Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies <p>A publication of the Central Department of Rural Development, University Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Nepal.</p> Central Department of Rural Development TUCL en-US Nepalese Journal of Development and Rural Studies 2392-4403 <p>© Copyright by Central Department of Rural Development</p> Navigating the Path of Rural Development: Insights from Diverse Perspectives <p>Not Available.</p> Pushpa Kamal Subedi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 01 i iii 10.3126/njdrs.v20i01.65093 Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Higher Education: Growing Academic Integrity and Ethical Concerns <p>Artificial intelligence (AI) is scaling rapidly in higher education globally. Considering the increasing significance of artificial intelligence in higher education (AIHEd) and the absence of a comprehensive review on it, this paper delves into the evolving landscape of artificial intelligence in higher education (AIHEd), its academic integrity and ethical concerns. The study has applied qualitative approach by using literature review as a research design and method to facilitate the aim of the study.The analysis of the paper reveals that AI has the potential to make a significant contribution to enhancing teaching and learning experiences, improving productivity and efficiency, as well as fostering inclusivity and accessibility. On the contrary, the increasing utilization of AI in higher education (AIHEd) raises the concerns about academic integrity and ethical issues, as it has the potential to lead to plagiarism, impede critical thinking, suppress creativity, and erode originality in teaching, research, and scholarship. Hence, upholding the integrity of scientific research requires a rigorous commitment to ethical and academic principles, placing human intelligence and critical thinking at the forefront of the research process. The advancement of artificial intelligence in higher education not only brings significant advantages, but also poses challenges to the fundamental principles, methodologies, standards, ethical considerations and academic integrity in both teaching and research. As a result, the primary focus should be on embracing the opportunities and benefits that arise from this advancement and effectively addressing any potential risks and challenges.</p> Bishnu Bahadur Khatri Parbata Devi Karki Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 01 1 7 10.3126/njdrs.v20i01.64134 Examining Inclusive Education Policies of Nepal: A Comprehensive Review Analysis <p>This study seeks to interpret inclusive education policies in Nepal to ensure they align with constitutional rights, particularly for individuals with diverse learning needs. Nepal has conducted a thorough evaluation of its inclusive education policies. An analytical research approach has been used to analyze the policy provisions that protect constitutional education rights. Every child in Nepal is entitled to receive a fundamental education according to the constitution established in 2015. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the acts, policies, and educational documents that were relevant to the study. The findings highlight the successes and challenges of Nepal's inclusive education policy. The study also explores the connection between constitutional rights and practical scenarios, while highlighting the importance of considering cultural and socio-economic factors for fostering inclusivity. Improving inclusive education policies involves recognizing and building upon strengths while also addressing areas for improvement. This study intend to harmonize constitutional ideals and educational practices to provide insights for policy changes and foster inclusive and equitable education in Nepal and beyond.</p> Bisna Acharya Surya Sigdel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 01 8 15 10.3126/njdrs.v20i01.64135 Public Services Delivery in Local Government: Anthropological Insights On State-Citizens Relationship <p>This paper describes the relationship between the state and the people in relation to public services deliveryby the local government to its citizens in the Federal State of Nepal. The study was based on studied between the years 2019 to 2023 through the ethnographic approach like interviews, observation, and focus group discussions. The data presented in the text reveal that the local government isneithercloser to its citizens, although it is geographically near to them, nor equally access to all of them. It always represents the elite class and powerful group in a society. Furthermore, local government is not both an ‘object’ defined by its territorial boundaries and a ‘concrete structure’ like organography. For the citizens, the state is defined by its activities or performances, including the delivery of services to its citizens.It is constructed through the interaction between the local government and citizens in everyday life experiences that helps us to understand what the local government (state) means for the people at large, and how they perceive it. Furthermore, the understanding of the delivery of public services by local government is possible through the combination of structure and agency together that creates a robust framework for the ethnography of the state.</p> Jiban M. Poudel Hament Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 01 16 27 10.3126/njdrs.v20i01.64136 Issues and Challenges of Modernization in Nepal: A Development Perspective <p>This paper aims to explore the issues and challenges of modernization in development practice in Nepal. The paper is based on the synthesis of secondary sources of information for generating and validating the argumentation. Modernization is indeed an essential aspect of socio-economic progress. Nepal, being a developing country, faces numerous challenges in its pursuit of modernization. This paper discusses the key challenges encountered in the process of modernization, including infrastructural limitations, cultural and social barriers, political instability, and environmental sustainability. By understanding and addressing these challenges, Nepal can effectively navigate its path toward sustainable development and ensure the well-being of its citizens. It therefore concludes with the immediate correction of the mainstream paradigm of modernization making it more micro, small and people-friendly. The paper could contribute to the wider spectrum of development studies in the particular context of Nepal including research scholars, policymakers and development practitioners.</p> Mahendra Sapkota Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 01 28 41 10.3126/njdrs.v20i01.64163 Does Downward Accountability Work? An Assessment of Local Governance Practices in Nepal <p>The articulation of downward (social) accountability to the local government (LG) has been established by the new constitution of Nepal (2015) and further elaborated in the Local Government Operational Act (2017). LGs in Nepal have gained more autonomy, role, and responsibility for providing public services to local citizens following the state restructuring into federal Nepal. What does local governance practice look like today in terms of downward accountability? This paper examines the existing patterns of downward accountability, particularly in the same cases of local government in the Kailali district in the Sudurpaschim Province. Two separate field-based studies were conducted in different periods. Initially, the study assessed the compliance of social accountability tools in three local units (2019). The second attempt was a study focused on the practices of the monitoring mechanisms of four LG units (2021). The analysisused the observation check-list, key informant interview, and questionnaire schedule for data collection. The respondents to the study were the elected representatives, staff of LGs, and service-receiving citizens. This observation shows doubt about the practice of downward accountability at LG and its compliance, which appears to be ambiguous. LG elected representative's perception of downward accountability and the compliance mechanism must be clarified and specific. However, both elected representatives and the citizens have taken monitoring action in support of the downward accountability of LG. Effective service delivery has slowed due to a lack of a standardized downward accountability system.</p> Min Bahadur Shahi Suman Kharel Prajwal Man Pradhan Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 01 42 53 10.3126/njdrs.v20i01.64151 Good Governance Practices in Godawari Municipality of Lalitpur, Nepal <p>Good governance is a state management system which offers well-public service deliveries. This study aimed to explain good governance practices in Godawari Municipality in Lalitpur district, Nepal. We applied the post-positivism research paradigm and institutional/exit poll survey research design. The data were generated from 180 sample respondents who were elected leaders, administrative staff, local intellectuals, and service receivers in the municipality, and these were selected purposively and randomly. We applied reliable self-administered questionnaires (0.91&gt; 0.78 Cronbach’s alpha value) consisting of seven indicators: accountability, transparency, participation, the rule of law, corruption, responsiveness, and effectiveness and efficiency. This study is explained through the theoretical insights from decentralization and the new public management theories. This study found that good governance practices in Godawari Municipality were satisfactory and fair. Participation of local youths in the local government is remarkable, and the women elected representatives are more the men. The educational status of the respondents is good, and their level of education and the transparency score in the municipality are positively correlated. Service receivers perceive that political leaders and administrative staffs are mainly responsible for corruption. There exist between the principles of good governance and the practice in the study area, which nine possible implications of the research can address.</p> Rajan Binayak Pasa Chiranjibi Katuwal Devendra Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 01 54 67 10.3126/njdrs.v20i01.64153 Assessment of Cereal Based Food Security Situation in Bagmati Province of Nepal: Inclusive Transformation Perspective <p>This study identified the prevalence of food insecurity as per social and economic characteristics of people living in Bagmati province, thereby, giving information to plan and design the intervention appropriate and adequate enough to bring desirable changes in those areas. Food security is a complex and multidimensional concept. Measuring the concept with a single indicator is difficult due to its complexity and context specificity. This article explored the various aspects of food security in Bagmati province through primary and secondary data. This article offers a thorough analysis of different components related to food transformation systems contributing to achieve food security. It examined the food system's numerous parts and interdependence, highlighting pressing issues and possible solutions. Encouraging women, educated and economically active youths using innovative ways would contribute improving long-term food security. Land ownership of women is directly responsible for food surplus or deficit condition of in the study area. Governments and international organizations should prioritize investment in agriculture, research and development, and infrastructure to promote sustainable and inclusive food systems.</p> R. Paudel P.B. Nepali H.K. Panta G.D. Acharya Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 01 68 75 10.3126/njdrs.v20i01.64158 Informal Employment Trends in Nepal <p>The paper assessed both formal and informal employment trends based on panel data (1991-2022) estimated by ILO model. Various forms of employments (e.g., labour force participation, employment to population ratio, unemployment, wage and salaried workers, self-employed workers, contributing family workers, vulnerable employment and employment by economic classes, and contribution of informal economy to GDP) are presented and discussed statistically. Over the years, level of poverty is declined considerably. Indirect techniques such as MIMIC and DGE models were used to estimate the proportion of informal economy to GDP, suggesting Nepal is in the second position after Sri Lanka among the South Asian countries.</p> Ramesh Neupane Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 01 76 84 10.3126/njdrs.v20i01.64159 Trends of Gender Gaps in Nepal: A Statistical Analysis <p>This paper applied two panel data on GII (1996 to 2022),and EFI (1996-2022) to understand the trends of gender gap in Nepal. Recently, UNDP (2023b) has developedGSNIbased on data from wave 6 (2010-2014) and wave 7 (2017-2022) of WVS (2023). However, index is not available for Nepal. In this context, this article examined dimensions of WVS by defining gender gap in four thematic areas such as secondary education, representation in parliament, participation in labor force, and life expectancy, suggesting they are associated with ODA and some economic freedom indices.</p> Susmita Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 01 85 95 10.3126/njdrs.v20i01.64161 Use of Mixed Methods in Social Sciences Research <p>The landscape of social sciences is inherently complex and multifaceted, demanding a comprehensive and nuanced approach to research methodologies. This paper highlights the significance of mixed methods research in addressing the intricate and dynamic nature of social phenomena. Mixed methods not only enhance the validity and reliability of research findings but also allow for a holistic understanding of social phenomena and empower researchers to explore the comprehensiveness and diversity of human experiences, behaviors, and interactions that the traditional single-method approach often falls short of. Furthermore, mixed methods facilitates the triangulation of data, enabling researchers to corroborate and validate results through diverse lenses, thereby fortifying the robustness of their conclusions. Mixed methods contribute to the development of more effective and informed social and public policy interventions. Adopting mixed methods in social science research is not merely a choice but a necessity for unlocking the full potential of inquiry and advancing our collective understanding of the complex social world.</p> Madhusudan Subedi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-12-31 2023-12-31 20 01 96 105 10.3126/njdrs.v20i01.64166