Marsyangdi Journal 2021-09-26T10:07:02+00:00 Mr. Binod Neupane Open Journal Systems <p>Marsyangdi Journal is a peer-reviewed research journal published by the Research Management Cell (RMC) of Maryangdi Multiple Campus, Besishahar, Lamjung, Nepal. The journal aims to explore various issues related to language teaching, education, social science and natural science through academic writing.</p> प्राथमिक तहका गरुङ मातृभाषी विद्यार्थीको शब्द भण्डार [Vocabulary of primary level Gurung mother tongue students] 2021-09-26T09:27:18+00:00 बुद्धराज Buddharaj खनिया Khaniya <p>प्राथमिक तहका गुरुङ मातृभाषी विद्यार्थीको गुरुङ शब्द भण्डार क्षमता अध्ययन गर्ने उददेश्यले तयार <br>गरिएको यो लेख गुणात्मक अनुसन्धानको स्थलगत अध्ययनमा आधारित छ । यस अध्ययनका लागि <br>उद् देश्यमूलक तरिकाबाट छनोट गरिएका लमजुङ जिल्लाका प्राथमिक तहमा अध्ययन गर्ने गुरुङ मातृभाषी <br>विद्यार्थीहरूलाई आफ्नो घर परिवार, विद्यालय लगायत अर्घुं, ल्होछार जस्ता विभिन्न विषयमा गुरुङ भाषामा <br>वर्णन गर्न लगाई आधारभूत शब्दहरू सङकलन गरिएको थियो । यस क्रममा स्वादेश शब्दसूचीका आधारमा <br>नेपाली शब्दसूची तयार गरी शिक्षित गुरुङ मातृभाषीहरूलाई अनुवाद समेत गर्न लगाइएको थियो । यसरी <br>सङ्कलन गरिएका तथ्यहरूलाई वर्णनात्मक विधि अवलम्बन गरी पहिले समष्टिमा त्यसपछि क्रमशः शब्दवर्ग <br>र विषय क्षेत्रका आधारमा गुरुङ भाषाका आधारभूत शब्दहरूको व्याख्या विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । गुरुङ <br>मातृभाषी विद्यार्थीले जम्मा ३८७ ओटा शब्द प्रयोग गरेका छन जस अनुसार उनीहरूले शब्दवर्ग अन्तर्गत <br>सबैभन्दा बढी नाम त्यसपछि क्रमशः क्रियापद, विशेषण, अव्यय र सर्वनाम प्रयोग गरेका छन् विषय क्षेत्र <br>अन्तर्गत सबैभन्दा बढी भूगोल, खगोलसँग सम्बन्धित शब्द प्रयोग गरेका छन्, त्यसपछि क्रमशः मानव र <br>मानवीय अङ्ग, खाद्यय–पेय पदार्थ, समय, वार, महिना, पशुपक्षी, किरा फटयाङग्रा, चाडपर्व, पोशाक, धातु, <br>रङ, नाता सम्बन्ध, बोट विरुवा, फलफूल, घरायसी वस्तु, गुण, स्वभाव, भाव, अवस्था, संख्या, परिमाण र <br>स्वास्थ्य एवम् वातावरणसँग सम्बन्धित शब्दहरू प्रयोग गरेका छन्&nbsp;</p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 A Critical Analysis of English Language Teaching Situation in Nepal 2021-09-24T09:41:58+00:00 Binod Neupane <p>Critical pedagogy (CP) is an educational movement that primarily aims to support the students in developing a consciousness of freedom so that they can connect the knowledge to power for social reformation. The supporters of CP argue that language teachers should emphasise developing the social skills of the learners along with language skills. Studies show that many English language teachers may have inadequate knowledge and skills about CP and the spirit of CP may not be followed while designing curriculum and writing textbooks. The purpose of the study was to examine the use of CP in English Language Teaching (ELT) focusing on classroom practices, curriculum designing and textbook writing at the secondary level. For this, I used a qualitative research design in which data were collected from six English teachers through in-depth interviews from three schools. I investigated that while designing curriculum, selecting textbooks, and making ELT policy, CP has not been practically implemented. Language policy, curriculum and textbooks are designed by a specific group and imposed on the teachers and learners. There has been a political influence in ELT policy as well. However, some teachers were found positive to CP and implemented it in the classroom, but they demanded special training. &nbsp;</p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell (RMC), Marsyangdi Multiple Campus Capital Market Response to COVID-19 Pandemic – A Systematic Review on Stock Volatility and Performance 2021-09-24T10:06:54+00:00 Janga Bahadur Hamal Rishi Raj Gautam <p>This paper aims to identify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stock market volatility and market return as well as the impact of government response to the COVID-19 pandemic on stock market performance. To analyze the same, the paper has adopted Systematic Literature Review (SLR) approach and conducted a review of 40 journal articles published between between2020 to mid-2021. The paper identified that the short-term impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and government policy measures had a significant and adverse impact on stock market volatility, return and overall performance. In the longer term, the stock markets slowly started to stabilize and revive. This effect on the stock market was also attributed to investor sentiment and thus, in the later stages, targeted government response had a positive effect on boosting investor confidence towards the market.</p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell (RMC), Marsyangdi Multiple Campus Deteriorating Performance of Students of Community School in English 2021-09-24T10:16:48+00:00 Parmeshor Baral <p>Tremendous attempts have been made to ensure the quality of education and educational status of the students since if performance in the English language is good, it opens the door of the vast ocean of knowledge. Even though community school education in Nepal receives a significant portion of the total national budget, students' performance in those schools is below average, when compared to students in private institutions with limited resources and teachers who receive merger remuneration. This paper attempts to shed light on the causes of poor performance in the English language among Nepalese community school students in Nepal. This is a qualitative study in which assertions are backed up by pieces of evidence. It is based on previous studies about deteriorating English language performance in the world in general, and in Nepal in particular. The study identified student enrolment, motivation and language learning, politicization, lack of teachers’ professional development, and limited exposure to the English language as the major causes of students’ poor performance in English.</p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell (RMC), Marsyangdi Multiple Campus Evaluation System at School Level in Nepal: Major Pitfalls and Considerations 2021-09-24T10:27:31+00:00 Yadu Prasad Gyawali <p>This paper aims to explore the pitfalls of the current evaluation system at the school level in Nepal focusing on the major consequences of educational practices as the output of the evaluation system. Although the provisions of formative assessment tools such as portfolio management and project work were included in the curriculum framework and policy documents, the evaluation process was based on a theoretical basis. Similarly, the judgmental written examination for assessing theoretical aspects and Continuous Assessment System (CAS) with backward-looking nature were involved in the evaluation process. The paper suggests to the educational stakeholders for the practical application and evaluation of soft-skills associated methods such as communication, creativity, cooperation and collaboration of basic and secondary students to promote formative evaluation and the curriculum concept of 'assessment for learning in Nepal.</p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell (RMC), Marsyangdi Multiple Campus Factors Affecting Parental Choice of Private and Public Schools in Dhading 2021-09-24T10:36:54+00:00 Yabu Raj Subedi <p>This study explores the factors which attract parents to prefer public or private schools. The data were collected from six secondary schools of Dhading district. From each school, three parents were selected by using non-random sampling method. The eighteen parents were given a questionnaire. The collected questionnaire was analyzed and interpreted descriptively. A comparison of results was undertaken to explore the identified factors related to the Quality of Instruction; Class Size; Teacher-Student Relationship; Parent-School Relationship; School Facilities and Environment for learning. It was found that Class Size was the strongest factor that parents had a higher agreement on this variable. The second strong factor was favorable environment for their children and the final influencing factor of parental choice was identified as School Facilities.</p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell (RMC), Marsyangdi Multiple Campus Knowledge Regarding Gastritis among Late Adolescence in Central Nepal 2021-09-24T10:41:43+00:00 Sashi Silwal Astha Acharya Bimala Baral Anirudra Devkota Aadesh Subedee Uttam Paudel <p>Gastritis is an inflammation or irritation of the lining of the stomach, can be a brief and sudden illness (acute gastritis), a long-lasting condition (chronic gastritis). Gastritis is the top most common cause of morbidity. This study is designed to find out knowledge regarding gastritis among late adolescence. A descriptive research design was used for the study. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analysed and the descriptive and inferential test was applied by using SPSS. The study finding revealed eighty percent of the participants knew the definition of gastritis,66% on risk factors, 50% respondents on causes, 23.7% on sign and symptom,56.66% on management and 48.5% respondents on complications, and 66.55% on prevention of gastritis. The level of knowledge is average in causes, signs and symptoms, management and complications. More specifically,68% of respondents had average knowledge on gastritis and 4% had excellent knowledge. The level of knowledge of respondents is statistically significant with sex (p=0.021) and socio-economic status (p=0.008). The finding of the study revealed that knowledge on gastritis is average among the respondents. So the health education is needed for students to increase their knowledge.</p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell (RMC), Marsyangdi Multiple Campus Safe Motherhood Practices of Women in Urban and Rural Areas of Chitwan District, Nepal 2021-09-24T10:53:47+00:00 Sushila Koirala <p>Safe motherhood practices ensure all women receive the care they need to be safe and healthy throughout pregnancy and childbirth. It is one of the most important pillars for preventing maternal morbidity and mortality. A descriptive comparative study was conducted to compare the safe motherhood practices in selected VDC and Municipality of Chitwan District. The purposive sampling method was applied in which 120 respondents were married and had at least one child. Among them, 59 respondents were from Bharatpur Municipality and 61 respondents from Mangalpur VDC. Data was collected by interviewing mothers using a structured interview schedule. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. The results showed that the number of mothers in the rural area practicing safe motherhood is lower than the number of mothers in the urban area. The number of ANC visits/PNC visits, use of Iron tab, institutional delivery and use of extra nutritious diet or meal per day during pregnancy and after pregnancy were higher in respondents of the urban area. The main reason for not taking ANC/PNC services during their last birth was lack of knowledge and second was their poor economic conditions. This study concludes that the trend of visiting ANC services, delivery care, and PNC services properly are high in the age group 20-39 years and it is increasing with their level of education. Special awareness programmes about information regarding safe motherhood practices should be planned and launched especially targeting the women of rural areas.</p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell (RMC), Marsyangdi Multiple Campus Gender Issues in Freeman’s The Revolt of Mother 2021-09-24T10:58:53+00:00 Gobinda Puri <p>This paper analyses the gender role in Mary E. Wilkins Freeman's (1890) one of the most popular short stories, <em>The Revolt of Mother</em> through a Marxist feminist perspective. The story depicts the gender disparity created by the patriarchal American society of the nineteenth century and the revolt of a female character, Sarah as the indication of the women's movement of 1848. The analysis of the story reveals how females are dominated and oppressed by the males in the family and also in society concerning decision-making affairs. Furthermore, it shows that if male domination and suppression continue without understanding females’ desires and fulfilling the promises made for them, they can be turned into rebellions and the traditional gender dichotomy can be broken down in a while as the protagonist appears in the story. This article also relates gender discrimination and proposes possible ways to maintain the equality and harmony between males and females concerning Nepali society.</p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell (RMC), Marsyangdi Multiple Campus Role of Language in Shaping Cultural Identity 2021-09-24T11:05:20+00:00 Babita Parajuli <p>This paper aims to explore the role of language in shaping the cultural identity of people in a society with an argumentative explanation based on the relevant literature. The descriptive summary from the documentary analysis in the paper mainly focuses on the positive and communicational role of language to establish the foundation of cultural landscape through the continuous representation and transmission of diverse cultural characteristics such as people’s thoughts, behaviors, cultural histories, traditions, values, principles and boundaries within a socio-cultural context. Moreover, the paper indicates that language as a linguistic channel navigates people’s commonality and unity framing them in a single pattern of cultural identity. It is suggested that every language as a powerful source of introducing cultural politics requires continuous transmission, preservation and promotion by the nation as an opportunity for the new generations to be born with distinct cultural identity.</p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell (RMC), Marsyangdi Multiple Campus Prospect and Practice of Teacher Induction in Nepal 2021-09-24T11:10:55+00:00 Kabita Khadka <p>The process of converting pre-service teaching into an in-service teacher is known as induction and this technique of teachers’ professional growth has been gaining momentum in the world of teacher education throughout the world. Nepal is a developing country and it has not started the teacher induction program formally yet. This study is an attempt to investigate the role and prospect of teacher induction. The study employed a descriptive method and used secondary sources to make arguments. For the argumentation, the study at first makes a claim and it is supported by already published literature. Those secondary sources of data comprise previous researchers, journals, and other standard publications. The study found that using induction, teachers around the world developed their professional abilities and their inhibitions and disappointments were removed since they got an opportunity to collaborate with professional teachers, it has become a life-long experience and different features and components of it made it more reliable and valid. The study suggests that it is extremely necessary to introduce a teacher induction program in all levels of education and if can be done teachers’ professional development can be practically achieved.</p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell (RMC), Marsyangdi Multiple Campus Economic Contribution of Homestay Tourism: A Case Study of Magar Homestay of Naruwal, Lamjung 2021-09-24T11:55:14+00:00 Dambar Ale Magar <p>Tourism involving homestay is one of the Nepal government's key efforts to diversify its cultural tourism product. Moreover, homestay can be a new model of tourism development in Nepal. This article aims to highlight the economic contribution of homestay entities based on the descriptive design. Data were collected from the ten homestay entities of Magar homestay at Naruwal, Lamjung through in-depth interviews. The contribution of homestays has been studied from various aspects like average income earned, the number of jobs created, women entrepreneurs, reverse migration, development of infrastructure, rise in living standard, etc. The result shows that the rate of income and expenditure has been gradually increased since the date of homestay tourism commencement in the community. This study has found that many of the respondents have managed their daily expenditures through the income of homestay entities. All homestay operators have reported the increment in their economic status. However, it is also found that there is a need to improve the quality of service to increase the flow of national and international visitors/tourists.</p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Research Management Cell (RMC), Marsyangdi Multiple Campus गोपालपसाद रिमाल, ‘मसान’ नाटक र नारीवाद [Gopalpasad Rimal, 'Masan' Drama and Feminism] 2021-09-26T10:07:02+00:00 अरुणविलास Arunbilas अधिकारी Adhikari <p>साहित्य समाजको दर्पण हो । समाजमा देखिएका विकृति, विसङ्गति, अन्याय, अत्याचार, दमन, शोषण,<br>उत्पीडन आदिको यथार्थ पर्दाफास गराई समाजलाई प्रगतितर्फ उन्मुख गर्ने काम साहित्यले गर्दछ । <br>साहित्यका प्रमुख विधा श्रव्यविधा र दृश्यविधा हुन । श्रव्यविधा अर्थात सुनेर र पढेर आनन्द लिने<br>वधाअन्तर्गत कथा, कविता, निबन्ध, उपन्यास आदि पर्दछन भने दृश्यविधाअन्तर्गत नाटक पर्दछ ।<br>दृश्यविधाभित्र पर्ने नाटक मञ्चनयोग्य हुनुपर्छ र दर्शकले रङ्गमञ्चबाट प्रदर्शित वा मञ्चित नाटकको<br>वषयवस्तुलाई पात्रहरूका अभिनयद्वारा बुझने प्रयास गर्दछन । आधुनिक नेपाली नाटकको लगभग<br>शुभारम्भदेखि नै सामाजिक यथार्थवादी प्रवृत्तिलाई आधारभूमि मान्दै आफनो नाटयलेखन परम्परालाई<br>नरन्तरता दिन सफल नाटककार व्यक्तित्वको नाम गोपालप्रसाद रिमाल हो । आधुनिक नेपाली साहित्यको<br>फाँटमा थोरै लेखेर प्रशस्त ख्याति कमाउन सफल रिमालले ‘आमाको सपना’ नामक कविता सङग्र्रहका साथै<br>मसान’ र ‘यो प्रेम’ नाटक अनि ‘माया’ नामक एकाङ्कीको मात्र संरचना तथा प्रकाशन गरेका छन ।<br>तत्कालीन नेपाली समाजमा विद्यमान सामाजिक जीवनका यथार्थ पक्षहरूलाई आत्मसात गर्न सफल रिमाल<br>साँच्चैँ सामाजिक यथार्थवादी नाटककार हुन । नेपाली कविताको क्षेत्रमा नवीन गद्यशैलीका शुभारम्भकर्ता<br>कवि व्यक्तित्व रिमालको खारिएको र माझिएको विधा चाहिँ नाटक नै हो । </p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021