Nepal Journal of Health Sciences <p>An Official Peer-Reviewed Scientific Publication of Madan Bhandari Academy of Health Sciences, Hetauda, Nepal.</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Satish Kumar Deo ) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 03 Aug 2022 10:08:16 +0000 OJS 60 Mesiodens- A Report of Two Cases <p>Teeth more than normal in number are termed as supernumerary. The presence of multiple supernumerary teeth is termed ‘mesiodentes’. Supernumerary tooth usually results in oral problems such as malocclusion, food impaction, poor aesthetics, and cyst formation. This paper presents a case report on the successful management of mesiodens and mesiodentes.</p> Anuranjan Maharaj, Chitrita Gupta Mukherjee, Prerna Anand, Arvind Kumar Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gliomatosis Peritonei associated with Ovarian Immature Teratoma - A rare entity <p>Gliomatosis peritonei is a rare entity associated with ovarian teratoma, both mature and immature. We present a case of a 24-year-old female diagnosed with immature ovarian teratoma, grade 2 on histopathological examination. The presence of mature glial tissue on the omentum tissue established the diagnosis of gliomatosis peritonei. It is a harmless condition with a favorable prognosis. However, regular follow-up is required as it is associated with the risk of recurrence and malignant transformation. Adequate sampling and examination of multiple biopsies for the presence of an immature neural element is important to rule out metastatic involvement.</p> Daisy Maharjan, Deepshikha Gaire, Sheela Dhakal, Sansar Babu Tiwari Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Orthodontic Management of Ectopically Erupted Maxillary Central Incisor: A Case Report <p>Maxillary anterior teeth are often referred to as “social six”; if ectopically placed affect the quality of life of the patient. This article presents a case report of a skeletal class II patient with Angle’s class II malocclusion and ectopically erupted right maxillary central incisor which is managed with fixed orthodontics. This highlights the importance of proper history taking, careful examination, and proper investigations in reaching the diagnosis and formulation of the treatment plan. This case report also explains how the piggyback technique can be used for the traction of ectopically placed maxillary incisors and bring about satisfactory results and improve the confidence and self-esteem of the patient.</p> Nabin Kumar Chaudhary, Jamal Giri, Rajesh Gyawali, Prabhat Ranjan Pokharel Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mass Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in a Family: A Case Report from Nepalgunj <p>Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas produced as a by-product of the complete combustion of hydrocarbons. CO binds rapidly to Haemoglobin (Hb), leading to the formation of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), so the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood will be decreased and causing tissue hypoxia. We present the case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in a family where four members were reported dead and three unconscious in the morning after sleeping in a room with burning briquettes. Carbon monoxide poisoning can be fatal. Public awareness about such poisoning is essential for prevention.</p> Rajesh Kumar Mandal, Nirmal Shakya, Sanket Kumar Risal, Rajani KC Shah Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Foramen Magnum: A Morphometric Study in Dried Human Skulls <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The foramen magnum is the largest foramen or opening present in the base of the skull. The dimensions of the foramen magnum are clinically crucial because many vital structures are passing through it.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of the study was to determine the different shapes of the foramen magnum and its anteroposterior diameter and transverse diameter.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study was conducted on 32 dry human skulls of unknown age and sex. All the important parameters were studied using a vernier caliper.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The mean transverse diameter (TD) was found to be 27.75 ± 2.47mm (Mean ± SD) and the mean anteroposterior diameter (APD) was found to be 34.62 ± 3.58mm (Mean ± SD). The various shapes of the foramen magnum were observed. The most common shape was oval 46.9%, followed by round18.8%, tetragonal 15.6%, hexagonal 12.5%, and irregular 6.3%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> In our study, the most common shape of the foramen magnum was oval; this can help the surgeons to perform post-cranial surgery and surgery near the foramen magnum as an oval shape indicates the narrow operative field. The study may also be helpful for anatomists for study purposes and forensic experts to determine the identity of different populations when compared to other studies.</p> Anil Kumar Gupta, Gaurav Jung Shah, Archana Chaudhary, Ram Jiban Prasad Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gross and Micro Anatomical Study of Placenta from Normal and Hypertensive Pregnancies <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Introduction:</strong> The examination of the placenta gives a clear idea of what happened with fetus when it was in the mother’s womb. The changes in placenta of women with pregnancy induced hypertension and normal pregnancies can be compared.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objective:</strong> This study was done to find out differences in gross structure and histology between normal and hypertensive placentas.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methods:</strong> Placenta from case and control group was collected from the Gynecology and Obstetrics Department of B.P.Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan. The histology slides were prepared, examined and parameters was collected.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results:</strong> The mean weight of placenta in control group was 469.5±148.9gm and in case group was 375.50 ± 109.08gm which was statistically significant. The histological observation of syncytial knot, hyalinized villi, stromal fibrosis, necrosis, hemorrhage and calcification in placenta was significantly higher in case group than that of in normotensive group.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusions:</strong> It is concluded that, in hypertension complicating pregnancy, with increase of severity, there is decrease in morphology and increase in abnormal histological changes of placenta. So, the reduction in placental morphological parameters and histological changes might be the reason for retarded growth of baby with increased complication of hypertension.</p> Jyoti Mishal, Chandra Bhushan Jha, Shailaja Chhetri Shrestha, Yamuna Agrawal, Archana Chaudhary, Nikky Maharjan Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 External Dacryocystorhinostomy Surgery at Biratnagar Eye Hospital, Nepal <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Nasolacrimal duct obstruction at the junction of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct causes acute or chronic dacryocystitis. Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is the treatment of choice and has a high success rate.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To analyze the success rate of external DCR surgery and its influencing factors at our hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It is a hospital-based descriptive study of cases that underwent external DCR surgery from June 2016 to February 2017 at Biratnagar eye hospital. The demographic data were recorded and the successful outcome of the surgery along with its influencing factors -tube status, operating surgeons, and gender was analyzed. The main outcome measure was defined as a patent lacrimal passage on syringing at 6 months postoperatively. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact test were used for statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In total 317 patients, the mean age of the patients was 38.46 (SD ± 13.6) years. The male to female ratio was 1:2.5. The commonest presenting symptom was watering with discharge in 224 (70.6%) patients. Of the total, 195(61.5%) had undergone the DCR surgery with intubation and 122 (38.5%) without intubation. Only 114 (35.9%) patients were followed up for 6 months. The success rate was 86.8%. Postoperative wound infection, bleeding or cheese wiring of the punctum was not seen. No statistically significant factors were seen to influence the success rate of DCR surgery.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> External DCR surgery has a high success rate and no significant influencing factors were found to define its success in this study.</p> Prerna Arjyal Kafle, Diwa Hamal, Krishna Kumar Thakur, Sharmila Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Glycated Haemoglobin and Lipid Profile in Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Diabetes Mellitus is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To compare the biochemical parameters which included glycated hemoglobin, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of people with diabetes mellitus and matched nondiabetic controls.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted among 60 diabetics and 30 nondiabetic patients. Fasting blood samples of 5 ml were collected from both the study sample and control sample. Biochemical parameters like glycated hemoglobin, serum total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were analyzed with the help of a semi-automated analyzer, Erba Chem5, and Colorimeter-Systronic. Means of glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein were estimated<br />among the cases and controls. The student`s t-test was used to compare the mean values.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A statistically significant difference was observed in mean glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein among the cases and controls (p-value&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study concluded that there was a significant difference in mean glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density cholesterol, and low-density cholesterol among the cases and controls. It is suggestive that lipid profile must be considered among diabetic patients which could be beneficial to prevent the risk of cardiovascular complications.</p> Tapeshwar Yadav, M. Vijaya Bhaskar, Jayendra Bajracharya, S. S. B. Sharma, Nikky Maharjan, Sushma Bhadeshwar Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block versus Conservative Management for Post Dural Puncture Headache in Cesarean Section <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Post-dural puncture headache is one of the frequently encountered and inevitable post-operative complications of the subarachnoid block. The primary treatment is always considered conservative management in such instances. However, an epidural blood patch remains an invasive gold standard treatment. Sphenopalatine ganglion block is propounded as minimally invasive with prompt and better outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To assess the efficacy of Sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB) when compared to conservative management based on the onset of analgesia and its duration.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a prospective study performed on 40 obstetrics patients who underwent Lower segment cesarean section in Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital (LMCTH) who complained of Post dural puncture headache within 7 days. All the parturients are categorized into Group A, those who are treated with sphenopalatine ganglion block, and Group B, where post-dural puncture headache was treated with conservative management. Independent t-tests and Fischer’s test were used for statistical analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The patients in group A showed positive outcomes where all of them were relieved of post-dural puncture headache within 10 mins after Sphenopalatine ganglion block (p&lt;0.001) and the mean pain score, based on a numerical pain rating scale was less or equal to 4 for the first 8 hours.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Sphenopalatine ganglion block (SPGB) could be used as an effective first-line treatment modality in the management of post-dural puncture headache compared to conservative management.</p> Chetan Bohara, Rajesh Maharjan, Subi Regmi, Gunjan Regmi, Amresh Kumar Singh, Anup Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Interocclusal Rest Space among the Patients Attending Dental College and Hospital <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Interocclusal Rest Space (IRS) is one of the significant factors that determine an individual’s aesthetics, their ability to perform oral functions, and oral reconstructive procedures.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Evaluation of interocclusal rest space in different age groups, sex, and Angel’s class of malocclusion.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among the patients attending People’s Dental College and Hospital, Kathmandu. The interocclusal rest space in 321 subjects was determined after measuring the vertical dimension of rest and occlusion with a digital caliper.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The IRS among the participants ranged from 2.11±1.06 -2.58±0.79mm. The age group of 55 years and above had the highest mean IRS (2.58 mm) followed by 35-44 years with a mean IRS (2.43 mm). There was no statistically significant difference in IRS among the different age groups (P-value 0.29). The mean IRS of the male (2.43mm) was statistically significantly higher than the female (2.02 mm) group (P-value 0.001). The IRS among participants with Angle’s class I, II, and III malocclusions had no statistically significant difference (P-value 0.08) among the three groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The mean value of IRS in Nepalese subjects can be considered within the average value of 2-3 mm. The mean values of IRS among the participants were 2.21mm. The average IRS values in males should be considered 0.4 mm more than in females.</p> Kanchana Shrestha, Prabhat Shrestha, Subodh Lal Karn, Anju Khapung Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Depression among Elderly Residing in Old-age Homes in Devghat, Nepal <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Depression among the elderly is a common phenomenon that is increasing at an alarming rate in recent years. Depression among the elderly leads to various physical and psychological problems and consequently poor quality of life.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of depression among elderly residing in old-age homes in Devghat, Tanahun, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional analytical study design was adopted to assess depression among elderly residing in old-age homes of Devghat town in Tanahun district of Nepal. Non-probability enumeration sampling technique was used to collect the data. The validated Nepali translation of the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 was used to assess depression. Collected data were entered in SPSS version 22 and analyzed by using the Chi-square test.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of 155 respondents, 45.8% had mild depression followed by 36.8% who had moderate depression. A statistically significant association was found between the level of depression and marital status, educational status, asthma, and habit of smoking.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study showed that the prevalence of depression in old-age homes was very high. This necessitates the provision of regular screening and adequate support and initiatives from concerned authorities to uplift the mental status of these elderly people so that it does not affect their overall health and quality of life.</p> Prava Lamichhane, Shobhana Nepal, Keshav Dhakal Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Study of Palmar and Digital Dermatoglyphics in Congenitally Deaf Patients <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Dermatoglyphics is the study of dermal ridges and patterns. It is frequently used for the diagnosis of several diseases in the human body including congenital deafness. Congenital deafness appears in children and is diagnosed through pathological tests, genetic investigations, or other anatomical measures.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To establish a potential relationship between Dermatoglyphics and identification of congenital deafness.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Forty congenital deaf male and female patients and forty normal control groups were selected. Observations of dermal patterns in the Hypothenar area and III and IV Interdigital areas of both left and right hands were carried out. Results were obtained for the normal control group as well as the congenital deaf patients’ group. Results obtained for both males and females were separately analyzed. Z-tests were conducted to assess the statistical significance of the results.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Loop (Radical), Open Field, and Arches (Carpal) were present in higher frequencies in congenital deaf patients compared to the normal control group. The frequency of arches in the Hypothenar area in both hands of congenital deaf patients is found to be significantly higher than in the normal control group. Pattern frequencies in III and IV Interdigital areas are consistently higher in congenital deaf patients than in the normal control group. Observation of overall pattern frequencies in III and IV Interdigital area of males and females of both control group and congenital deaf patients exhibit higher frequencies in congenital deaf patients’ group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Dermatoglyphics can be used for the diagnosis of congenital deafness.</p> Presha Baral, Shriti Manandhar, Prabhakar Yadav, C B Jha Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Anatomical Risk Factors of Nerve Injuries Following Surgical Removal of Mandibular Third Molar <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Surgical removal of the mandibular third molar has its own set of complications. The mandibular impacted teeth are in proximity to the Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN), Buccal Nerve, and Lingual Nerve (LN). Therefore, each of these nerves is always at risk of injury during extraction.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> This study was to evaluate the anatomical risk factors of nerve injury after the surgical extraction of mandibular third molars in patients visiting the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery of People’s Dental College and Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This prospective study was conducted with 315 participants who presented with a mandibular third molar impaction and underwent Intraoral Periapical Radiograph (IOPAr), panoramic radiograph, as well as Cone Beam, Computed Tomography (CBCT). CBCT was done in those patients in which the mandibular third molar was in close contact with the mandibular canal.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Collected data from 315 patients showed that the incidence of Inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and lingual nerve(LN)injury was 0.31%. Of which one had mesioangular class B, level II type of impaction in 17year male and the other had horizontal class C, level II type of impaction in 47year female respectively. In both cases, the tooth was lingually placed in relation to IAN.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Various factors are responsible for nerve injury after the removal of the mandibular third molar. In our study, the incidence of nerve injury to IAN and LN was comparatively low and the most common risk factor was angulation and anatomical position of the impacted mandibular third molar.</p> Reena K. Shrestha, Dipti Shrestha, Pranay Ratna Sakya, Dhiraj Khadka, Rakshya Shrestha, Kanchan Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Three Desensitizing Agents to Reduce Cervical Dentin Hypersensitivity: A Randomized Clinical Trial <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Dentin hypersensitivity (DH) is a commonly encountered dental complaint, management of which is often challenging to dentists. It occurs when dentinal tubules are patent both at the pulpal and the oral surface. It is widely accepted that DH affects function and quality of life. Thus, it is necessary for dentists to manage it properly.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of VivaSens and Propolis in comparison to Gluma in reducing cervical dentin hypersensitivity.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A randomized clinical trial, double-blinded, parallel-group study was conducted among forty-five patients. They were randomly allocated into three different groups (n=15): Gluma (positive control), VivaSens, and Propolis. Tactile and evaporative methods were used to assess pain using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) in patients with cervical abrasion, with a complaint of dentin hypersensitivity. Pain score was recorded preoperatively, immediately after application, at one week and one month postoperatively. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 11.5 and Microsoft Excel version 2010. Mean NPRS scores were calculated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All three desensitizing agents significantly reduced DH scores from baseline to all subsequent follow-ups (p&lt;0.001). Kruskal–Wallis test elicited no significant differences in the mean difference in DH scores among positive control and test groups for both stimuli at all-time intervals (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Gluma, VivaSens, and Propolis desensitizing agents were effective in relieving cervical DH. No statistically significant difference was found in relieving DH among the agents in all subsequent follow-ups.</p> Shikha Bantawa, Mannu Vikram, Navin Agrawal, Vimmi Singh, Ashok Ayer, Arbind Rai, Sita Shrestha, Santosh Kumari Agarwal Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Clinical Profile and Short-Term Outcome of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis in a Nepalese Population: A Retrospective Study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare cause of stroke. The increased awareness among the physicians and the suspiciousness of the myriad of its clinical presentation with increased availability of investigation modules and therapeutic options has led to a decrement of mortality and morbidity. The study intends to assess the clinical etiological profile of patients of CVT and also to assess short-term outcomes and if any factors are associated with it.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> It was a hospital-based retrospective, observational cross-sectional study at a tertiary care center in Kathmandu among adult CVT patients from August 2019 to August 2021. Clinical, etiological, and radiological data, the outcome at discharge, and any factors influencing this were assessed where possible. Data were analyzed using SPSS 25 software. Analysis of the descriptive data was performed and independent factors influencing short-term outcome (admission date &lt; 7 days) were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> There were a total of 15 cases included in the study. The study showed female predominance (66.7%. The mean age of the patients was 48.87 years. Four (26.7%) patients had hypertension. The history of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use was among five (33.33%) females. A significant association was present with direct signs in CT scan (p=0.02), and low erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), p= (0.02).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> OCP and hypertension are increasingly recognized as independent risk factors for CVT. The presence of direct signs in the CT head and the presence of high ESR have independent predictive value in assessing short-term outcomes.</p> Niraj Gautam, Bikram Prasad Gajurel, Sangam Shah, Subarna Giri, Rajeev Ojha, Ragesh Karn, Reema Rajbhandari, Sunanda Paudel, Ashish Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Morbidities and its Immediate Outcome in Newborns Born Through Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Gestational Diabetes mellitus is associated with a significant risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The objective of this study was to assess the different morbidities and their immediate outcome in newborns born to mother with gestational diabetes mellitus.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A descriptive cross-sectional study was done among 349 inborn neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus, at the Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences. The informed written consent and ethical approval were taken. The different socio-demographic &amp; clinical parameters of the mothers and neonates were taken. The data was analyzed using relevant statistical tests.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Out of the total 11977 deliveries, there were 431 (3.6%) deliveries of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus. More than half of the neonates were male. The mean birth weight and gestational age of the neonates were 39±2 weeks and 3100 ± 570 gram respectively. Sixty-four (18.3%) neonates had some form of morbidity. The three major morbidities in the neonates were small for gestational age (n=39, 11.2%), preterm birth (n=34, 9.7%) and neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (n=24, 6.9%). The incidence of macrosomia, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, polycythemia, cardiac defects, and gross congenital anomalies were 21 (6%), 22 (6.3%), six (1.7%), one (0.3%), eight (2.3%) and two (0.6%) respectively. Similarly, 22 (6%) neonates needed admission, out of which 16 (4.6%) recovered and got discharged, while six (1.4%) expired.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The major morbidities associated with neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus were small for gestational age, prematurity, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and hypoglycemia.</p> Mukesh Bhatta, Vikas Aneja Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Association of Height and Arm Span in Young Healthy Subjects <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Height is used to calculating body mass index and body surface area which are used to interpret renal function tests and pulmonary function tests. The maximum vertical measurement of a person is the standing height. Arm span is the measurement between the tip of the middle finger of the right and left hands. The exact standing height of patients with abnormalities of disproportionate growth, spine deformities, skeletal dysplasia, limb deformities, amputated limb, pain, weakness or paralysis cannot be measured. In these conditions, an arm span may be used to determine the height of a person.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to determine the association of height and arm span among the medical students of Maharajgunj, Medical Campus, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among medical students in the Clinical Physiology Department of Maharajgunj Medical Campus from November 2020 to October 2021. Non-probability, the convenience sampling method was adopted and a total of 110 participants were enrolled in the study including 55 males and 55 females. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to find the association between height and arm span. A simple linear regression test was also used to formulate the equations of height and arm span and data analysis was done using SPSS version 25.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A significant positive correlation was observed between height and arm span where the total participants had r-value=0.765(p=0.00), males had r-value=0.557(p =0.00) and female had r-value=0.778(p=0.00).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> A strong positive correlation was observed between height and arm span among the participants.</p> Mahesh Man Bajimaya, Narayan Bahadur Mahotra, Lava Shrestha, Sait Pradhan, Sanyukta Gurung Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of C-Shaped Root Canal Systems in Mandibular Second Molars in Nepalese Population <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Introduction:</strong> Detailed diagnosis, treatment planning, and successful endodontic treatment require an in-depth understanding of the root canal anatomy and its distinguishing features in various ethnic groups.<br /><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study was to study the C-shaped canal morphology of mandibular second molars in the Nepalese population by using clinical and radiographic analysis.<br /><strong>Methods:</strong> This descriptive cross-sectional study will be designed and implemented using records from dental records from January 2017 to January 2021. Out of 4680 cases, 1800 cases were evaluated as samples based upon inclusion and exclusion criteria. The prevalence of C-shaped root canals according to age, sex, and quadrant was calculated. The morphology of C-shaped root canals was assessed on the basis of radiographic appearance and clinical examination records. Descriptive statistics were presented as numbers and percentages. The Chi-square test was used to check any association between variables. The level of significance was kept at 0.05.<br /><strong>Results:</strong> The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 0.105%(n=162) in the second mandibular molar with the highest prevalence being in the young adult age group (18-25) and slightly higher in male cases than females. Unilateral cases (93.83%) of C-shaped were more prevalent than bilateral (6.17%). Group of age and site(unilateral/bilateral) variables were significantly associated with the prevalence of c-shaped canals.<br /><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Knowing the anatomical variation and prevalence of the population we are treating is of utmost importance for a favorable outcome. In comparison to the prevalence of other Asian countries like China and Korea, the prevalence of C-shaped canals was comparatively less.</p> Snigdha Shubham, Kriti Shrestha, Sageer Ahmad, Vanita Gautam Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation and in-vitro Evaluation of Oro-dispersible tablets of Indomethacin <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Introduction:</strong> Oro-dispersible tablets are rapidly dissolved in saliva without the need for water and are beneficial for renal impaired, bedridden and psychiatric patients.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Objective:</strong> The study aimed to formulate oro-dispersible tablets of indomethacin with reduced adverse effects, better patient compliance, faster action, and convenience for patients.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methods:</strong> Oro-dispersible tablets of indomethacin were prepared using three different super disintegrants; crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate with three different concentrations (2.5%, 5.2%, and 7.7%) by direct compression method. The prepared tablets were evaluated for pre and post-compression parameters including bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index, angle of repose, Hausner's ratio, hardness, friability, wetting time, in vitro disintegration time, and in vitro drug release.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results:</strong> The percentage of drug released in 5 minutes of all formulations of Oro-dispersible tablets of Indomethacin was found to be 74.36% to 80.16% and the percentage of drug released in 10 minutes was 96.18% to 100%. All formulations showed disintegration time in the range of 19-78 seconds. The tablets prepared with 7.7% crospovidone (F6) shows faster disintegration (19 seconds) as compared to tablets prepared with sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. The in-vitro dissolution studies showed that tablets of formulations batch containing 7.7% crospovidone releases 100% of the drug after 10 minutes which was fast released as compared to sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Oro-dispersible tablets of indomethacin prepared with crospovidone showed better disintegration time and dissolution profile as compared to other superdisintegrants.</p> Gopal Pokhrel, Ganga Kunwar, Jun Devi Rai, Sheela Thapa, Sudip Dhakal, Prashant Basnet Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Anti-depressant Activity of the Seeds of Zanthoxylum armatum on Swiss Albino Mice <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Depression disorder has significant potential morbidity and mortality, contributing to suicide, incidence and adverse outcomes of medical illness, disruption in interpersonal relationships, substance abuse, and lost work time.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> The present study was designed to study the anti-depressant activity of the seeds extract of Zanthoxylum armatum using a forced swim test and tail suspension test on Swiss albino mice. The anti-depressant activity of the seeds of Zanthoxylum armatum was assessed using Chronic Unpredictable Mild-Stress (CUMS) induced depression in mice.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The animals were treated with the methanolic extract of seeds of Zanthoxylum armatum orally at two doses of 100, 200mg/kg body weight for eight days after CUMS induced depression in mice. The results demonstrate that Methanolic extract of seeds of Zanthoxylum armatum has got anti-depressant potential.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study showed that the extract of Zanthoxylum armatum had significant antidepressant activity. Microsoft Excel was used to calculate the mean ± SEM and one-way ANOVA followed by a turkey multiple comparison test was used to analyze the results. The seed extract presented significant antidepressant activity in mice (p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> This study was conducted to explore the antidepressant activity of seeds extracts of plant Zanthoxylum armatum in CUMS induced mice.</p> Chandrajeet Kumar Yadav, Kamal Poudel, Amit Shrivastava, Roshan Mehta, Tapeshwar Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Fasting Blood Glucose in Chronic Periodontitis Patients Visiting a Tertiary Hospital <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> It is well-established that diabetes unfavorably influences periodontal health and results in periodontitis. However, upcoming evidence also shows that periodontitis initiates a chronic state of insulin resistance leading to hyperglycemia.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> We designed this study to assess fasting blood glucose levels in chronic periodontitis patients and also explore the relationship between severity of chronic periodontitis and fasting blood glucose levels with an analysis of their risk factors in adult the population of eastern Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted on a total of 141 chronic periodontitis patients aged 30-55 years who were divided into Group A (Mild periodontitis) and Group B (Moderate/ Severe periodontitis) according to the American Academy of Periodontology / Centres for Disease Control (AAP/ CDC) criteria. Fasting blood glucose level was analyzed as normal (&lt;100 mg/dl), impaired fasting (100-125 mg/dl), and diabetic (≥126 mg/dl) based on the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the 141 subjects examined, Group A accounted to be 43.26% and Group B 56.74%. The mean fasting blood glucose level was 121.51 ± 53.67 mg/dl. The Chi-square test showed that severity of periodontitis and body mass index were significantly associated with the categories of fasting blood glucose. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that age (OR=1.08), gender (OR=3.48) and body mass index (OR=0.38) were significantly associated with impaired fasting glucose. The risk of acquiring diabetes in mild periodontitis was 0.255 times less likely than in severe periodontitis (OR=0.255, CI 0.065-0.997).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The severity of chronic periodontitis showed a significant association with the categories of fasting blood glucose.</p> Robins Dhakal, Shivalal Sharma, Sajeev Shrestha, Khushboo Goel, Madhab Lamsal, Ripu Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Robins Dhakal, Shivalal Sharma, Sajeev Shrestha, Khushboo Goel, Madhab Lamsal, Ripu Singh Wed, 03 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000