Mangal Research Journal <p>Mangal Research Journal is published by the Mangal Multiple Campus, Kirtipur-10, Kathmandu, Nepal. It is a multidisciplinary, double-blind peer reviewed journal which aims at enhancing the capability of teachers to write research papers in several fields.</p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Laxmi Bahadur Maharjan) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 25 Jan 2023 09:15:59 +0000 OJS 60 Teachers of English and their Perceptions towards ESL Errors <p>This study entitled 'Teachers of English and their Perceptions towards ESL Errors' aimed at evaluating and determining gravity of grammatical errors in terms of acceptability and intelligibility judgments. Quantitative research methodology was utilized in this study. The data was gathered with the aid of a questionnaire prepared on the basis of the result of error analysis conducted earlier. The questionnaires were mailed to English teachers of different private and public schools, colleges and universities of Nepal and worldwide. Two hundred twenty (220) useable surveys were collected altogether for the study: 100 surveys from Nepali English teachers, 100 surveys from native English speaking teachers, 20 each from Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and America, and likewise, 20 surveys from non-Nepali English teachers. Received responses were analyzed and explained descriptively. The findings of the study showed that the native English teachers evaluated the errors far more leniently than Nepali and non- Nepali English teachers. There is no any significant difference in evaluation of errors found in between Nepali and non-Nepali English teachers, but compared to native English teachers, they were found statistically and significantly different in their judgments of errors in acceptability and intelligibility both. On the other hand, while comparing judgments of learners' errors in between the native English teachers; it was revealed that there were not any significant differences found there. It is recommended that the native English speaking teachers’ perception of errors be rightly explored and accordingly evaluation scales be developed and the teachers be made aware of such universal rating scales of grammatical errors while evaluating learners' errors.</p> Laxmi Bahadur Maharjan Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Integration of Information and Communication Technology in Pedagogy: A Systematic Review of Literature <p>This paper examines an effective integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in pedagogy in an educational setting. Presently, teaching-learning activities in higher education are becoming more complex and challenging. Therefore, knowledge of the content alone is insufficient to teach social sciences in higher education specified by the curriculum. The knowledge and skills of modern information and communication technology have become equally essential for a skilled teacher to have effective teaching and learning. This study aims to analyze teachers' perceptions of the importance of ICT integration in pedagogy at higher levels of education. Thus, this paper focuses on integrating information and communication technology in pedagogy. It is integral to education in many developing countries, including Nepal. The connotations of information and communication technology have been used variously in teaching. All the electronic materials including computer technology used in teaching-learning activities are considered information and communication technology (ICT). A systematic review of literature on 'Importance of ICT in education and 'Teacher's perception on the integration of ICT in pedagogy' with the theoretical base of content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), and pedagogical and content knowledge (PCK) with ICT are the main bases of this study. Information was collected from the review of 14 articles published from 2013-2020 in English, which covers teachers' views and perceptions on integrating ICT in pedagogy. The findings indicate that teachers can inevitably use ICT to deliver content effectively and fulfil students' 21st-century ICT needs by integrating pedagogical content knowledge with ICT.</p> Bishnu Maya Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Heart Rate and Anthropometrical Study of Nepalese International Boxing Players <p>The present study aimed to measure the HR response of boxing players during the four rounds of a punching before and after training to determine effectiveness of the training. Five international male Boxers who were participating in Asian Boxing Championship were selected with purposive sampling method. The data were collected during preparation camps for the championship. Each athlete was tested for various Anthropometric measurements necessary for the exact decimal ratings of Endomorphy, Mesomorphy and Ectomorphy equations developed by Carter and Heath (1990). Lafayette Skinfolds caliper has been used to measure the skin folds and for bone width measurement. For the Body Composition calculation, Drinkwater and Ross fractionation procedure (1980) was followed using Phantom model. Cardio-sport Heart Rate monitor was used to measure heart rate. Maximum heart rate and recovery heart rate were measured before and after training in 7 weeks interval on the same samples. Nepalese Boxers were observed with average somatotype of 1.97 – 4.49 – 2.23 falling in Ectomorphic – Mesomorph category. Nepalese International Boxer’s average age, height, body weight is 23.83 (S.D. 2.23), 168.1 cm (SD 8.5 cm) and 60.0 kg (SD 9.35) respectively. Nepalese Boxers are having 9.06 % body fat percentage and muscle mass 46.9 %. This study found the participants had good endurance capacity and improved their fitness level after 7-week training. This study suggested that they should give more emphasis in weight training. Future studies should conduct on larger samples including other sports and parameters.</p> Diwakar Lal Amatya, Pradip Maharjan Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Critical Friends Group for English Language Teachers’ Professional Development <p>This article entitled 'Critical Friends Group (CFG) for English Language Teachers’ Professional Development' aims to investigate teachers’ perceptions towards CFG for English language teachers’ professional development. This is a qualitative research method based on narrative inquiry. The data was collected from five English language teachers teaching in five different government schools by using semi-structured interview. The participants were selected by using judgmental non- random sampling procedures. The findings showed that teachers perceived CFG as one of the plausible means of their professional development. It helped them to foster collaborative and critical learning in them because they were involved in observation, reading and discussion of various burning issues of English language teaching and learning. It also indicated that teachers perceived CFG as the best platform for enhancing the personal, social and professional development. It has enhanced the professionalism on the part of teachers cultivating the sense of mutual trust and understanding between and among the colleagues.</p> Juna Rayamajhi Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Inequality in Institutional Delivery of Recent Birth among Married Women in Nepal: A Trend Analysis <p>The huge discrepancy in health statistics between developed and developing countries occur in the area of maternal mortality, with developing countries contributing most of the figures. This study assesses the trend of institutional delivery of recent birth and compares the inequalities with associated factors that affect institutional delivery in Nepal. The data for this study were obtained from three sequential Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys [NDHS] of 2006, 2011, and 2016. The association between institutional delivery and the explanatory variables was assessed via bivariate analysis (Chi-square test) and multivariate analysis (binary logistic regression). The utilization of health service during delivery stepped up from 21% in 2006 to 62% in 2016. Although the proportion of delivery in health facility increased among poorest over the period of 10 years, the disparity between richest and poorest still persisted from 2006 to 2016 and the association was highly significant in all the surveys. Although government of Nepal has launched the maternity incentive scheme through safe delivery incentive program in 2005, poor women are still deprived from utilizing the service. Poorest and poorer women were 78 per cent (aOR=0.22, 95% CI 0.17-0.27) and 71 Per cent (aOR=0.23, 95%CI 0.23-0.35) respectively less likely to have institutional delivery than the richest women after controlling the other socio-demographic and culture factors. Furthermore, this study has found that education, place of residence, women’s autonomy, religion, number of ANC visits, exposure to newspaper and TV were significant predicators for place of delivery. Although there has been three-fold increment in utilization of health services during delivery over the period of 10 years, the discrepancy between rich and poor, educated and uneducated and urban and rural area is highly evident. Overall, the present study highlights the necessity of interventions to promote institutional delivery with greater focus on poor, uneducated, and rural women</p> Ramesh Adhikari, Aakriti Wagle, Anuska Adhikari Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Cyberbullying and its Relationship with Smartphone Addiction <p>Smartphone and internet overuse can result into severe problems in users’ personal and social lives. In this backdrop, the present study aims to find the relationship between cyberbullying and smartphone addiction among BBA students. Participants were 123 males and 157 female students whose ages ranged from 17 to 29 years. The questionnaire with Smartphone Addiction Scale- Short Version (SAS-SV) and Revised Cyber Bullying Inventory-II (RCBI-II) were used to assess the smartphone addiction and cyberbullying respectively by using a convenience sampling method. The cyberbullying perpetration was reported by nearly 30% respondents and more than 60% respondents were victimized by cyberbullying. The password hacking and sending embarrassing and hurtful messages were common in cyberbullying. The study found that male students were significantly involved in cyberbullying perpetration. The study further revealed that time spent on smartphone in a day was significantly associated with both cyberbullying perpetration and cyberbullying victimization. This study found significantly positive correlation between smartphone addiction, cyberbullying perpetration and cyberbullying victimization. These results suggest the need to develop educational programme to educate the students to use smartphone effectively and safely to prevent cyberbullying.</p> Rocky Maharjan, Laxmi Gurung Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility on Brand Image of Commercial Banks <p>Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has been a strategy of banks to respond to the society in which they operate activities so that they can enhance their brand image. It encourages banks to make a positive contribution to the society. A good image of a bank is an asset because it has positive impact on its customers’ perception and preference about the bank. There are few empirical investigations that relate CSR and brand image in Nepalese banks. For this reason, the purpose of the study is to explore the relationship between economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibility on brand image of Nepalese commercial banks. Quantitative research approach was followed for the purpose. Data was collected from 210 valid questionnaires received from respondents met around Kirtipur. The responses were analyzed using SPSS 25 version. The findings revealed that there is a significant and positive influence of economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibility on brand image of Nepalese commercial banks. The result of this study can be used by CEOs and marketing executives to develop strategies that make use of CSR as a strategy for building brand image.</p> Sudarshan K.C. Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 सामुदायिक विद्यालयका राहत शिक्षकका समस्या र समाधान {Problems and the Solutions of Aid Quota 'Rahat' Teachers at Community Schools } <p>प्रस्तुत अध्ययन सामुदायिक विद्यालयका राहत शिक्षकहरूका समस्या र ती समस्याहरूको समाधानमा केन्द्रित रहेको छ । यो अध्ययन दोलखा जिल्लाको कालिञ्चोक गाउँपालिकाभित्रका सामुदायिक विद्यालयमा अध्यापनरत छ जना राहत शिक्षकहरूलाई उद्देश्यमूलक नमुना छनोट गरी फिनोमिनोलोजिकल ढाँचामा यो अध्ययन तयार गरिएको छ । अध्ययनमा आवश्यक पर्ने सामग्रीहरू अन्तरवार्ता र छलफलद्वारा सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । अध्ययन अनुसार राहत शिक्षकलाई नीतिगत रूपमा नेतृत्वगत जिम्मेवारी नदिइएको, राहत शिक्षक नियुक्तिमा व्यवस्थित र पारदर्शी आधारसमेत नभएको पाइयो। यसका कारण विद्यालयमा राहत शिक्षकलाई हेर्ने दृष्टिकोण सकारात्मक देखिएन । राहत शिक्षकहरूको पेसाप्रतिको दृष्टिकोण सकारात्मक बनाउन नेपाल सरकारले नीतिगत रूपमा राहत शिक्षकलाई पनि अन्य शिक्षकसरह समान सेवासुविधा प्रदान गर्नुपर्ने देखिन्छ । राहत शिक्षकहरूलाई विद्यालय तहमा नेतृत्व, जिम्वेवारी, पेसागत सुरक्षाको सुनिश्चित गराउनु पर्दछ । राहत शिक्षक नियुक्ति प्रक्रियामा एकै प्रकारको मापदण्ड अपनाएर दक्ष, योग्य, क्षमतावान् शिक्षक विद्यालयमा प्रवेश गराउने नीतिगत व्यवस्था गरी कार्यान्वयन गर्नु पर्ने देखिन्छ । उनीहरूको पेसागत सुरक्षा सुनिश्चित गर्नाका लागि निश्चित अवधि सेवा अनुभव भएका मध्येबाट आन्तरिक प्रतिस्पर्धाद्वारा स्थायी नियुक्ति दिने व्यवस्था मिलाउनु न्यायोचित देखिन्छ । </p> गणेश प्रसाद Ganesh Prasad खनाल Khanal, दाताराम Dataram नेपाल Nepal Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 किशोरीहरूले प्रयोग गर्ने भाषा {Language Use by Teenage Girls} <p>किशोरीहरूले प्रयोग गर्ने भाषा शीर्षकको प्रस्तुत अध्ययनका लागि किशोरीहरूको अभिव्यक्तिमा प्रयोग हुने शब्दको आयाम, स्रोत र बनोटका साथै उनीहरूको वाक्यको आयाम, कोड मिश्रण र सङ्गतिका आधारमा भाषाको विश्लेषण गर्नु उद्देश्य निर्धारण गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनका लागि स्थलगत अध्ययन गरिएको छ । किशोरीहरूको वार्तालापलाई अभिलेखीकरण गरी त्यस वार्तालापका आधारमा विश्लेषण गरी निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ । किशोरीहरूले वार्तालापमा लामालामा शब्दभन्दा छोटा शब्दको बढी प्रयोग गरेको देखिन्छ । किशोरीहरूको<br />भाषामा आगन्तुक शब्दको तुलनामा बढी तद्भव शब्द प्रयोग भएको देखिन्छ तापनि उनीहरूको भाषिक अभिव्यक्तिमा आगन्तुक स्रोतका शब्दहरूको अत्यधिक प्रयोग भएको पाइन्छ । उनीहरूले तत्सम शब्द कम मात्रामा प्रयोग गरेका छन्। उनीहरूले अत्यन्त प्रचलित तत्सम शब्दको मात्र प्रयोग गरेको देखिन्छ । यसबाट उनीहरूको सिकाइमा संस्कृत भाषाको भन्दा अङ्ग्रेजी र भारतीय भाषाको प्रभाव रहेको देखिन्छ । यिनीहरूले व्युत्पन्न शब्दको तुलनामा मूल शब्द नै प्रयोग गर्ने गरेको देखिन्छ । किशोरीहरूले साथीहरूलाई बोलाउँदा प्रयोग गर्ने ब्रो, ड्युड, सिस्, गाइज, फ्रेन्ड, पार्ट्स, जस्ता शब्दहरू अङ्ग्रेजी भाषाबाट भित्रिएको हुन्। उनीहरूले आफ्नो अभिव्यक्तिमा स्वतःस्फुर्त रूपमा अङ्ग्रेजी र हिन्दी भाषाका शब्दहरू प्रयोग गरी कोड मिश्रण गरेको देखिन्छ । यसरी किशोरीहरूले स्थानीय वा आञ्चलिक प्रकृतिको कोड मिश्रण नभई अन्तर्राष्ट्रिय भाषाको कोड मिश्रणको प्रयोग गरेको पाइन्छ । यसबाट हामीले स्थानीय भाषाका सामग्रीहरूको सम्पर्कमा किशोरीहरूलाई पुर्‍याउन नसकेको देखिन्छ । किशोरीहरूको वार्तालापमा लामा लामा वाक्यको प्रयोग नभई छोटा वाक्यको प्रयोग भएको पाइन्छ । यिनीहरूले वचन र आदरका दृष्टिले वाक्यको सङ्गतिगत प्रयोग गरेको देखिँदैन ।</p> दुर्गाप्रसाद Durga Prasad दाहाल Dahal Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 नेपालमा बुढ्यौलीको अवस्था {Old Aged Situation in Nepal} <p>नेपालको सन्दर्भमा ६० वर्ष र सो भन्दा माथिको जनसङ्ख्यालाई वृद्ध जनसङ्ख्याको रूपमा लिइन्छ । हाल विश्वमा वृद्धहरूको जनसङ्ख्या कुल जनसङ्ख्याको १०% रहेको पाइन्छ भने नेपालको अवस्था ८.१३% देखिन्छ । यस अध्ययनको उदेश्य नेपालमा बुढ्यौलीको जनसाङ्ख्यिक अवस्थाको विश्लेषण गर्नु रहेको छ । प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा वि.सं. २००९/११ देखि वि.सं. २०६८ सम्मको जनगणनाका तथ्याङ्कलाई स्रोत मानी विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । नेपालमा बि. स. २००९/११ मा कुल जनसङ्ख्या ८२५६६२५ मा वृद्ध जनसङ्ख्या ४०९७६१ (४.९९%) रहेकामा त्यसपछि भएका १०/१० वर्षको जनगणनामा वृद्ध जनसङ्ख्या बढेको देखिन्छ । वि. स. २००९/११ मा जम्मा जनसङ्ख्याको ४.९९% वृद्ध जनसङ्ख्या रहेकोमा वि. स.२०५८ लगभग ४७ वर्षमा सो जनसङ्ख्या १.५१% ले मात्र वृद्धि भई ६.५०% पुगेको पाइन्छ । स्वास्थ्य प्रतिको चेतना, गुणस्तरीय जीवनयापन, पोषणयुक्त खाना, स्वास्थ सेवामा पहुँचका कारण बुढ्यौली वा ज्येष्ठ नागरिकको जनसङ्ख्या र दिनप्रतिदिन बढ्दो क्रममा छ । हाम्रो देशले विकसित देशले जत्तिकै सेवा सुविधा नगरे पनि कल्याणकारी राज्यको अवधारणा अनुरूप वृद्ध भत्ता, सामाजिक सुरक्षा, स्वास्थय उपचार जस्ता कल्याणकारी व्यवस्था गरेको पाइन्छ ।</p> शान्ता Shanta उपाध्याय Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 नेपाल भाषा र नेपाली भाषामा कारक व्यवस्था {Case study Arrangement of Nepal Bhasa (Newari Language) and Nepali Language} <p>प्रस्तुत ‘नेपाल भाषा र नेपाली भाषामा कारकको व्यवस्था’ शीर्षकको लेखको मूल उद्देश्य नेपाल तथा नेपाली भाषाका कारक व्यवस्थाको तुलना गर्नु हो। यहाँ नेपाल भाषाका सामग्री कीर्तिपुरमा बोलिने नेपाल भाषाबाट उद्देश्यमूलक नमुना छनोटका आधारमा सङ्कलन गरिएको छ भने नेपाली भाषाका सामग्री सङ्कलनका लागि पुस्तकालीय स्रोतबाट गरिएको छ । यसका लागि नेपाली भाषामा कारक सम्बन्धी लेखिएका पुस्तकलाई आधार मानिएको छ । नेपाल भाषा र नेपाली भाषाका कारकहरू प्रयोग भएका वाक्यहरू उल्लेख गरी विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । पुस्तकालयीय कार्यबाट तथ्य सङ्कलन गरिएको यस लेखमा वर्णनात्मक विधिको उपयोग गरिएको छ । नेपाल र नेपाली दुवै भाषामा अर्थका दृष्टिले छ प्रकारका कारकहरू रहेका छन् भने रूपका दृष्टिले नेपाली र नेपाल भाषामा सरल र तिर्यक् दुवै प्रकारका कारकहरू छन्। नेपाली भाषामा वचन, आदर र विभक्तियुक्त कारक तिर्यक् रुपमा प्रयोग हुन्छ भने नेपाल भाषामा पनि वचन, आदर र विभक्तियुक्त कारक नै तिर्यक् कारकका रूपमा प्रयोग भएको पाइन्छ ।</p> सिद्धिबहादुर Siddhi Bahadur महर्जन Maharjan Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000