Med Phoenix https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix <p>An official, open access, peer-reviewed biomedical scientific journal of National Medical College, Birgunj, Nepal.&nbsp;</p> National Medical College en-US Med Phoenix 2392-425X <p>Copyright on any research article is transferred in full to MED PHOENIX upon publication.&nbsp; The copyright transfer includes the right to reproduce and distribute the article in any form of reproduction (printing, electronic media or any other form).</p> <p>© MEDPHOENIX</p> <p><img src="https://licensebuttons.net/l/by/3.0/88x31.png" alt="" width="88" height="31"></p> <p>Articles in the MED PHOENIX are Open Access articles published under the Creative Commons CC BY License (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/</a>). This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> Malignant Cervical Lymphadenopathy among Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology in a Tertiary Care Center in Far Western Nepal: A Descriptive Cross-sectional Study https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/42692 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The utility of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology is well established in the diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes, new-onset, or recurrence. This study aims to find the prevalence of metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy among fine needle aspiration cytology in a tertiary care center in far western Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods </strong></p> <p>This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in Seti Provincial Hospital and Maya Metro Hospital, Dhangadhi, Kailali, Nepal between July 2018 to December 2019. Total 534 cervical lymph node aspirations were performed during this period out of which 48 cases were cytologically proven as malignant lymph nodes. Clinical charts and cytology reports of patients with malignant lymph nodes were reviewed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Out of 534 cervical lymph node aspirations performed during the study period, the number of malignant lymph nodes was 48 (8.99%). Among malignant lymph nodes (n=48), primary hematolymphoid malignancy was 14 (29.17%) and metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy was 34 (70.83%). Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma was the most common etiology of metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy followed by nasopharyngeal carcinoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Fine needle aspiration cytology has been proved to be a valuable tool in the initial evaluation of metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy in resource-limited settings. Metastatic squamous cell carcinoma is the most common diagnosis in metastatic cervical lymphadenopathy.</p> Ashok Shreepaili Sushil Dhakal Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 2 6 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.42692 Clinical Profile of Stroke in Relation to Glycemic Status of the Patients https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/36806 <p><strong>Introduction </strong></p> <p>Stroke is the sudden death of brain cells that occurs due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood flow or rupture of an artery to the brain leading to permanent disability or death. Diabetes mellitus has been established as a major risk factor for stroke. However, this study was conducted to incorporate glycemic status and its correlation with severity of stroke.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong></p> <p>A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the Department of Internal medicine, Neurosurgery, Emergency and Endocrinology of Bir Hospital. Ethical clearance was granted by Institutional Review board of National academy of medical sciences. A total of 50 patients with stroke presented within 72 hours of symptoms of stroke was included in the study. Data was collected and stored in MS-EXCEL sheet and analyzed using SPSS.</p> <p><strong>Results </strong></p> <p>Among 50 patients with stroke enrolled for the purpose of this study, 54% had ischemic and 46% hemorrhagic stroke. Patient pool was predominantly 51-60 years of age. Majority of the patients were euglycemic, of these 56.67% suffered hemorrhagic stroke, while known diabetics predominantly suffered ischemic stroke. Euglycemic patients had CT lesion measuring 5-10mm compared to larger lesions of &gt;10mm in known diabetics. Euglycemic patients had better outcome in contrast to newly diagnosed and known diabetics.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The study found that patients with higher glucose levels had increased severity of stroke. Increased morbidity was documented among known diabetics and newly diagnosed cases of DM in comparison to euglycemics and patients with stress hyperglycemia. </p> Sunny Bajracharya Bhakta Dev Shrestha Samrat Shrestha Manen Prasad Gorkhaly Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 7 11 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.36806 Nasopharyngolaryngoscopy in the Diagnosis of Various Pathologies of the Larynx in a Tertiary Care Hospital. https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/37502 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong></p> <p>Laryngeal disorders are frequently encountered in ENT practice. Nasopharyngolaryngoscopy is an outpatient department procedure that is used for the diagnosis and management of laryngeal disorders. The objective so the study was to study the prevalence of different laryngeal disorders by the use of Nasopharyngolaryngoscopy as an outpatient department procedure in ENT.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong></p> <p>A hospital-based prospective and analytical study was conducted in the department of ENT at Dhulikhel hospital, Kathmandu University Hospital during the period of 2 years. A total of 132 patients, who had various laryngeal symptoms and underwent NPL were included in this study. A careful and detailed history and clinical examination of the patients was done. Data were recorded and analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>A total of 132 patients with various laryngeal symptoms underwent Nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. Among them, 54.5% (72) were male and 45.5% (60) were female. The age range was from 18-84 years. The most common laryngeal disorder observed was Laryngopharyngeal reflux disease, followed by chronic laryngitis, true vocal cord nodule, and true vocal cord polyp.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Nasopharyngolaryngoscopy is a safe outpatient department procedure that is helpful for the diagnosis and management of various laryngeal disorders.</p> Krishna Sundar Shrestha Bikash Lal Shrestha Monika Pokharel Ashish Dhakal Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 12 14 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.37502 Pregnancy Outcome in Amniotic Fluid Index 5 cm or less in Term Pregnancy at Tertiary Level Teaching Hospital, Birgunj, Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/36636 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Oligohydramnios has increased incidence of fetal distress, meconium-stained liquor, prolonged labor, low Apgar score, low birth weight, admission to NICU, cord compression, birth asphyxia, and operative interference. The objective of the study was to determine the pregnancy outcome in amniotic fluid index 5 cm or less in term pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods </strong></p> <p>This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study conducted at National Medical College &amp; Teaching Hospital from June 2017 to May 2018. A total of 72 obstetric cases with AFI ≤ 5 cm and 72 cases with AFI &gt; 5 cm with meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study after taking consent.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Incidence of oligohydramnios was 2.2% out of 4318 deliveries and term oligohydramnios was 1.66%. AFI ≤ 5 cm was associated with increased induction of labor (p &lt; 0.001), caesarean section (p = 0.01)), meconium stained liquor (p = 0.106), Apgar score &lt;7 at 5 minutes (p = 0.001), NICU admission (p = 0.003), neonatal deaths (p = 0.053) were comparable with AFI &gt;5 cm.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Amniotic fluid index ≤ 5 cm at term is an indicator of poor perinatal outcome. Women with AFI ≤ 5 cm can expect a good outcome if they have regular ANC visits and intrapartum monitoring than the AFI &gt; 5 cm.</p> Ruby Shrestha Deepa Chudal Ravi Kumar Shah Usha Jain Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 15 20 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.36636 Iron Deficiency in Anemic Patients: Study in a Tertiary Care Centre https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/37070 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Anemia is a clinical abnormality characterized by a reduction in hemoglobin concentration below the normal for age and sex. It can be of different types, the most common being iron deficiency anemia which affects mostly pregnant and lactating females and growing children in the developing world.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong></p> <p>This was a hospital-based observational study conducted at National Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Pathology Department, Birgunj, Nepal. Patients above the age of 10 years of both sexes (male and females) having anemia ( males having hemoglobin level &lt; 13 gm/dl and females having hemoglobin level &lt; 12 gm/dl ) were included. After a detailed history, preliminary blood tests including complete blood counts, peripheral smear, and reticulocytes count were done. In patients suspected (microcytic hypochromic blood picture and normal reticulocytes count ) to have iron deficiency anemia, serum ferritin was done to confirm the diagnosis. Patients under the age of 10 years and those patients having blood malignancies (acute or chronic leukemia) were excluded from the study.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Sixty anemic patients were found to have iron deficiency. Females were affected more (66%) with iron deficiency anemia than males (34%). There were two peaks (30% and 21%) in age groups 10 – 20 years and 61 – 70 years. Complete blood counts revealed a significant decrease in the value of red cell indices like mean corpuscular volume in 70% patients (Normal MCV 80 to 100 fl) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in 72% patients (Normal MCH 27 to 33 pg ). On peripheral smear, it was seen that most of the patients (72%) had microcytic hypochromic blood pictures. Iron deficiency anemia was more common in rural areas.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Iron deficiency anemia was the most common type of anemia. It is more common in females and the prevalence is more in rural areas.</p> Anand Kumar Chaurasiya Fahad Alam Amit Kumar Patel Sourav Manna Niraj Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 21 24 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.37070 Renal Artery Dimensions and Variation on Computed Tomography Angiogram: A Cross-sectional Study. https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/38371 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>A knowledge of renal artery dimension is necessary for characterizing the physiological change as well as pathological process undergoing in the renal artery likely stenosis, ectasia, or aneurysm. This study aims to explore the anatomy of the renal artery with regards to its dimension, relation, and branching and identify the common anatomical variation.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong></p> <p>The study was a retrospective hospital record-based study conducted during the period of one year from 2019 January to 2019 December. All abdominal CT angiograms were reviewed for renal artery anatomy and variation. Abnormal Abdominal CT angiograms were excluded from the study. Normal anatomy, dimensions, and variation of renal vasculature were assessed.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><br />A total of 110 patients included the inclusion criteria and was included in the study. The renal length and size of the renal artery were significantly larger on the left side. The renal artery diameter showed positive correlation with renal length (r= 0.432; p&lt;0.001). No variation of the renal size of renal artery diameter was however noted with sex. Supernumerary arteries were seen in 33(30%) patients. The optimum cut-off value of renal artery diameter for predicting accessory renal artery was 5.35 or less which yielded a sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 70%. (AUC-0.79; p&lt;0.001). When 4.15 mm was taken as cut-off, the specificity increased to 96% with a marked reduction in sensitivity to 3.6%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p><span style="font-size: 0.875rem; font-family: 'Noto Sans', 'Noto Kufi Arabic', -apple-system, BlinkMacSystemFont, 'Segoe UI', Roboto, Oxygen-Sans, Ubuntu, Cantarell, 'Helvetica Neue', sans-serif;">Renal artery diameter is dependent on laterality, kidney size, and presence of accessory artery and independent of sex.</span></p> Om Biju Panta Vivek Dhakal Shahjan Raj Giri Bibek Gurung Ram Kumar Ghimire Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 25 29 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.38371 Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography Evaluation of Intrahepatic Biliary Tree Variants in Nepalese Population based on Yoshida classification https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/42694 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>The meticulously arranged hierarchical structure of the biliary tree is pivotal for liver function. This biliary tree is divided into intra and extrahepatic components. The anatomic variations of the biliary tree are notoriously common with studies reporting variations in 20% to 55% of the population in different parts of the world. This may result in misdiagnosis and serious injury to the biliary system during surgical procedures. Thus, accurate knowledge of the biliary tree is essential for the interpretation of radiological examination and presurgical planning for hepatobiliary surgery such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy and liver transplant. Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive and safe modality for the accurate evaluation of the biliary tree.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong></p> <p>It was a prospective cross-sectional study performed using a 1.5 Tesla MRI machine. The complete morphology of intrahepatic bile ducts was evaluated and categorized as per Yoshida classification and compared with past literature.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>A total of 76 patients were studied during the period out of which 24 (31.6%) were males and 52 (68.4%) were females. The normal morphology of intrahepatic ducts (Yoshida type I) was found only in 44 (57.9%) cases and the rest of the cases (42.1%) showed variant anatomy. Yoshida type II was the next most common morphology. The study also found no significant correlation between the sex of the patient and the morphological variant.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Morphological variation of intrahepatic biliary ducts is very common. MRCP is a non-invasive and reliable method for the evaluation of intrahepatic biliary anatomy and its variants.</p> Rupesh Sharma Sumnima Acharya Alina Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 30 34 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.42694 A Hospital Based Study on Association of Herpes Zoster with Diabetes Mellitus https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/36815 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Herpes zoster (HZ) is a viral infection caused by the varicella zoster virus which presents with both neural and cutaneous manifestations. Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder occurring in people which may result in decreased immunity. Several studies have been done in different parts of the world to look for an association between herpes zoster and diabetes mellitus. This study is done to determine any association between herpes zoster and diabetes mellitus.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong></p> <p>The study was done on newly diagnosed HZ cases attending the outpatient department of Bir Hospital, Kathmandu. Inclusion criteria include new patients presenting with HZ to the department of dermatology, Bir hospital. Patients who refused to participate in the study, who were below 16years, suffering from psychiatric illness, lactating and pregnant females, and those taking drugs that can alter blood glucose levels were excluded from the study. The random blood sugar of each patient was done and in patients with raised blood sugar, fasting and postprandial blood sugar were done.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Around 20% of herpes zoster patients were diabetics at presentation, mostly in the age group &gt;65 years in both male and female. Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus was common in HZ patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Our study showed a higher incidence of diabetes mellitus in patients with herpes zoster mostly in the age group &gt;65 years. So, elderly patients presenting with herpes zoster should be evaluated for a blood glucose levels.</p> Sudina Ranjit Laila Lama Anupama Karki Rushma Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 35 39 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.36815 Comparison Between Single Dose Versus Multiple Doses Antibiotics in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/37503 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is clean-contaminated surgery. Prophylactic antibiotics are used to reduce SSI but there is still controversy regarding use of antibiotics in postoperative period. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of single dose versus multiple doses of antibiotics in terms of wound infection.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>This prospective study was carried out in department of surgery of National Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Birgunj from March 2020 to March 2021. Patients with diagnosis of symptomatic cholelithiasis were divided using lottery method in single dose (SD) group and multiple doses (MD) group. SD group were given injection ceftriaxone 1gm at the time of induction of anaesthesia and MD group received injection ceftriaxone 1gm at the time induction of anaesthesia and followed by continuation of same dose twice a day for 2 days.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>A total of 249 patients completed the study among which 127 patients were included in the (SD) group and 122 patients in (MD) group. The mean age of patient was 37.37±14.30 years. In single dose (SD) group, 4(3.1%) patients developed wound infection and 3(2.5%) patients in multiple (MD) group developed wound infection which was not statistically significant (p=0.437).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>Single dose antibiotic was found to be as effective as multiple doses of antibiotics in terms of wound infection in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.</p> Umesh Kumar Yadav Akash Raya Pashupati Nath Bhatta Binod Kumar Rai Aditya Prakash Yadav Sanjiv Kumar Shahi Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 40 44 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.37503 Cardiovascular Manifestations of Primary Hypothyroidism https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/36794 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Hypothyroidism is clinical syndrome that results from decreased secretion of thyroid hormone from thyroid gland. Primary Hypothyroidism accounts for 90-95% of all cases of hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism has various cardiovascular manifestations. With aim for early prevention and management of cardiovascular manifestation in hypothyroidism this study was conducted.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong></p> <p>A cross sectional observational study was conducted in Department of Medicine in Bir Hospital. Ethical clearance from Institutional Review Board, National Academy of Medical Sciences was taken. A total of 70 patients with untreated Primary Hypothyroidism were randomly selected without any prior known comorbidities or under any medication. Data were collected and entered in Microsoft Excel to tabulate data and analyse results.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Out of 70 enrolled participants, 41 cases were subclinical hypothyroidism and 29 overt/clinical hypothyroidism with 80% female and 20% male. Most common presenting cardiovascular symptoms was peripheral odema (60%) followed by easy fatiguability (47.14%). Body Mass Index (BMI) and Hypertension was higher in majority of cases 70% and 60% respectively. Dyslipidemia was present in 48.57% of cases among which majority changes were in triglyceride and total cholesterol level. Abnormality in ECG were seen in only 22.85% of cases with T wave abnormality (18.57%) being most common followed by sinus bradycardia (14.28%). Echocardiography was abnormal in 7.14% of cases with 2.86% showing pericardial effusion.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>Cardiovascular manifestations were present in majority of patients of primary hypothyroidism especially High BMI, Hypertension and Dyslipidemia. Screening of newly diagnosed primary hypothyroidism for cardiovascular manifestations thus should be done routinely in all patients.</p> Samrat Shrestha Kamal Sharma Lamsal Bhakta Dev Shreshtha Sunny Bajracharya Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 45 49 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.36794 Ossicular Chain Status in Adults with Chronic Otitis Media Mucosal at a Tertiary Referral Hospital in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/42696 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Chronic Otitis Media (COM) is a common condition characterized by perforation of the tympanic membrane and inflammation of middle ear cleft mucosal lining for at least 2-6 weeks. This study was carried out to find out the status of the middle ear ossicles in patients with COM mucosal and to correlate with clinical parameters.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong></p> <p>This retrospective clinical study comprises 106 myringoplasty patients at the department of ENT, Shree Birendra Hospital. Their preoperative PTA, four frequencies (500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, and 4000 Hz) Air Conduction Thresholds (ACT), and Air Bone Gap (ABG) were recorded. Ossicular chain integrity and mobility evaluated intraoperatively were noted. Ossicular chain status was analyzed with ACT and ABG.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The ossicles were intact and mobile in 91.5%, either fixed/ restricted or disrupted in 8.5%. Mean ACT and ABG comparisons in intact and ossicular chain defect groups were statistically significant. Frequency-specific ACT at all four frequencies and ABG except at 4000 Hz in the two groups were also statistically significant to predict the ossicular involvement. The group with ossicular defect had moderate to severe Conductive Hearing Loss (CHL).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;Mean as well as frequency-specific ACT and ABG can be considered as a potential preoperative predictor for ossicular chain status in COM mucosal.</p> Sarita KC Ranishma Bista Sriya Bhattarai Vijay Bhushan Dutta Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 50 54 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.42696 Awareness of Yoga and Its Benefit Among Medical Students of Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Birgunj https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/37051 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Yoga is a practice of mind and body that combines physical postures, breathing exercises, and meditation. Yoga helps reduce stress, lower blood pressure and heart rate. It is considered one of many complementary and integrative health approaches. Yoga brings together physical and mental discipline that may help achieve a healthy body and peaceful mind. In this study, we aim to assess knowledge and awareness regarding yoga and its benefit among preclinical students.<strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong></p> <p>This cross-sectional study includes 176 preclinical medical students of National Medical College, Birgunj, Nepal. A total of 14 self-designed close-ended questionnaires regarding knowledge and awareness about Yoga were used as a study tool. Data analysis was done using Microsoft Excel, 2010.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>Among 176 preclinical students, 77.84% had the habit of practicing yoga, but only 14.20% of students continued it. About 96.59% of students knew the benefits of yoga.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>The result of the study reveals that there is a positive influence of practicing yoga among students. By practicing yoga, it is capable to achieve personal abilities such as stress management, attention in their work, and maintenance of physical and mental health.</p> Esha Shrestha Ripti Shreshtha Dayaram Ghimire Vibina Aryal Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 55 58 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.37051 Physical and Behavioral Health of Health Science Students of a Medical College of Nepal during COVID Pandemic https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/38165 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Worldwide pandemic of COVID 19 and its confinement has affected in some way the physical and behavioral aspect of every individual. Health science students are generally known to have reduced physical activity and decreased sleep duration. During the COVID pandemic health science students may adapt different health behavior because of their knowledge about the healthy behaviors. This study aims to explore the physical and behavioral health of health science students of Maharajgunj Medical Campus, and Maharajgunj Nursing Campus during COVID pandemic in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from February 2021 to June 2021 using self-structured questionnaires to examine the students in two domains (i) Physical health (ii) Behavioral health. A convenience sampling was used. 146 students were enrolled in the study. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 25.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The study revealed that 63% of the participants exercised during the pandemic. Majority of the female participants had change in eating pattern (65%) and sleeping pattern (60.3%) while majority of male reported no change in eating pattern (52.4%) and sleeping pattern (60.3%). Majority of both males (70%) and females (85.2%) consumed nutritious food during the pandemic. 98.8% females and 100% males used face mask and maintained physical distance while outdoor. Fewer participants with cough and fever (64.9%) self-isolated while majority used face mask (97.3%), covered mouth while coughing (94.6%) and maintained physical distance (81.1%). </p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong></p> <p>COVID pandemic was known to affect the physical health of health science students and they also adapted different behaviors during the pandemic.</p> Narayan Bahadur Mahotra Sabita Kandel Sanyukta Gurung Bishal Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 59 63 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.38165 Comparison of Glycine Versus Sterile Water Use in Transurethral Resection of the Prostate: A Cross Sectional Study https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/41639 <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>All endoscopic surgery in urology needs irrigant fluid for clear visibility and to wash out the blood and debris. Glycine 1.5% is widely accepted but sterile water is cheaper and easily available. All types of irrigants are responsible to cause electrolyte disturbance to different degrees. In our study, we compare the glycine 1.5% with sterile water as irrigant fluid. </p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods</strong></p> <p>In this prospective observational study, 64 patients were included with 31 patients in the sterile group and 33 patients in the Glycine group. Hemoglobin, sodium, potassium was analyzed postoperatively after 6 hours. Weight of prostate, resection volume, the volume of fluid, and resection time was calculated.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p> There were changes in the parameter of hemoglobin and sodium but were not statically significant whereas the change in potassium was statically significant in both groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion </strong></p> <p>Sterile water is a safe inexpensive and easily available fluid for TURP as compared to glycine 1.5%. The study did not show any significant difference in using both fluids our sample size was small so needs a similar study with a large sample size to confirm the observation.</p> Pashupati Nath Bhatta Umesh Kumar Yadav Akash Raya Aditya Prakash Yadav Rishi Kumar Karki Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 64 67 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.41639 Leprosy in Post Elimination Era https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/42540 <p>No abstract available.</p> Vikash Paudel Brijesh Shrestha Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 1 1 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.42540 Importance of Cadaveric Dissection in Learning Anatomy For Medical Students: A Review https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/38744 <p>Cadaveric dissection has been used for centuries to explore anatomy. The role of dissection in modern medical curricula has been a topic of intense debate. Anatomical education has been undergoing reforms in line with the demands of medical profession. Despite the rise of modern technology and evolved teaching methods, dissection continues to remain a cornerstone of the anatomy curriculum. Dissection helps to build discipline independent skills which are essential requirements of modern healthcare setup. Its utility is also reflected in the perception of students who believe that dissection provides them a foundation to develop clinical skills. Objections to the use of cadavers had led to other alternatives including virtual dissection of computer models. The current state of dissection in anatomy is deteriorating. Present study aims to assess the importance of traditional method like cadaveric dissection in teaching and learning anatomy at the present time when medical schools are inclining towards integrated and clinical application of learning methods.</p> Laxmi Bhattarai Sudikshya KC Amit Kumar Shrivastava Ram Prakash Sah Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 68 72 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.38744 Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Upper Lip: A Case Report https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/42667 <p>Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumour of the major salivary gland presenting as a painless mass gradually increasing in size, usually involving the parotid gland. In the minor salivary gland, it is more common in the palate. Pleomorphic adenoma of the lip is a rare tumour. Thus, we present a case of pleomorphic adenoma originating from the upper lip in a 75 years old male patient. The tumor was completely excised and sent for histopathological examination which showed the microscopic features of pleomorphic adenoma to confirm the diagnosis.</p> Anjana KC Brijesh Shrestha Vikash Paudel Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 73 75 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.42667 Diagnostic Dilemma During Laparoscopic Cystectomy of Twisted Serous Cystadenofibroma of Ovary in Adolescent Girl – A Case Report with Literature Review https://nepjol.info/index.php/medphoenix/article/view/37176 <p>The most ovarian tumor arises from the surface epithelium and the serous tumor is the most common histological variant. Serous cystadenofibroma is a rare variant of serous tumor that comprises both epithelial and fibrous stromal components. They are benign in nature but may often be misinterpreted as malignant nature due to their solid cystic nature with papillary projections. We herein report a case of twisted right ovarian cyst in 17 years unmarried girl that was clinically and radiologically benign and hence managed laparoscopically. Intraoperatively cyst ruptured that released clear serous fluid. During cystectomy, multiple small to large size (maximum 2x2 cm) papillary projections were noted within the uninoculated cyst without any other solid components. With the possibility of a borderline tumor, the patient party was counseled and opted for cystectomy with the possible need for a second surgery. The final histopathology report was benign serous cystadenofibroma.</p> Suresh Kayastha Jamuna Kiran Paudel Rajiv Deo Hari Om Joshi Sweta Thapa Copyright (c) 2022 Med Phoenix http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 6 2 76 79 10.3126/medphoenix.v6i2.37176