Nepal Journal of Environmental Science <p>The Nepal Journal of Environmental Science is published by the <a title="Central Department of Environmental Science" href="">Central Department of Environmental Science</a>, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal.</p> <p>The journal is also available on its <a href="">own webpage</a>&nbsp;maintained at the CDES.&nbsp;(The submission of the manuscript can be made at <strong></strong> or <strong></strong>).</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Chhatra Mani Sharma) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 16 Jul 2021 07:42:28 +0000 OJS 60 Impacts of brick kiln emission on agricultural soil around brick kiln areas <p>The study attempted to assess the impacts of the brick kilns emissions on the farm soil in and around the kiln areas. A total of 72 representative farm soil samples were collected from 12 selected brick kiln clusters in Rajshahi and Gazipur Districts of Bangladesh, covering two years (September 2015 to August 2017). The collected samples were analyzed using standard methods. The pH and organic matter content in the farm soil samples were found to be very low. The farm soil parameters such as pH, organic matter, and soil texture were found in critical conditions. Among all of the heavy metals, only Cr exceeded the permissible standard of some soil samples. The concentration of Cr ion varied from 9.50 to 52.77 and 16.54 to 70.13 ppm in Rajshahi and Gazipur Districts, respectively indicated the chance of metal contamination in plants. The study results showed that the values of contamination factor (<em>C<sup>i</sup><sub>f</sub></em>) and ecological risk factor (<em>E<sup>i</sup><sub>r</sub></em>) in the selected farm soil of Rajshahi and Gazipur Districts existed in the order of Cd &gt; As &gt; Cr &gt; Pb &gt; Zn and Cd &gt; As &gt; Pb &gt; Cr &gt; Zn, respectively. The study results also showed that the pollution load index and risk index values were lower than 1 and 150, respectively, at all sampling locations indicating lower pollution and risk from heavy metals in the areas. The study observed that continuous brick production over the periods degraded topsoil fertility and reduced agricultural productivity.</p> Mrinal Kanti Saha, Rakhi Rani Sarkar, Syed Jamal Ahmed, Abu Hanif Sheikh, Md Golam Mostafa Copyright (c) 2021 Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University Mon, 28 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Solid waste management practices and challenges in seven cities of Nepal before and during lockdown against COVID-19 pandemic <p>The nationwide lockdown imposed to control the spread of novel coronavirus induced dramatic alterations in different sectors of the Nepalese governance, including Solid Waste Management (SWM) practices. The study identifies SW collection gaps in seven major cities of Nepal and highlights the municipal and public households on SW management practices before and during the lockdown to emphasize the linkage between COVID-19 and SWM. It includes information on solid waste status, collection frequency and coverage, workers' safety practices, types of vehicles operated for collection and alternative methods adopted by households to manage SW during the lockdown. For this, 1329 households survey and key informant interviews were conducted in seven cities of Nepal during the lockdown. It was found that although the coverage of the collection service was similar during the pandemic in surveyed households, there was a drastic decrease in the collection frequency leading to a collection gap of around 570 tons/day. More than 50% of the surveyed households adopted no proper alternative measures as they claimed that they stored solid waste with proper management so that municipal authorities can take it. While other 50% adopted practices such as open burning, throwing in streets or composting. The study reveals poor occupational health and safety practices among solid waste workers due to the unavailability of safety gear and equipment despite being aware of the modes of transmission of the virus. The pandemic exacerbated the challenges of smooth SWM as it is an essential and needy service. This study highlights the need for a timely strategic management framework to be developed by the government to continue the smooth SWM practices during the lockdown.</p> Bikash Adhikari, Saroj Koirala, Nitesh Khadka, Nitesh Koirala Copyright (c) 2021 Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University Tue, 29 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Habitat preference of Himalayan musk deer (Moschus leucogaster Hodgson, 1839) at Lapchi of Bigu Rural Municipality, Gaurishankar Conservation Area <p>The Himalayan musk deer<em> (Moschus leucogaster) </em>is an endangered species listed in the IUCN Red List and Appendix I of CITES. It is widely but discontinuously distributed in Nepal. A Pellet sign survey was carried in April 2019 in Lapchi valley of Gaurishankar Conservation Area (GCA) in Nepal to assess the habitat preference of Himalayan musk deer. A total of 11 transects of 16348 m length and 10 m wide was surveyed. Seven Parameters: Elevation, Aspect, ground cover, distance from the water source, crown cover, rock exposure, and distance from settlement/cow sheds were recorded from the location where pellet (toilet) of musk deer were recorded to extrapolate the probable habitat map. We recorded a total of 157 musk deer pellet groups in the study area14.27 ± 2.91. The study concluded that the 38.4% (26.5 km<sup>2</sup>) area of Lapchi valley is the probable habitat of musk deer. The c<sup>2</sup> – test suggested that the distribution of musk deer is significantly associated with elevation and aspect of the location. Musk deer mostly preferred habitat between 3600-4000 m elevations, with North-West aspect, ground cover less than 25%, and canopy cover between 25%-50%. Musk deer signs were recorded in areas with rock exposure ranging from as low as less than 25%. Distance from the water source and human settlement affect the distribution of musk deer. The indirect signs were higher near water sources and far from human settlement.</p> Narayan Prasad Koju, Bijay Bashyal, Satya Narayan Shah Copyright (c) 2021 Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University Sat, 03 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Water quality and health risk assessment of trace elements contamination in Ghodaghodi Lake, Sudurpaschim Province, Nepal <p>The contamination of trace elements (TEs) in freshwater sources has become an alarming issue globally. This study evaluates the contamination level of TEs, their spatial distributions, and the health risks in the Ghodaghodi Lake complex, Nepal. Altogether, ten water samples were collected, and As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sc, Sr, Ti, Tl, V, Y, and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results revealed that Sr, Zn, Cu, As, Sc, and Rb were dominated TEs, contributing to the contamination. The principal component analysis and correlation matrices demonstrated both the geogenic and anthropic origin of the TEs in the lake. The water quality index (WQI=10.08) and hazard indices &lt;1 exhibited that the TEs pose a low risk to human health and, hence the water of the lake was suitable for drinking purposes. However, exposure risk assessment results suggested that children are relatively more vulnerable compared to adults. The outcome of this study will provide new insights to local people and the concerned authorities for the sustainable management of Ramsar listed Ghodaghodi Lake complex.</p> Ramesh Raj Pant, Khadka Bahadur Pal, Gita Pathak, Kiran Bishwakarma, Lal B Thapa, Yam Prasad Dhital, Youb Raj Bhatta, Ganesh Raj Joshi, Kedar Rijal Copyright (c) 2021 Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University Sat, 03 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Application of activated effective microorganism, mudball and biosand filter for the treatment of dye wastewater <p>A study was carried out to evaluate the application of Activated Effective Microorganisms (AEM) solution and EM Mudballs (mixture of soil, rice bran, and EM) to wastewater generated from wool and cotton dyeing unit at Kumbeshwar Technical School (Lalitpur, Bagmati Province, Nepal). Furthermore, the AEM treated wastewater was treated through a Biosand filter as a final treatment and polishing step before discharge in a nearby sewerage system. The wastewater samples collected for 27 days were analyzed for the wastewater quality parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Solids (TS), and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) using the standard methods. The average values of pH, conductivity, COD, and TS after the EM combined with Biosand (final) treatment were observed to be 7.49±1.15, 1.39±0.25 mS/cm, 1,669.4 ±858.14 mg/L, and 264±25.29 mg/L, respectively. TS and COD removal were observed to be 43.97±22.3% and 15.26±10.06%, respectively. The results show that the dye wastewater is difficult to remove by a simple biological process like the addition of EM. Combined EM and biosand filters can be an inexpensive way of treating industrial effluents. However, the existing treatment system needs to be optimized by the integration with the proper EM: water: molasses ratio, optimal feeding time and design, hydraulic retention time, solids retention time, organic loading rates in EM reactor, and COD/BOD ratio in wastewater among other important components to meet the national effluent discharge requirements.</p> Anisha Maharjan, Anish Ghimire Copyright (c) 2021 Central Department of Environmental Science, Tribhuvan University Sun, 04 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000