MedS Alliance Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences <p>The MedS Alliance Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences is the official peer-reviewed journal of Centre for Clinical Research and Community Health (CC-REACH), MedSpirit Alliance Inc.</p> Centre for Clinical Research and Community Health (CC-REACH), MedSpirit Alliance Inc. en-US MedS Alliance Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 2795-1952 Assessing the Health Status of Loharpatti Municipality, Madhesh Province, Nepal: A Community Health Diagnosis Need Assessment Survey <p><strong>INTRODUCTION</strong>: The health status of a country depends on the socio-economic status of the country’s people, their level of education, access to health services and so on. Therefore, this study aims to define existing problems in the community, identification of local resources (manpower, money, and material) of the community, identification of the basic health needs and problems of the community, set priorities of health needs for community health action, implementing and evaluating health action by and for the community.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>We, the students of the 15th Batch of the MBBS program at Janaki Medical College (Tribhuvan University) did a comprehensive Community Health Diagnosis (CHD) from 16th February 2021 to 25th March 2021 in Loharpatti Municipality, Ward No-03 of Mahottari District. Primary and secondary data were collected for the study. Two hundred forty six households and their members were selected by simple random sampling method.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>About 90% of participants went to health centres and health post for the treatment during illness. Our observation showed that 82% of households maintained appropriate environmental cleanliness around the house. About 74% of the remaining 26% used temporary methods and the most commonly used method was IUD by females. By analyzing the finding and discussing with the community leaders and the people real needs were identified and prioritized based on available resources. The prioritized needs were: KAP on child marriage and dowry system.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS</strong>: Loharpatti municipality was a rural settlement with low education status and had little idea about the consequences of early child marriage. The practice of child marriage has historical roots in the municipality. Therefore, prioritizing economic empowerment programs can help reduce socioeconomic constraints; conversely, working with religious and community leaders is essential to promoting change and encouraging discourse.</p> Nitesh Kumar Yadav CHD Study Group Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 84 92 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60183 Trends of Populations indicators in developed and developing countries: A Comparative Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>The world’s population seems growing, and expected to reach 7.8 billion by mid- 2020, growing from 7 billion in 2010, 6 billion in 1998, and 5 billion in 1986. The average annual growth rate was nearby 1.1% in 2015–2020, which steadily decreased after it peaked at 2.3% in the late 1960.Trends of population indicators between developed and developing countries seems undistinguishable. Therefore, this study aims to identify trends of population’s indicators in developed and developing countries.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>Data were obtained from World Development Indicators (WDI).These survey programs are highly comparable as they share similar sampling approaches and questionnaires designed to estimate standard health indicators.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The populations of India, Malaysia and Israel was in increasing trends from 2015-2020 whereas Japan was on declining trend from 2015 to2020 however, the populations of Nepal was slightly decreasing from 2015 to 2018 and then it is in increasing trends. Life expectancy rate of Japan was high due to their specific type of Gene quality i.e. DNA 5178 and the ND2-237Met ND genotype which help the Japanese live longer by protecting them against some adult-onset diseases.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The growing population in emerging nations like India and Nepal emphasizes the need for increased focus on gender parity, healthcare, education, and resource allocation, while Japan's declining population raises concerns about the need for pro-natal policies. Developed nations like Malaysia and Israel should prepare for the potential challenges associated with high birth rates, such as increased service demand and environmental concerns.</p> Mohammad Badre Alam Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 93 96 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60184 Microfinance Intervention and Health Outcomes of Marginalized People: A Systematic Literature Review <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>People from developing countries may have poor health due to economic constraints. Microfinance institutions provide collateral-free microcredit to the unbanked people for their livelihood improvement. This study aims to assess the impact of microfinance services on the health outcomes of marginalized people.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>The research is based on a review of empirical studies, reports, and data. The PubMed search engine was used to locate research publications on microfinance and health. The PubMed Open Database was applied to find the publications using the keywords "microfinance" and "health." All papers that were published from January 1, 2010, to April 15, 2023, were checked for the study. 71 research papers were discovered during the initial inquiry; nine duplicate articles were eliminated, and 13 were irrelevant to the study. Finally, 50 research papers and reports were selected for evaluation.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Health outcomes and microfinance intervention are related. Microfinance services are useful to improve access to healthcare, health initiatives/awareness, and funding for healthcare services. When financial services are integrated with health care services, the poor and marginalized people benefit from the microfinance intervention in the diverse areas of health care services such as communicable and non-communicable diseases, food security and nutrition, contraceptives, and mental health risks of intimate partner violence, as well as health awareness, quality of life, social integration, and economic wellbeing.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Financial accessibility is important for promoting the health of the underprivileged. The poor and marginalized individuals gain from the microfinance intervention in the broad spectrum of health care services when financial services are linked with health care services.</p> Bharat Ram Dhungana Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 76 83 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60169 Revisiting Salt Iodization Standards in Nepal: Opportunity and Challenge <p>Iodine deficiency disorder is still a major global public health issue, especially in areas with limited access to iodine-rich food sources. Nepal, a landlocked country in South Asia, has made significant progress in alleviating iodine deficiency disorders by implementing salt iodization initiatives. Maintaining continued success in the elimination of iodine deficiency disorders, it is necessary to revaluate current iodization requirements as the country develops. This paper examines Nepal's present situation with regard to salt iodization, emphasizing the opportunities and challenges of reviewing salt iodization standards.</p> Rajan Paudel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 74 75 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60170 Reference Interval (RI) <p>No abstract available.</p> Ram Vinod Mahato Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.59933 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice towards COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers in Peoples Dental College and Hospital, Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>HCWs are at risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) because of prolonged and repeated exposure to patients and because HCWs work in a team and physical distancing is usually not possible among them. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the current status of knowledge, attitude and practice among HCWs in Peoples Dental College and Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>This was a cross-sectional study conducted at People’s Dental College and Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal through an online survey questionnaire from 1st July 2020 to 30th August 2020. A total of 163 HCWs were identified as eligible for study and 90 participants (HCWs) participated in the study. The data were collected through a structured questionnaire regarding COVID-19 and distributed via email, Facebook, Whatsapp. The responses were presented as numbers and percentages.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 90 participants, majority were dentist 66(73.3%), 15(16.7%) were medical doctors and few 6(6.7%) were paramedical. Majority of the participants had proper knowledge of its transmission, incubation period, isolation and treatment and showed a positive practices towards preventive measures. A vast majority of health care workers were practicing precautionary measures such as washing hand 81(90%), wearing face mask while leaving home 87(96.7%), maintaining social distancing and healthy lifestyle 60(66.7%). However, fear of human to human transmission and transmission of infection to family member had a significant impact on attitude of some of the HCWs.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The majority of HCWs had proper knowledge and practices toward COVID-19. However, the level of some knowledge and practices lower than that expected and negative attitude need to be addressed. Hence additional educational interventions are required for health care workers.</p> Moni Mahto Ankur Shah Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 1 6 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.59935 Effect of Occlusal Reduction on Postoperative Pain during Root Canal Treatment in Teeth with Symptomatic Apical Periodontitis <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Pain management after root canal treatment is a very important issue in clinical practice. Occlusal reduction has been widely used after root canal treatment to reduce post treatment pain and flare up. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of occlusal reduction on postoperative pain in teeth with symptomatic apical periodontitis.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>Seventy mandibular molar teeth with symptomatic apical periodontitis requiring root canal treatment were included in this study. Each patient who met the inclusion criteria had a serial number allocated, ranging from 1 to 70. The patients were divided into two groups i.e, occlusal reduction group and without occlusal reduction group according to the odd and even numbers on the list. After administration of local anesthesia, the root canals were instrumented, and an intracanal calcium hydroxide dressing was placed. Following confirmation with articulating paper, occlusal reduction group received a 2 mm reduction in occlusal contacts. Preoperative pain before start of the procedure and postoperative pain 6 days after instrumentation were recorded on visual analogue scale. Data was evaluated by chi-square test and Man Whitney U test with p-value &lt;0.05 considered as statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>There was no significant difference in postoperative pain between two groups (p&gt;0.05) after root canal preparation. </p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Occlusal surface reduction did not provide any further reduction in postoperative pain for teeth with symptomatic apical periodontitis compared with no occlusal reduction</p> Jwolan Khadka Manisha Nepal Bhawana Adhikari Puja Lamichhane Deepa Kunwar Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 7 10 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.59939 A Study of Management of Adverse Reaction to Iodinated Contrast Media used in Computed Tomography at UCMS-TH <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Iodinated contrast media is used in computed tomography imaging to enhance the visibility of blood vessels and tissues. They have distinct clinical effectiveness and toxicity profiles. Although low osmolar contrast media have made iodinated contrast media safer in recent years, adverse reactions can sometimes occur. The management of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media is an important aspect of patient care during computed tomography examinations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the management of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media during contrast-enhanced computed tomography examinations at Universal College of Medical Sciences and Teaching Hospital, Bhairahawa, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>A prospective, observational study was conducted on 323 patients at Department of Radiodiagnosis and Medical Imaging, Universal College of Medical Sciences and Teaching Hospital, Bhairahawa, Nepal, from December 15, 2022 to May 15, 2023. All data was obtained from the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Medical Imaging, as per the study inclusion criteria. The data were analyzed with statistical package for the social sciences version 20.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The mean age of study participants was 48.49±19.78 years. There were 34.67% male and 65.33% female patients involved in this study. Universal College of Medical Sciences and Teaching Hospital favoured a more strict approach, to determine the normal renal function and withhold metformin before iodinated contrast media exposure. 36.84% of patients had a history of previous adverse reactions, before undergoing contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans. Following iodinated contrast media administration, 94.74% experienced nausea and vomiting which was followed by mild urticarial (88.54%) and dyspnea (19.81%). Premedication protocol was predominantly implemented with antihistamine, pheniramine (73.1%), and corticosteroid, hydrocortisone (26.9%). Mild urticaria was treated with pheniramine (87.1%), nausea and vomiting was treated with metoclopramide (83.01%), dyspnea was treated by epinephrine, hydrocortisone and oxygen (9.38%).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Universal College of Medical Sciences and Teaching Hospital has established a standard protocol for the management of adverse reactions experienced by patients during iodinated contrast media administration. Premedication with antihistamines and corticosteroids was recommended for highrisk patients.</p> Subhash Chandra Yadav Sanju Rawal Anjan Palikhey Paribesh Gyawali Lokeshwar Chaurasia Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 11 15 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.59936 Evaluation of Blood Group in Co-relation with the Dermatoglyphics Patterns among Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of naturally occurring epidermal ridges and their configuration on the digits, palms, and soles apart from flexion crease and secondary folds. Fingerprint scans are now-a-days used in the biometric systems, validating electronic registration, cashless transactions, library access and forensic purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between dermatoglyphics patterns and blood groups.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>This is a cross-sectional study designed to study the dermatoglyphics pattern in correlation with blood group among 200 medical students from November 2022 to April 2023. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 16 and Chi-Square test was used.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The major type of blood group among the participants was blood group O (38.5%) followed by blood group B (37%), blood group A (17.5%) and blood group AB (7%). Rh positive was the dominant Rh factor (95.5%) while Rh negative was 4.5% only. The general distribution of dermatoglyphics pattern showed that the dominant pattern of finger print was loop type (52%) in both the genders, followed by whorls pattern (36.5%) and arch pattern (11.5%). Based on Chi- Square test it was observed that the dominant type of finger print was whorls type in blood group O and B while, arch type of finger print was common in blood group B.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Finger prints of each individual is unique. Hence, it can be effectively used for corroborative identification of an individual in mass disasters as well as in other forensic and anatomical applications.</p> Surendra Kumar Sah Samyog Mahat Manisha Jha Prachi Bhagat Sinet Pokharel Raju Jayshwal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 16 19 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.59940 Morphological Study of Right and Left Coronary Artery: A Cadaveric Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION:</strong> The coronary arteries furnish the heart with its special arterial supply. The right coronary artery descends into the coronary sulcus after emerging from the right aortic sinus. The left coronary artery, which arises from the left aortic sinus, travels briefly via the coronary sulcus before splitting into two or three branches at the atrioventricular groove. This study aimed to estimate the standard size of the cadaveric heart and assess the morphological variation of the coronary artery.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at the dissection hall of the Anatomy department at Chitwan medical college. Twentyfour (24) human hearts present at the dissection hall and museum were used for the study. The weight of the heart was taken; a complete tracing of the coronary artery was done. Photographs were taken at different sites of dissection to find anomalies. Deformed specimens were excluded.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Among 24 human hearts studied, the average weight was between 243gm to 322gm. The length of the heart was 11.02 to 11.89cm and the width was 7.97 to 8.56cm. The study reported right coronary dominance in 96% and left coronary dominance in 4% respectively. The study did not report any splitting of the right coronary artery but trifurcation of the left coronary artery was commonest (58%).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> This study concludes that the right coronary dominance is most common and the left coronary artery shows several variations than the right. The findings may be helpful in academic, medical, and surgical management like open heart surgery angioplasty.</p> Ajeevan Gautam Rajib Chaulagain Chandan Sintakala Kun Hing Yong Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 20 23 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60039 Drug Utilization Pattern in Pneumonia among Pediatric Patients at a Tertiary Care Hospital <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Pneumonia remains the leading cause of hospitalization and mortality in young children in low and middle-income countries like Nepal. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for pediatric pneumonia patients. To prevent antimicrobial resistance, antibiotics must be prescribed rationally. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the drug utilization pattern in pediatric pneumonia patients at a tertiary care hospital by using World Health Organization (WHO) prescribing indicators.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among pediatric pneumonia patients at Universal College of Medical Sciences, Bhairahawa, Nepal from December 2022 to May 2023. Ethical approval was taken from the Institutional Review Committee (UCMS/IRC/191/22) and the purposive sampling method was used. Data were collected from pro-forma to assess WHO prescribing indicators and analyzed in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 program and expressed as frequency and percentage for all variables.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 1408 drugs were prescribed to 196 prescriptions or patients. The average number of drugs per prescription was 7.18. The most common 51.5% of prescriptions contain 4-5 drugs per prescription. The percentage of prescriptions with antibiotics and injections was 100% respectively. Drugs prescribed by generic name were 44.24% and those matched to the national Essential Drugs List of Nepal were 53.19%. Cephalosporins (86.7%) were the most frequently prescribed antibiotics followed by aminoglycosides (79.1%). All the antibiotics were given parenterally (100%).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The study reported inadequate compliance with WHO prescribing indicators and recommended policy formulation and application by regulatory agencies to promote the drug utilization study.</p> Anita Yadav Bandana Rimal Anita Aryal Nabina Paudel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 24 29 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60040 Formulation Optimization and in-vitro Evaluation of Diclofenac Fast Disintegrating Tablets <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Fast disintegrating tablets (FDTs) are solid dosage forms that disintegrate and dissolve in the mouth without the need for water within a matter of seconds. In the present study, a fast-disintegrating tablet of diclofenac sodium was prepared using WOWTAB (without water) technology, and its in-vitro characters were analyzed to prepare an optimum formulation.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>Diclofenac sodium and its reference standard along with other excipients were collected. Softer tablets with hardness ranging from 1.493 to 1.522 kg/cm<sup>2</sup> were prepared using Plackett-Burman (PB) design and central composite design (CCD). Various physicochemical parameters and in-vitro quality parameters of formulations were evaluated using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The disintegration time of the formulations ranged from 76 to 126 seconds. The in-vitro drug release was found to be from 96.31 to 99.94%. The study of contour plot and surface plot indicated that formulation with maltose concentration of 5 mg and mannitol concentration of 90 mg would produce an optimized formulation of diclofenac fast disintegration tablet with a rapid disintegration time of 1.2 to 1.4 minutes and dissolution percent at 30 minutes of 99.5 to 100%.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Diclofenac FDT was prepared based on WOWTAB technology. Formulation containing maltose 5 mg and mannitol 90 mg would be an optimized formulation of diclofenac FDT, with a rapid disintegration time of 1.2 to 1.4 minutes and dissolution percent at 30 minutes of 99.5 to 100 %.</p> Sumit Shrestha Sujata Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 30 34 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60041 Association between Socioeconomic Status and Motor Skill Development among Preschool Children of Lekhnath, Pokhara: A Cross-Sectional Study <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Gross and fine motor skills are both necessary for healthy growth. According to studies, children from lower “Socioeconomic Status (SES)” families have delayed development of these fundamental motor skills, placing them at risk for delayed motor skill development. The current research’s objective was to study the occurrence of developmental risks and the variances between the gross as well as fine motor growth related to the SES of pre-schoolers in Pokhara.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>One district preschool in the Lekhnath municipality of Pokhara was selected for the study. 102 elementary school students between 3-6 years were evaluated. Children’s fine and gross motor skill and SES of their parents were calibrated. The values were compared and evaluated for the various economic status and genders keeping p&lt;0.05 as significant.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Particularly in the area of fine motor abilities, significant variations between the SES groups were found. Gross motor growth had a greater variation and was substantial than fine motor skill. Fine motor growth risk prevalence ranged from 1.9% to 21.0%, while gross motor growth risk prevalence peaked at 14.63%. Age and sex also affected the prevalence rates.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In pre-schoolers aged three to six, fine motor skills are strongly correlated with socioeconomic level. A correlation in gross motor skills was not established. In this study, sex had a greater impact on motor development than SES</p> Ripti Shrestha Bijendra Prasad Yadav Neebha Amatya Rajab Rana Rajesh Prajapati Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 35 40 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60068 An Evaluation of Antifungal effectiveness of Henna and Turmeric against Candida albicans adhered to Acrylic resin: An invitro analysis for Prevention of Denture stomatitis <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong><em>Candida albicans</em> has been known as the most common etiologic agent to cause denture stomatitis. Due to increasing resistance of this organism towards antifungal agents, plants with medicinal value are being used as alternatives. Thus this study was done to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of medicinal plants such as henna and turmeric against <em>Candida albicans</em> attached to acrylic denture resin by incorporating them into the resin.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>252 acrylic strips were prepared of Polymethyl methacrylate-based heat polymerizing denture base resin by compression molding technique and divided into 7 groups consisting of 36 samples each. The first group was prepared with only polymer and monomer and used as control. The remaining groups were divided according to the concentrations of henna and turmeric used. The concentrations of henna used were 0.5% (H1), 4% (H2) and 10% (H3) and of turmeric were 0.1% (T1), 3% (T2) and 7% (T3). The acrylic samples were exposed to <em>Candida albicans</em> by adhesion-based microbiological method. The amount of <em>Candida</em> adhered to acrylic samples was evaluated by two methods: slide count and plate count method.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>In both the methods used, H3, T2 and T3 showed significant antifungal effect. However when their antifungal effect was compared within the subgroups, no significant difference was found.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Adding 10% henna, 3% and 7% turmeric can inhibit the growth of <em>Candida albicans</em> on the acrylic resin surface.</p> Lok Raj Khanal Anupama Shrestha Kalit Raj Joshi Anjan Palikhey Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 41 45 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60070 Correlation between Anthropological Measurements in Hand and Occlusal Vertical Dimension: A Study in a Tertiary Hospital of Kathmandu <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Determination of the proper vertical dimension during prosthesis construction is of paramount importance in treating patients with missing teeth. This study was conducted to correlate the measurement of finger length with occlusal vertical dimension.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in the Department of Prosthodontics, Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu, Nepal among 145 MBBS and BDS students. Length of four fingers and vertical occlusal dimension were measured by two anatomical methods with the use of vernier calipers. Data were analysed in SPSS version 20. Mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage were calculated depending upon the nature of data. Pearson’s correlation was used to determine the relation between finger length with vertical occlusal dimension.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Moderate positive correlation was found between occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) measuring tip of nose to gnathion and base of nose to menton with all four fingers (p&lt;0.001 each). When compared for males and females, significant moderate correlation was found between OVD by both methods and anthropological measurements in all the four fingers in males (p&lt;0.001 each) but only with index finger when OVD was measured from tip of nose to gnathion in females (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The findings of this study concluded that all four fingers may be used for determination of OVD in males but only index finger may be used in females.</p> Manjeev Guragain Amar Bhochibhoya Sirjana Dahal Anju Khapung Utsarga Dahal Shyam Kumar Shah Kalit Raj Joshi Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 46 50 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60073 Work-Family conflict, Social support and Job satisfaction: A Cross-Sectional study of Nurses in Pokhara <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Research in the field of nursing has long attempted to address the issue of job dissatisfaction. However, there is scant empirical evidence on work-family conflict and social support in the context of Nepal, both of which are important factors in determining job satisfaction among nurses. Hence, this study examined the role of work-family conflict and social support in determining job satisfaction among nurses in Pokhara.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>A descriptive, cross-sectional and correlational study was conducted with a purposive sample of 210 nurses from 10 (public and private) hospitals in Pokhara. Using a Likert-based self-administered structured questionnaire, work-family conflict, social support, and job satisfaction were measured using three separate scales. SPSS 21.0 was used for the correlation and regression analysis of the hypothesized relationships between the variables.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The findings revealed that nurses’ job satisfaction was significantly lowered by family-to-work conflicts but not by work-to-family conflicts. The results also demonstrated that social support from management and peers significantly increased nurses’ job satisfaction.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The study concluded that nurses experienced relatively low levels of work-to-family conflict. However, the responsibilities of the home can still affect their job satisfaction. The findings also revealed that social support from both management and coworkers significantly improves nurses' job satisfaction. Implications and suggestions for future study are also presented.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> Divya Adhikari Bal Ram Bhattarai Santosh Kumar Gurung Sunita Sharma Pooja Bhandari Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 51 55 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60077 Assessing Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Married Men towards Family Planning in Sarlahi District, Madhesh Province <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Acknowledging a man’s perspective on family planning methods and service is vital for the overall health of the family. A holistic approach involving both partners is key to effective family planning and healthier family life. Therefore, the study aims to find the knowledge, attitude and practice among married men towards family planning at Kabilasa municipality of Sarlahi district.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out Multistage random sampling technique was used for the selection of wards as well as the participants. The total of 164 participants whose wife was in age group (15-49 years) was interviewed. The data was analysis was done by using SPSS 23 version software.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Total of 164 participants was interviewed. Higher percent (67.7%) of participants were in age group 30-44 years. almost all (98.2 %) of participant heard about family planning method where meaning of family planning revealed as limiting number of child with higher percentage (88.3%) followed by birth spacing were (81.8 %).96.4% supported the concept of family planning About 98.8% of the participants expressed that the Spousal communication and decision making are essential for family planning, 84.1% of them stated that family planning is women’s business. Only 27% male had ever used family planning methods though, about 56.7% wives were using Depo as contraceptive.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>It can be inferred that a majority of participant possessed knowledge regarding family planning method, highlighting the pervasiveness of information on reproductive health within the surveyed population. However, it perceived as a women’s responsibility, with men often neglecting their role.</p> Laxmi Shah Dipchandra Sahu Laxmi Khanal Pankaj Pratap Deo Ramji Yadav Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 56 59 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60079 Health Related Quality of Life of Patients with Cardiovascular Disease attending Sahid Ganagalal National Heart Center, Janakpurdham, Province 2, Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Individuals' subjective perceptions of their own physical, mental, and social health and functioning make up what is known as "health-related quality of life" (HRQL). The alarming rise in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has received little national attention because Nepal’s health system places more of an emphasis on maternal, neonatal, and child health as well as communicable diseases. The study was conducted to assess the health related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with cardiovascular disease attending Sahid Gangalal National Heart Center, Janakpurdham, Madhesh Pradesh, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>A descriptive cross sectional study design was adopted for the study. This study was carried out in outpatient department (OPD) of Sahid Gangalal National Heart Center, Madhesh Pradesh, Janakpurdham, Nepal. The instrument used for the study was WHOQOL-BREF, which consists of 26 items.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> 70.4% of the respondents had a good quality of life, 80.8 % patients were dissatisfied with health, 63% of the respondents were with good physical health, 75% had stable psychological health, 67% had active social relationships and 56% were with inadequate environmental status.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Despite a history of cardiovascular illnesses, majority of study participants reported a high quality of life. However, the assessment device employed in this study assessed overall quality of life.</p> Shiwani Sah Shilpa Shah Gauree Shankar Mandal Laxmi Dahal Srijana Mahato Poonam Kumari Yadav Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 60 63 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60081 Sexual Harassment and its Impact in Females at Workplace in Dhanusha District, Madhesh Province, Nepal <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>The violence of sexual harassment at workplace is problematic issue in the community for females. It has a direct bearing on the workplace productivity as well as the development of the society. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the effects of sexual harassment on health and daily performances of female employees.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS:</strong> Descriptive study was carried out in Dhanusha district of Madhesh province of Nepal from March, 2022 to April 2022. The study was conducted in different organizations (workplace) situated in Dhanusha district which were selected purposely. The sample size was 120 working females. Banks, schools, hospitals, and shopping centres were the selected female working places in this study. Face to face interview was conducted through structured questionnaire for the 120 females who gave the permission for interview.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The present study demonstrated that 61.67 % respondents exhibited to possess the knowledge about sexual harassment however, 38.33% of the female respondents demonstrated to be unaware about sexual harassment at their workplace. Among the total numbers of female participating in the research, 29% of the females had experienced the incidence of sexual harassment. Majority of respondents (25.71%) working efficacy had reduced after being suffered from sexual harassment and 5.71% had changed their job. 5.71% females suffered from headache and body ache, 5.71% suffered from high blood pressure, 22.86% suffered from anorexia, 20% suffered from restlessness/insomnia, 17.14% suffered from fatigue, 14.29% suffered from anxiety, 11.43% faced depression and 2.86% had lost their body weight. </p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Sexual harassment for females at work place affects them physically as well as mentally. Therefore, awareness programme should be conducted time to time and anti-sexual harassment policy should be implemented at workplace.</p> Lalan Jha Shree Shyam Giri Poonam Sah Vijay Kumar Kapar Pramod Kumar Yadav Copyright (c) 2023 Lalan Jha, Shree Shyam Giri, Poonam Sah, Vijay Kumar Kapar, Pramod Kumar Yadav 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 64 67 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60089 Cytomorphological Comparison between Well-fixed Smear and Air-dried Smear <p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death, especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to compare well-fixed smear and air-dried smear.</p> <p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>A prospective study was conducted in Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India, from paired cervical smears made from 200 women, who attended OPD of Obstetrics and Gynecology during a period of 3 months from November 2010 to January 2011. Routine smears were fixed immediately in 95% of ethanol and stained by Pap stain. Air-dried smears were rehydrated by immersing the slides in normal saline for 30 seconds, fixed in 95% of ethanol and stained by Pap stain. All slides were examined and assessed for various cytological parameters by the pathologist. Bethesda system was followed for reporting the cytology smears.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among the 200 paired smears 199 were negative for epithelial lesion or malignancy. One case (0.5%) had epithelial abnormality in both wet-fixed (WF) and air-dried (AD) smears. However the AD smears showed more number of abnormal cells and cells were of higher grade than the WF smear. Detection rate of Candida was similar (12.5%) in both AD and WF smears. Identification of Trichomonas was also similar (1.5%) in both types of smears. Candida could be more easily identified in AD smears as compared to WF probably because AD had a clearer background.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In air-dried smears, individual cells are clearly seen. The cellular and nuclear size is comparable to tissue sections.</p> Krishna Kumar Jha Laxmi Rao Copyright (c) 2023 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 3 5 68 73 10.3126/mjmms.v3i5.60168