Kalika Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms <p>The Kalika Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies is published by the Kalika Multiple Campus, Pokhara-14, Kajipokhari, Nepal. It is an annual peer–reviewed research journal related to different areas of social sciences, natural sciences, education and management. It attempts to furnish the research articles in multidisciplinary aspects.</p> en-US <p>All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be produced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including infromation storage and retrieval system, without permission in writting from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passage in review.</p> vkkc2001@gmail.com (Vikash Kumar KC) sioux.cumming@ubiquitypress.com (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Ethno-medicinal Plants Used by Local Communities of Pokhara Metropolitan City of Kaski District, Western Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60899 <p>In the diverse landscape of Pokhara Metropolitan City, Kaski district, Western Nepal, traditional medicine remains integral to the healthcare practices of many communities. This study presents a comprehensive exploration of the ethno medicinal value of locally available plants, emphasizing detailed insights into the research methodology employed. Data were collected from field observation, interview with local people, key informants, consultation with experts and secondary sources. Collected data were analyzed and presented well in table and charts. Data analysis involved a multi-faceted approach, including the systematic compilation of information gathered through interviews and field observations. The collected data were further organized and presented in tables and charts for comprehensive visualization. Plant specimens were meticulously collected, studied, and identified using standard literature and consultation with university professors. The results revealed a rich tapestry of ethno medicinal practices, showcasing 83 plant species distributed among 76 genera and 55 families, each playing a unique role in local healthcare. Trees emerged as the most prevalent life form, constituting 39.76% of the documented species. Noteworthy species included Ocimum tenuiflorum, Curcuma longa, and Citrus limon, with distinct medicinal applications The conservation and protection of these medicinal plants will further benefit in the prolonged sustainability of cultural as well as biological diversity.</p> Anisha Dhakal, Deepa Paudel, Asmita Neupane, Deepak Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60899 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 People’s Experience Towards the Federal System in Gandaki Province, Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60904 <p>This study examines the debate over federal systems in the Gandaki region of Nepal. People’s experience towards the federal system in Gandaki Province is the key objective of this study. Within five years following the promulgation of constitution in 2015, general elections were held, and people received goods and services from three distinct governments. Through local, provincial, and federal governments, the public takes part in the process of public policy making. Since the system attempts to meet people’s wants, it has received positive response from everyone. Both primary and secondary data were used in this study. Primary data was gathered through interviews, and secondary data came from research papers, books, and other sources. The finding of this study shows that local government has been effective in delivering goods and services at the local level. In the public opinion, local governments have successfully justified their existence while provincial government has failed to do so. Also, this investigation finds that the federal government does not fully adhere to power sharing. As a result, the performance of provincial government is far below par. Furthermore, provincial governments lack the innovation needed to take over the federal system, which consists of both local and federal administrations.</p> Girdhari Dahal Copyright (c) 2023 https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60904 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 An assessment of the Determinants of Inflation in Nepal: A study between 1974/75 and 2021/22 https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60906 <p>Inflation is one of the important and interestingly touchy macroeconomic variables that influences other macroeconomic variables such as investment, consumption, saving and others. Therefore, it has become renewed interest in recent years mainly for both developed and developing countries. This paper examined the short-run and long-run relationship between inflation and its determinants in Nepal using time series data over the period of 1974/75-2021/22. The ARDL bound test approach to co-integration and error correction model have been used to examine the long-run and short-run relationship between variables. The results from ARDL bound test approach to co-integration show that broad money supply, Indian inflation and budget deficit have a significant positive effect on inflation while exchange rate negatively affect it in the long-run. The result from error correction model also found that Nepalese inflation and Indian inflation are significantly and positively related even in the short-run. However, real GDP affects inflation negatively as expected but it is statistically insignificant. A corollary of the results is that broad money supply, budget deficit, Indian inflation and exchange rate are the main drivers of inflation in Nepal.</p> Hom Bahadur Chhetri Copyright (c) 2023 https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60906 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Influencing Students’ Dropout in Bachelor’s Program in Kalika Multiple Campus, Pokhara https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60909 <p>Students’ dropout is one of the major phenomenons in higher education. This article primarily aimed to explore the factors influencing students’ dropout in the bachelor program of Kalika Multiple Campus, Pokhara and identify the reasons behind it. A descriptive design had been taken to describe the dropout rate and fifteen dropout students of bachelor’s degree faculty of education were selected as the respondents through judgmental purposive sampling procedure. Unstructured telephone interviewing was used as the tool for collecting the required information. This study bases on the theoretical tenets of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Motivation and Engagement, and Cognitive Load Theory. This study found that the main reasons of students’ dropout explored from student-related indicators were their low academic achievement in examination and irregularity in class; campus-related indicators were lack of academic support, feedback, motivation and encouragement from teachers, and problem of institutional information system; and lastly, family-related indicators were lacks of financial support from home and, different family problems. The implication of this study is to solve the problem of students’ drop out specifically in Kalika Multiple Campus and generally in the development of higher education programs in Nepal.</p> Lok Nath Subedi Copyright (c) 2023 https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60909 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Motivation and Performance of Employees of Pokhara Based Internet Service Providers https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60910 <p>Employee motivation is one of the important factors that can help the employer to improve employees and organizational performance. This research paper aims to investigate the impact of motivation on employee performance in Pokhara based internet provider. This article is based on case study method in which ‘Pokhara Internet Private Limited’ was selected by following lottery method of sampling. The study sample size was about 90% (103) of the population which was randomly selected from each department of the Pokhara Internet Pvt. Limited with the help of employees name list provided by HR Department. The study applied empirical approach in which a survey questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data. For the fulfillment of research objective various statistical techniques has been applied. The hypothesis was set to test under some constraints. The statistical tool like descriptive statistic and inferential statistics like ANOVA, multiple linear regressions was applied for this regard the famous statistical software named SPSS-20 has been used. The results validated the research questions and proved statistically significant impact of employees’ motivation on their performance. Moreover, it is also known that female employees had high level of motivation in the sample institution.</p> Nabin Bahadur Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60910 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting on Students’ Preference on Choosing Academic Track for Higher Education in Pokhara https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60911 <p>The students joining higher education undergo various confusions while selecting academic track for their further studies. Students who pass the tenth grade are supposed to join the subject of their interest in grade eleven or intermediate level which will be the fundamental course for their higher education ahead. Grade eleven is the main entry point for students to establish their future in the higher education. Higher education in Nepal starts from bachelor level but students are supposed to identify their major subject starting from grade eleven. It seems that SEE graduates tend to select the major subject while joining higher education depending on various aspects like intelligence of a person, the interest towards that subject, family, peer pressure, social inputs, guidance from teachers , etc. Family (57.47%) is the major agent to assist students to take decisions for choosing the academic track while joining grade eleven. 92.52% students were not forced but 7.4% students were forced by the parents to choose the major subjects for higher education. It is surprising that 59.19% students wish to go abroad for university level education. The children joining senior high school need to be provided career guidance and counseling before choosing and handling major academic track for their higher education.</p> Pusparaj Timilsina Copyright (c) 2023 https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60911 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Medium of Instruction and Achievement in Social Studies among the Students of Gogan Secondary School, Pokhara https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60912 <p>This conference paper explores factors involved in the achievement of social studies in the basic level students of Pokhara Municipality. The objectives of the paper are to analyze the different factors associated with students’ achievement in learning social studies and to look for associations of mother-tongue education with the students’ achievement. A quantitative and applied research methodology with both primary and secondary sources of information was used. The primary data is collected via an online survey using a structured questionnaire. The data has been collected using researcher-administered online counseling and the distribution of online forms. Similarly, secondary data has been collected from different sources. The survey used a population of 155 students from one of the schools in Pokhara, Shree Gogan Secondary School, conveniently selected. The paper provides a theoretical basis showing that language choices are important for raising interest in the subject matter in students, which further increases the chances of attaining better grades. The students’ achievement is influenced by several factors, including linguistic, educational, social, and economic expediencies. At the time of the survey, it was observed that the students wanted some changes in the uses of the medium of instruction as well as the method of teaching. The study revealed that most respondents do not find English as a medium of instruction comfortable for study. Most respondents prefer their mother tongue as a medium of instruction. The paper concludes that mother-tongue education should be implemented rather than using an imposed medium of instruction (MOI).</p> Sandeep Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60912 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Public Expectation on Strengthening Municipal Governance through Government Preparedness in the Public Service Delivery https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60913 <p>With the introduction of the federal government system in Nepal, two local level elections were held which increased the public expectations of citizens although the power sharing and decentralization system at federal state and local level and local level is relatively difficult. The Ministry of Federal Affair and General Administration (MOFAGA) under the Local Government Operation Act has developed a Local Government Institutional Self-Assessment (LISA) model to assess municipal governance. This study examined the preparedness of Pokhara Metropolitan City for addressing the expectations of the people in public service delivery especially with the application of the LISA model and identified the measures of preparedness for the responsive and accountable municipal government. The sample size was 149 individuals selected from three wards (ward 8 in urban, ward 27 is in semi-urban and ward 24 in the rural/periphery area) of PMC where the sample was collected at the 5% level of significance and 8% margin of error. The findings of the study suggested that the assessment of the expectation is the first step and government preparedness should be according to the public service delivery mechanisms so as to strengthen municipal governance in the municipality. The LISA model in municipalities is the baseline for strengthening the municipal governance. The study has been a useful assessment for the capacity development and technical backstopping at the one hand the public expectations at the other.</p> Surendra Babu Tiwari Copyright (c) 2023 https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60913 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Water Quality Parameters of Rupa Lake in Pokhara,Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60915 <p>In this study, physical and biochemical water quality parameters are analyzed from five selected stations in Rupa Lake Pokhara, Nepal using standard procedures. Analyzed parameters are: temperature, turbidity, total solids (TS), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total alkalinity (TA), total hardness (TH), chloride content, sulphate and dissolved oxygen (DO). Based on the observed water quality parameters, the quality of Rupa Lake water is discussed and compared with WHO standard values for drinking water. Recorded laboratory results shows that water of Rupa Lake is useful for agricultural, industrial, aquatic life, and fishery purposes.</p> Thaneshwar Subedi Copyright (c) 2023 https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60915 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Cultural Assimilation: A Post Colonial Perspective in Kim https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60916 <p>Rudyard Kipling’s Kim is mostly considered as a novel of advocacy for making colonizers stronger to rule the natives. It deals the native with a stereotypical perception of the oriental, particularly, of Indian people. This paper has used Edward Said’s postcolonial perspective of orientalism to analyze Kim. Emphasis is given on identifying the situations and expressions that are directed to cultural assimilation, trying to indicate that Kipling advocates for the English cultural supremacy and colonial significance in Indian territory. This research is based on primary as well as secondary data analysis with qualitative research approach. Finding shows that Kipling, with a pretext of standing in- between the East and the West, visualizes varying ranges of stereotype of India and its peoples. Even if cultural assimilation seems to be liberally responded at different occasions this study tells that English community is in understanding and application of cultural supremacy as a determinate factor to establish their rule upon the native and inspire the latter to assimilate to former’s culture. Detailed analysis of assimilation through post-colonial cultural hegemony perceptive would be further relevant study on this novel.</p> Yog Raj Paudel Copyright (c) 2023 https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60916 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Review on the Ingredients of Triphala (Harro, Barro and Amala) https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60917 <p>Triphala is a poly-herbal formula made up of three equal proportions of herbal fruits, Harro, Barro, and Amala, found in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. This study aimed to review the phytochemicals, potential uses, and constituents of Triphala using PRISMA standards. Data was collected from well-known bibliometric information sources. All the obtained information was analysed systematically and represented in a tabular and descriptive form. The result shows that the main chemical constituents of Triphala include Vitamin C, carotene, nicotinic acid, riboflavin, tannins, tannins, anthraquinones, polyphenolic compounds, and gallic acid, tannic acid, and glycosides. Triphala is crucial for balancing and rejuvenating three constitutional elements that govern human life. Its biological activities include anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-arthritic, anti-stress, antipyretic, analgesic, anti-diarrheal, gastrointestinal protective, hepatoprotective, anti-hyperglycemic, cardioprotective, hypolipidemic, wound healing, antineoplastic, radio-protective, chemoprotective, chemopreventive, mutagenesis and DNA damage prevention, anti-cataractogenesis, anti-lipid peroxidative, free radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory. Triphala is a novel drug with numerous therapeutic potentials, effective in maintaining health, preventing diseases, and treating various ailments. This herbal aptitude of Triphala promotes the development of a medical system with minimal side effects. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the local population is provided with accurate information regarding triphala.</p> Alizza Ghimire, Pratima Bhattarai, Promish Adhikari Copyright (c) 2023 https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60917 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of 2015 Earthquake on the Shifts in Internal and International Relations of Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60918 <p>The devastation generated by the 2015 Nepal Gorkha earthquake greatly affected the country’s politics and security, impacting the lives of around 8 million individuals with 9000 recorded deaths, more than 22 thousand injured. Thousands of private houses, public building, cultural heritages and critical infrastructures were damaged. More than 30 districts of Nepal felt the surmounting consequences of the terrible aftershocks. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the shifts within the domestic discourse in Nepal’s political happenings and also to look at the role of global actors in the humanitarian efforts in the country, filling the gaps left by state actors in the kerfuffle. The Constitution and the call for assistance by the central government were important in guaranteeing a certain kind of post-disaster stability and restoring as well as uplifting public morale and belief in the state systems. Adopting a qualitative method, through an analytical lens the study looked at the overall impact of the quake on Nepal’s politics and the trends of bilateral, regional and global assistance, focusing on the major donor agencies and the role of Nepal’s neighbouring states. There were several new developments and outlooks with regards to both state interests and the framework of disaster response. The paper also recognizes the importance of regional integration either by means of institutional instruments or through some other measure alongside a cohesive internal policy arrangement amongst the parties for future strategies aiming at effective disaster reduction and response.</p> Prem Raj Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 https://nepjol.info/index.php/kjms/article/view/60918 Thu, 21 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0000