Kanakai Journal 2022-08-17T12:10:27+00:00 Mr. Sher Bahadur Baniya Open Journal Systems <p>The Kanakai Journal is published by the Research Management Cell, Kanakai Multiple Campus, Surunga, Jhapa, Province No.-1, Nepal. The focus of this peer reviewed journal is to be platform for research enhancement at advanced level. It includes publication of multi-disciplinary articles based upon the guidelines of University Grant Commission, Nepal and international standard. </p> Practices of Deduction and Induction in the ELT Classroom: A Case Study 2022-07-29T13:40:20+00:00 Kamal Kumar Poudel <p>Deductive and inductive approaches are very well-articulated notions in the literature of teaching and learning grammar. This article first conceptualizes deduction and induction from a broader perspective, thereby connecting them to inductive and deductive approaches to teaching grammar. The case study this article draws from was based on the observation of two contextually similar classroom presentations– the first deductive and the next inductive– of an 'outstanding' student teacher as a separate model of each, aiming basically at sketching a comprehensive picture illustrating the classroom actualization of each of these approaches. Comparing the two models, it can be concluded that, regarding teaching and learning grammar, induction aligns more closely to the overall pedagogic essence than deduction does. As a future direction, the study can/should be extended to broader contexts in terms of participants and cases so as to obtain more comprehensive data, hence more reliable results.</p> 2022-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kamal Kumar Poudel Capital Increment Trend of Nepal Multipurpose Cooperatives Society 2022-07-29T13:45:38+00:00 Bikash Prasad Uprety <p>This study aims to analyze the capital increment trend of Nepal Multipurpose Cooperatives Society (NMC) in the last 9 years. NMC was established on 8March 1994 as a cooperative organization. This article reciprocally analyses the changing situation of its capital and number of members during ten years. NMC is an autonomous institution. However, its financial activities and positions are not independent. They depend on various external financial factors, i.e., the overall changing in the capital scenario of Nepal's Capital Market, level of competition among financial institutions, recent trends of capital situations in its internal affairs, government policy towards cooperatives, general attitudes of people and some internal movement regarding its operational activities. Basically, growth of a cooperative organization depends upon the managerial skills and responsible authorities of a cooperative organization and some crucial external factors which directly or indirectly affect the institutional activities. The increasing trend of capital and number of shareholder members indicate the increasing volume of the institution which shows NMC is a growing organization. Mainly, share capital, institutional capital, number of shareholder members, per member average share capital profitability as a form of earning per share are analyzed in this article. Capital increment trend is also analyzed with the eight years' strategic business plan.</p> 2022-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Bikash Prasad Uprety Sun Nepal Life Insurance Company: Customer Satisfaction to Its Products 2022-07-29T13:52:15+00:00 Dilli Bahadur Bhattarai <p>This study explores customer satisfaction towards the products and services of the Sun Nepal Life Insurance Company Ltd. Customer satisfaction with company’s products and services is often seen as the key to a company’s success and long-term competitiveness. In other words, customer satisfaction is defined as a measurement that determines how happy. They are with the company’s product, services and capabilities. Customer satisfaction information, including surveys and ratings, can help a company determine how to improve the best of their products and services and identify the area which needs improvement in order to maintain or increase their quality of services and membership base. This research tries to systematically review significance of life insurance in modern competitive and risky human life due to risky society, busy scheduled, unhygienic life style etc. The study uses descriptive and percentage techniques for data analysis after the collection of data entry is checked. The primary data was collected through survey. About 100 questionnaires were distributed in Jhapa district, out of which 87 questionnaires were received back. This study is very helpful to see the effect of customer satisfaction and attitude towards SNLIC.</p> 2022-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Dilli Bahadur Bhattarai Silent Reading and Reading Aloud for Better Comprehension and Speaking Motivation: A Comparative Study 2022-07-29T14:03:44+00:00 Rabindra Subedi <p>This article compares the effectiveness of reading aloud and silent reading for comprehension and speaking motivation. The data were taken from the ninth graders of a community school of Jhapa, Nepal. The students were divided into two groups and each were asked to read ten sample comprehension questions. The groups were provisioned to have a silent reading and reading aloud differently. Each group was given just five minutes of time- two times a day- for three weeks and were measured for their scores. Conclusions were drawn comparing the pre- test and post- test results and by closely observing their oral participation in the class. The results showed that reading aloud is more effective than silent reading for comprehension and speaking encouragement.</p> 2022-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Rabindra Subedi Effectiveness of Using Video Materials for Teaching English Stories 2022-07-29T14:13:14+00:00 Durga Kafle <p>This study attempts to find out whether the use of video materials in teaching English stories is more effective than teaching via text reading and the lecture method. Quasi-experimental research was adopted for the study. Fifty students of Grade seven from an institutional school were taken as the source of data and the sampling procedure was systematic. The fifty students were divided into two groups of each twenty-five, controlled and experiment, and two tests were taken. First, a pre-test before using the Video materials as teaching, and second, a post-test after the researcher used video materials to teach the experiment group whereas she used the same lecture method to teach the controlled group. After using the video material as a new technique, the interest of the students in learning English stories was found to have increased.</p> 2022-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Durga Kafle Teachers' Job Satisfaction: A Study of Private Schools in Kanakai Municipality 2022-07-29T14:18:04+00:00 Taman Neupane <p>The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the determinants that affect private schoolteachers' job satisfaction. This study was conducted at three private schools of Surunga in Kanakai Municipality. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire and unstructured interviews of private schools' teachers. The findings of the study revealed that some participant teachers in Surunga perceived teaching as their ideal profession but most of them were engaged in the teaching profession because of the prevalence of private schools in their neighborhoods and lack of employment alternatives. Also, teachers report dissatisfaction about delays in salary payment and most of the teachers are also dissatisfied with available job benefits and security in their chosen profession. The findings suggest that school administrators need to address these important issues, especially regarding equitable payment, on-time salary payment, improved workplace conditions, job security, fair reward system to enhance job satisfaction amongst their employees and increase their physical and mental attachment to the workplace.</p> 2022-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Taman Neupane जय भुँडी निबन्धमा प्रगतिवाद {Progressivism in Jai Bhundi Essay} 2022-08-10T05:19:53+00:00 जीवनाथ Jivanath सुवेदी Subedi <p>यस लेखमा पाश्चात्य साहित्य सिद्धान्त प्रगतिवादका आधारमा भैरव अर्यालको ‘जय भुँडी’ निबन्धको अध्ययन र विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । विश्लेष्य निबन्धमा प्रगतिवादी वैचारिकता के कस्तो छ, भन्ने विषयलाई यस लेखमा अध्ययन गरी व्याख्या गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनमा भैरव अर्यालको ‘जय भुँडी’ निबन्धका माध्यमद्वारा समाजमा चेतना जगाउने कार्य गरिएको छ कि छैन भन्ने कुराको प्रगतिवादी दृष्टिले खोजी गरिएको छ । शोधार्थीहरूद्वारा साहित्यकार भैरव अर्यालको जीवनी, व्यक्तित्व, कृतित्व आदिका सम्बन्धमा विश्वविद्यालयीय सोपाधिक अनुसन्धानहरू गरिएका छन् । साहित्यिक पत्रपत्रिकाले भैरव अर्याल विशेषाङ्क नै निकालेका छन् । विविध पुस्तकमार्फत अर्याल र उनका कृतिबारे अध्ययन भएका छन् । यस लेखमा भने ‘जय भुँडी’ निबन्धको प्रगतिवादी दृष्टिले अध्ययन गरिएको छ । यो गुणात्मक अनुसन्धानअन्तर्गतको अध्ययन भएकाले यसमा पुस्तकालयीय कार्यबाट सामग्री सङ्कलन गरी वर्णनात्मक अनुसन्धान विधिअन्तर्गत व्याख्या–विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यसमा समाजवादी यथार्थवादका रूपमा स्थापित प्रगतिवादी सिद्धान्तको परिचय दिएर ‘जय भँुडी’ निबन्धको सङ्क्षिप्त समीक्षा गरी त्यसमा प्रगतिवादी प्रवृत्ति पहिल्याएर वर्णनात्मक अनुसन्धान विधिका आधारमा उक्त रचनाको व्याख्या–विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । तत्कालीन नेपाली समाजमा विद्यमान वर्गभेदको हास्यव्यङ्ग्यात्मक शैलीमा आलोचनात्मक चित्रण गरिएको यस निबन्धमा प्रगतिवादी विचारको स्पष्ट र प्रभावकारी प्रयोग गरी समाजिक चेतना जगाएइएको हुँदा यो प्रगतिवादी दृष्टिले विशिष्ट स्तरको निबन्ध हो भन्ने यस लेखको निष्कर्ष रहेको छ ।</p> 2022-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 प्राथमिक विद्यालयमा सरकारी लगानी र शैक्षिक दक्षता {Government investment and educational efficiency in primary schools} 2022-08-16T09:21:29+00:00 ठाकुरप्रसाद Thakurprasad रसाइली Rasaili <p>यस अध्ययनको मुख्य उद्देश्य प्राथमिक विद्यालय शिक्षाको दक्षतामा सरकारी लगानीको प्रभावलाई विश्लेषण गर्नु रहेको छ । यस प्रयोजनका लागि मिश्रित ढाँचामा रही उद्देश्यमूलक नमुना विधिबाट छनोट गरिएका ती प्राथमिक विद्यालयहरूका प्रधानाध्यापकहरूसँग प्रश्नावली र अवलोकन साधन प्रयोग मार्फत सूचना तथा परिमाणात्मक तथ्याङ्कहरू सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । नेपालको प्राथमिक विद्यालय शिक्षामा शिक्षा बजेटको आधाभन्दा बढी सरकारी रकम लगानी गरिँदै आएको अवस्थामा कनकाई नगरपालिकामा सञ्चालन हुँदै आएका प्राथमिक विद्यालयहरूको आन्तरिक शैक्षिक दक्षता के कस्तो छ भन्ने कुराहरूमा केन्द्रित यस अध्ययनको निष्कर्ष अनुसार दक्षता वृद्धिमा लगानीको उपयोग न्यून हुने गरेको देखिएको छ । मूल रूपमा अध्ययन विद्यालयको सेवा क्षेत्रका प्राथमिक विद्यालय उमेर समूहका बालबालिकाहरूको न्यून भर्ना सङ्ख्या रही त्यसलाई वृद्धि गर्न नसकेको र शैक्षिक क्षतिको दर पनि ६० प्रतिशतसम्म रहेको पाइएकोछ । विद्यालयहरूले विगत तीन वर्ष (२०१८–२०२०) बिचमा प्राप्त गरेको अनुदान रकम मध्ये ५.५ देखि ३४.९ प्रतिशतसम्म भौतिक संरचना तथा सामग्रीहरूमा खर्च गरेको पाइयो । भौतिक सुविधाहरू पर्याप्त हुँदा पनि तिनीहरूको उपयोग गर्ने विद्यार्थी सङ्ख्या न्यून रहेको देखिएको छ । विद्यालयको कक्षा छाड्ने दर ६० प्रतिशतसम्म पाइएको छ । शैक्षिक क्षतिको दर बढी भएका कारण प्राथमिक तह पूरा गर्ने दरमा पनिकमी देखिएको छ । विद्यालय तहमा अनुदान रकमको न्यून उपयोग भएको पाइएको हुँदा त्यसको उपयोगितामा वृद्धि गरी दक्षता बढाउनु पर्ने देखिन्छ । त्यस्तै विद्यार्थी भर्ना सङ्ख्या कम हुनुका कारणहरूको खोजी गरी त्यसलाई सही रूपमा सम्बोधन गर्ने खालका योजना तथा कार्यक्रमहरू अभिभावकहरूको सहभागितामा सञ्चालन गर्नुपर्ने देखिन्छ । विद्यार्थीको मातृभाषाका शब्द, वाक्यगठन, व्याकरण, लिपि आदिसँग सहसम्वन्ध राख्तै अङ्गे्रजी माध्यमको पठनपाठनको व्यवस्था गरी त्यसलाई उपलब्धिमूलक रूपमा सञ्चालन गर्न सकेमा विद्यार्थी भर्ना सङ्ख्या बढ्नुका साथै शैक्षिक क्षतिसमेत न्यूनीकरण गर्न सकिने देखिन्छ ।</p> <p>{The main objective of this study is to analyze the effect of government investment on the efficiency of primary school education. For this purpose, information and quantitative data have been collected through the use of questionnaires and observation tools with the principals of those primary schools selected through the purposive sampling method in a mixed format. According to the findings of this study focused on the internal educational efficiency of primary schools operating in Kankai municipality, when more than half of the government funds are invested in primary school education in Nepal, it is seen that the use of investment in increasing efficiency is minimal. According to the findings of this study focused on the internal educational efficiency of primary schools operating in Kankai municipality, when more than half of the government funds are invested in primary school education in Nepal, it is seen that the use of investment in increasing efficiency is minimal.It was found that 5.5 to 34.9 percent of the grant money received by schools between the last three years (2018-2020) was spent on physical structures and materials. Although the physical facilities are sufficient, it is seen that the number of students using them is low. The dropout rate of the school has been found to be 60 percent. Due to the high rate of educational attrition, there is also a decrease in the rate of completion of the primary level. Since it has been found that the grant funds are underutilized at the school level, it seems that there is a need to increase their efficiency and increase their efficiency. Similarly, it seems that the reasons for the low number of student enrollments should be investigated and plans and programs should be conducted with the participation of parents to address them properly.It seems that if the teaching of English medium can be arranged and conducted in an effective manner while keeping correlation with the words, syntax, grammar, script etc. of the students' mother tongue, the number of student enrollments will increase as well as educational losses can be reduced.}</p> 2022-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 प्रजननमा जातिगत विविधता {Ethnic diversity in reproduction} 2022-08-17T07:25:13+00:00 पवित्रा Pabitra अधिकारी Adhikari <p>प्रजनन मावन जीवनको एक महत्वपूर्ण विषयका रूपमा स्थापित भएको छ । विभिन्न जातिगत आधारमा प्रजननलाई अध्ययन गर्दा भिन्नता ल्याउने आधारहरू भनेका शिक्षा पेसा, उमेर, विवाह लगायतका विषयहरू समेटिएको पाइन्छ । प्रजननमा जातिगत विविधता सम्बन्धी विश्लेषण गर्ने उद्देश्य राखेर परिमाणात्मक अनुसन्धान ढाँचामा यो अध्ययन सम्पन्न गरिएको छ । उमेर समूह अनुसार गरिएको अध्ययनमा सबै भन्दा बढी २५–२९ वर्षका २१ जना महिलाहरुको जिवित बच्चाको संख्या ७५ जना, १५–१९का २ जना महिलाको ३ जना बच्चा र ४५–४९ का २ जना महिलाको १० जना बच्चा रहेको कुराअध्ययनबाट प्राप्त भएको छ । त्यसैगरी जातिगत आधारमा गरिएको अध्ययनमा ब्राहमण जातिका महिलाहरुको औसत प्रजनन दर ३.२ र मुस्लिम जातिको सबैभन्दा बढी ४.५ औसत दर रहेको छ । त्सैगरी शिक्षा अनुसार गरिएको अध्ययनमा साक्षर १५ जना महिलाको ७१ जना बच्चा र माध्यमिक शिक्षा हासिलगर्ने २७ जना महिलाको ८५ जना बच्चा जीवित रहेको अध्ययनले देखाएको छ । पेसा अनुसार गरिएकोअध्ययनमा कृषि पेसामा संलग्न ३५ जना महिलाको १४२ जना बच्चा र शिक्षण पेसामा संलग्न १ जना महिलाको २ जना मात्र बच्चा रहेको कुरा अध्ययनमा समावेश गरिएको छ । जैविक, आर्थिक, सामाजिक साँस्कृतिक, मनोवैज्ञानिक, भौगोलिक, राजनीतिक, जनसंख्या नीति, जनसांख्यिक आदि जस्ता तत्वहरूले प्रजननलाई निर्धारण गर्दछ भन्ने निष्कर्ष यस अध्ययनको रहेको छ ।</p> <p>{Reproduction has been established as an important aspect of Maawan life. When studying fertility based on different castes, it is found that education, occupation, age, marriage, etc. are the bases that bring about differences. This study has been carried out in a quantitative research format with the aim of analyzing racial diversity in reproduction. In the study conducted according to age group, the number of living children of 21 women aged 25-29 years is 75, 2 women aged 15-19 have 3 children and 2 women aged 45-49 have 10 children. Similarly, in the study conducted on the basis of caste, the average fertility rate of Brahmin women is 3.2 and the highest average rate of Muslim women is 4.5 .&nbsp; In a study conducted according to education, 71 children of 15 literate women and 85 children of 27 women with secondary education are alive. In the study conducted according to profession, it was included in the study that 35 women involved in agricultural profession have 142 children and 1 woman involved in teaching profession has only 2 children. The conclusion of this study is that factors such as biological, economic, socio-cultural, psychological, geographical, political, population policy, demographic etc. determine reproduction.}</p> 2022-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 छिमेकी कथामा यथार्थवाद {Realism in neighborhood fiction} 2022-08-17T07:41:31+00:00 दिनेशकुमार Dineshkumar तिम्सिना Timsina <p>यस अध्ययनमा नेपाली कथा परम्परामा आधुनिकता भित्र्याउने कथाकार गुरुप्रसाद मैनालीको ‘नासो’ कथासङ्ग्रहमा सङ्ग्रहित ‘छिमेकी’ कथामा यथार्थवादको प्रयोगलाई विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यसमा पुस्तकालयीय कार्यबाट सामग्री सङ्कलन गरी गुणात्मक अनुसन्धान ढाँचामा व्याख्या र विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । कथामाकरेसा जोडिएका छिमेकी आफन्त भन्दा पनि नजिकको सम्बन्धमा रहेका हुन्छन् र सानातिना समस्यालाईवास्ता नगरी एकलाई पर्दा अर्काको सहयोग गर्नुको विकल्प नहुने विचार प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । ग्रामीण जनजीवनका यथार्थ घटनामा आधारित रहेको हुँदा पूर्वीय तथा पाश्चात्य यथार्थवादको मान्यताका आधारमा प्रस्तुत कथा यथार्थवादी भएको निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p>{In this study, the use of realism in the 'Chhimeki' story collected in the 'Naso' story collection of the storyteller Guru Prasad Mainali, who brought modernity into the Nepali story tradition, is analyzed. In this, materials from library work have been collected and interpreted and analyzed in a qualitative research format. As it is based on the real events of rural people's life, it has been concluded that the story presented is realistic based on the beliefs of Eastern and Western realism.}</p> 2022-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 स्नातक तहको अनिवार्य नेपाली पाठ्यांशको विश्लेषण {Analysis of compulsory Nepali text for undergraduate leve} 2022-08-17T08:57:05+00:00 अरुण Arun बाँस्तोला Bastola <p>स्नातक तहका लागि हाल पठनपाठनमा ल्याइएको अनिवार्य नेपाली विषयको पाठ्यांशका सवल रसुधारयोग्य पक्ष बाहिर ल्याई सरोकारवाला वर्गलाई आवश्यक सुझाव दिने हेतु तयार पारिएको यस अध्ययनले पाठ्यांश विश्लेषण गर्ने प्रमुख आधार वा विधिका रूपमा पाठ्यक्रम अध्ययन तथा विश्लेषणलाई लिइएको छ । जसमा पाठ्यांशको शीर्षक सार्थक र सान्दर्भिक देखिनु, पाठ्यांश परिचय सरल भाषामा सटिक, सुस्पष्ट र परिचयात्मक रहनु, भाषाका चार ओटै सिपलाई सन्तुलित ढङ्गबाट लैजानु पर्नेमा सुनाइ सिपको विकासमा पाठ्यक्रमका विशिष्ट उद्देश्य प्रायः मौन देखिनु, कक्षा ११ र १२ मा राखिएको नयाँ साहित्यिक विधा रिपोर्ताजमूलक रचनालाई यस पाठ्यांशमा स्तरण नगरिनु, पाठ्यवस्तुको समग्र वितरण सार्थक नै पाइनु, शिक्षकको निर्देशनमा ३० पूर्णाङ्कको स्वअध्ययन कार्यमार्फत शिक्षण गराइने भनिए तापनि स्वअध्ययनको स्पष्ट किटान नहुनु, पाठ्यांशमा ३० पूर्णाङ्कको प्रयोगात्मक र ७० पूर्णाङ्कको वाह्यपरीक्षाको सुरुवात गरेर मूल्याङ्कन प्रणालीलाई थप समयसापेक्ष बनाइनु तथा पाठ्यक्रमले प्रस्ताव गरेका पाठ्यसामग्री अपुग देखिनु र केही कमीकमजोरीलाई सुधार गर्दै प्रविधिमैत्री भर्चुअल लर्निङ्सँग जोडिई इन्टरनेट सञ्जालमा उपलब्ध गुणस्तरीय सामग्री छनोट गरी पाठ्यक्रमका उद्देश्य, मूलभूत आवश्यकता, समसामयिक मागका आधारमा पाठ्यांशलाई अझ बढी रुचिपूर्ण, प्रभावकारी, सान्दर्भिक एवम् व्यावहारिक बनाउन सकिने निष्कर्ष निकालिएको छ ।</p> <p>{This study has been prepared to bring out the correctable aspects of the compulsory Nepali subjects currently introduced in teaching for the undergraduate level and to give necessary suggestions to the stakeholders. In which the title of the lesson should be meaningful and relevant, the introduction of the lesson should be accurate, clear and introductory in simple language, the specific objectives of the curriculum in the development of listening skills should be taken in a balanced manner, the new literary genre of reportorial composition placed in class 11 and 12 in this lesson Not being graded, the overall distribution of the curriculum is found to be meaningful, although it is said that teaching will be done through self-study work of 30 full marks under the guidance of the teacher, there is no clear evidence of self-study Making the evaluation system more timely by starting the practical exam of 30 full marks and the external exam of 70 full marks in the course and making the course material offered by the course seem insufficient and correcting some shortcomings by combining it with technology-friendly virtual learning available on the Internet It has been concluded that the lesson can be made more interesting, effective, relevant and practical based on the objectives of the course, basic needs and current demands by selecting quality materials.}</p> 2022-08-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022