्षण पेसालाई नै सर्वोपरि ठानिएको छ । व्यक्तित्व निर्माणले आफ्नो जीवन र अरू व्यक्तिको जीवनमा सकारात्मक प्रभाव पार्दछ । व्यक्तिवृत्तिले पेसालाई मर्यादित र आकर्षण बनाउँदछ । {Teacher’s professional development signifies the system to devote the teachers and making them dutiful, up-to-date and efficient in their profession. This paper attempts to analyze the factors which contribute in the different aspects of professional personality of teachers. This study is qualitative in nature. The secondary sources of data collected through library studies, research articles, e-materials and newspaper were analyzed through descriptive method. Through this study, it was found innovative information technology has supported in the professional growth of the teachers. Cognitive knowledge, skills, creative thinking, devotion of teachers, self-evaluation, knowledge of new teaching methods, devotion towards profession, planning for professional development, sharing of experience, publications of journals, research works which are associated with personality development. Teachers’ leadership role makes them proactive. Good personality helps in one’s life and influence upon others’ life as well. Personality development makes teachers’ profession dignified and attractive.}</p> <p> </p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 RMC, SSMYMC, Siraha