Kaumodaki: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies https://nepjol.info/index.php/kdk <p>Kaumodaki: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies is a peer-reviewed, open access journal published by the Research Committee, Vinduwasini Sanskrit Vidyapeeth (Campus), Nepal Sanskrit University, Pokhara, Nepal.</p> Nepal Sanskrit University en-US Kaumodaki: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies 2822-1567 गण्डकीगौरवकाव्ये शास्त्रप्रभावः https://nepjol.info/index.php/kdk/article/view/43120 <p>श्रीकृष्णगण्डकी भगवती भागीरथीव पुराणप्रथिता लोकवन्दिता प्राकृतिकसुषमया सम्पूरिता हिमगिरिप्रसूता नदी ।सरित्प्रवरा, चक्रनदी, गण्डिका, गण्डकी इत्याादीनि अस्या नामानि । इमां सरित्प्रवरामधिकृत्य पन्थीत्युपाह्वेनउमानाथेन गण्डकीगौरवं काव्यं विरचितम् । अस्मिन् अध्ययने पूर्वोक्तकाव्ये शास्त्रप्रभावः कीदृश इति विवेचितोवर्तते । भाषासौष्ठवदृष्ट्या, वस्तुवर्णनदृष्ट्या,शास्त्रान्तरविषयप्रतिपादनदृष्ट्या च काव्यमिदं प्रभावकारि विद्यते ।काव्येऽस्मिन् गण्डकीविषये यत् किमपि वर्णितं तत् पौराणिकीः कथाः समुपजीव्य प्रस्तुतम् । विविधेषु शास्त्रेषुपुराणेषु च स्थितानि गण्डकीसम्बद्धान्युपाख्यानानि संक्षिप्य श्लोकेनैकेन सङ्केतितानि । आवश्यके स्थलेतेषां प्रमाणवचान्यपि टिप्पण्यां प्रदर्शितानि । गण्डक्या महत्वं जानन्तोऽपि नैपालककवयः गण्डकीं विहायगङ्गाया वर्णनेनात्मानं कृतार्थयन्तो दृश्यन्ते स्म । गण्डक्या महिमप्रकाशकस्य काव्यस्याभाव आसीत् । उमानाथकविनागण्डकीगौरवं काव्यं प्रणीय तस्याभावस्य पूर्तिर्विहिता, समाजो बहूपकृतः,नैपालकसंस्कृतकाव्यपरम्परा चसबलीकृतेति गण्डकीगौरवस्य शास्त्रीयं साहित्यिकञ्च महत्वं वर्तत इति अस्याध्ययनस्य सारः ।</p> जगन्नाथ Jagannath रेग्मी Regmi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 1 12 10.3126/kdk.v2i1.43120 पाणिनीयव्याकरणे षत्वविधायकानां सूत्राणामध्ययनम् {Paniniyabyakarane shatwabidhayakanam Sutranamadhyayanam} https://nepjol.info/index.php/kdk/article/view/43124 <p>वर्णानामतिशयितः सन्निधिः सामीप्येन यत्र उपस्थितिर्भवति स संहितापदेन ज्ञायते । संहितायामेव सन्धिर्भवति ।अतिनिकटस्थितयोः, द्वयोर्वर्णयोः पदयोर्वा मेलनम् अथवा अतिसमीपस्थितौ द्वौ वर्णौ शब्दौ वा मिलित्वा एकीभवनं सन्धिः ।शब्दधातुरूपनिर्माणार्थं वा सुबन्ततिङन्तकृत्यकृदन्ततद्धित–समस्तौपसर्गिकशब्दनिर्माणाय वाक्यरचनार्थञ्च सन्धेरुपयोगिताभवत्येव । स च सन्धि सिद्धान्तकौमुद्यां पञ्चधाऽस्ति । तत्र प्रथमोऽच्सन्धिः, द्वितीयो हल्सन्धिः, तृतीयः प्रकृतिभाव–सन्धिः, चतुर्थो विसर्गसन्धिः, पञ्चमस्तु स्वादिसन्धिः । सन्धिकार्ये षत्वविधानकार्यमपि प्राप्यते । अतः किं नाम षत्वम् ?पाणिनीयव्याकरणे षत्वविधेः प्रयोगः कथं क्रियते ? षत्वप्रक्रियायां के के नियमाः सन्ति ? इत्येतासां जिज्ञासानांशमनार्थमनुसन्धानमत्र विहितम् । शब्दव्युत्पादनक्रमे कस्मिनवस्थायां षत्वं भवति ? सन्धिकार्येषु षत्वं भवति नवेति सर्वत्र सन्देहो वरीवर्ति । तद्दूरीकरणाय षत्वविधानस्य सामान्यनियमप्रदर्शनपूर्वकं पाणिनीयव्याकरणे षत्वविधानस्यव्यवस्थाया विवेचनमत्र विधीयते । अष्टाध्याय्यामष्टमाध्याये द्वितीयपादे तृतीयपादे च प्रकरणद्वये पाणिनिना षत्वविषयिणीचर्चा विहिता । पाणिनीयाष्टाध्याøयामष्टमाध्याये द्वितीयपादे व्रश्चभ्रस्जसृजमृजयजराजभ्राजच्छशां षः ८।२।३६।। इतिसूत्रादारभ्य तृतीयपादे सहेः पृतनर्ताभ्यां च ८।३।१०९।। इति सूत्रपर्यन्तं षत्वविधायकानि द्विपञ्चाशत्–(५२) मितसङ्ख्यकानिसूत्राणि पाणिनिना प्रस्तुतानि सन्ति । सिद्धान्तकौमुद्यां नैकत्रस्थले षत्वविषयिणी चर्चा विद्यते । तद्ग्रन्थाध्ययनेन षत्वविषयेविचिकित्सा सदैव वरीवर्ति । अतोऽहमपि लेखेऽस्मिन् तानि सूत्राण्याधृत्य षत्वविषयस्य चर्चां विदधे । अष्टाध्याय्यां येनक्रमेण सूत्राण्युपस्थापितानि सन्ति तेनैव क्रमेणाऽत्र प्रस्तौमि ।</p> प्रकाश Prakash तिवारी Tiwari Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 13 25 10.3126/kdk.v2i1.43124 अनुवादस्य सैद्धान्तिकस्वरूपम् https://nepjol.info/index.php/kdk/article/view/43161 <p>यस्यां कस्यामपि स्रोतोभाषायां स्थितानां सामग्रीणां विषयाणां वा तदन्यलक्ष्यभाषासु रूपान्तरणप्रक्रियैवानुवादः ।अनुवादसम्बद्धं शास्त्रमनुवादशास्त्रं कथ्यते । विश्वस्मिन् ज्ञेयविषयान् सम्प्रेषयितुम्, ज्ञानस्य विस्ताराय चानुवादआवश्यकः । अनुवादो विविधाधारेण वर्गीकृतो लभ्यते । तथाऽप्यन्तरभाषिक–भाषान्तरिक–भाषेतरानुवादे हिसर्वेऽपि भेदोपभेदाः सम्मिलिता भवन्ति । अनुवादकार्ये चत्वारि चरणानि भवन्ति । यथा – अनूद्यसङ्कथनपठनम्, तस्यभाषान्तरिकविश्लेषणम्, अनुवादप्रक्रिया अनुवादसङ्घट्टनं वा, लक्ष्यभाषायां सङ्कथननिर्माणञ्चेति । एतेषु चतुर्षु चरणेषुनिर्वाहितेष्वनुवादप्रक्रिया पूर्णा भवति । कुशलेनानुवादकेन सर्वदा मध्य आगताः समस्या निराकृत्य स्रोतोभाषायाः सामग्रीणांलक्ष्यभाषाया निकटे स्थापनाय यतनीयं भवति । अतोऽनुवादो रचनायाः पुनःसंरचनं पुनरुत्पादनं वा मन्यते । अस्मिन्नध्ययनेप्रमुखतयानुवादस्य प्रकारान्, विधीन्, पद्धतीः, मान्यताश्च पुरस्कृत्य तत्सम्बद्धसैद्धान्तिकपक्षस्य च विवेचना कार्या भवति ।</p> प्रकाश Prakash पौडेल: Poudel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 26 39 10.3126/kdk.v2i1.43161 शब्दार्थसम्बन्धानामनुशीलनम् https://nepjol.info/index.php/kdk/article/view/43163 <p>प्रस्तुतोऽयं लेखो दर्शनपक्षाऽभिमतवैयाकरणराद्घान्ते सुप्रसिद्घशब्दार्थसम्बन्धानुशीलने नित्यत्वाऽनित्यत्वे च केन्द्रितोऽस्ति ।वस्तुतः प्रस्तावितविषये शब्दस्य व्युत्पत्तिपूर्वकं नित्यत्वानित्यत्वविचारप्रसङ्गे शब्दतत्वमर्थतत्वं तयोः सम्बन्धञ्चा–श्रित्यानुसङ्गिकध्वनिविषये च परिचर्चा विहिता वर्तते । अपारे संसारसागरे जायमानेषु चतुरशीतिलक्ष्यविधेषु जीवेषुमानवमात्राणां व्यवहारकारणीभूर्तोयं शब्दो व्यावहारिकः पारमार्थिकश्च द्विविधोऽपि वैयाकरणातिरिक्तनैयायिकवैशेषिकमीमां–सकालङ्कारिकादितत्तदाचार्याणांञ्चापरिहारिकोऽनुसन्धेयो ज्ञेयश्च, अत एव कः शब्दः ? कोऽर्थः ? तयोः सम्बन्धश्च कीदृशः ?तेषां नित्यत्वं कार्यत्वञ्च तŒवं किमिति स्वाभाविकीं समेषां हृदि जायमानां जिज्ञासामनेनैवानुसन्धानेन परिहर्तुं प्रयते ।</p> भोलानारायण Bholanarayan रेग्मी Regmi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 40 49 10.3126/kdk.v2i1.43163 Exploration of Tragic Soul in Abhijnanashakuntalam https://nepjol.info/index.php/kdk/article/view/42876 <p>This article explores the tragic tones in <em>Abhijnanashakuntalam</em> (AS) from Aristotelian theory of tragedy. As per this theory, characters confront obstacles, external or from within. It contains characteristics like hamartia, catharsis, consistency, etc. AS too contains all those characteristics. So, this paper explores how Shakuntala confronts tragedies as Aristotle propounds. Karuna rasa suffuses over AS because the farewell scene of Shakuntala predominantly consists of this rasa. The malfeasance and injustices she meets in Dushyanta’s court further justify the pathos in the play. Thus, the concept of tragic soul dominates throughout the play. The West comes to know the dramatic composition of Kalidasa more after William Jones’ translation of AS into English in 1789. The hero and the heroine in it accept their ill fates, dib ‘ring’ as a source of their long separation. The coupling of the two gives a chirpy ending to the play, but the soul of it is full of commiserations. In Sanskrit, the ‘curse’ is one of the agencies evolving into a tragedy. Numerous reviewers and commentators make a study of AS, a drama chiefly of Shringar rasa or the sentiment of love. However, this paper finds it predominantly a drama of pathos or Karuna rasa. To explore these issues, this article applies the qualitative approach to the research. It is exploratory.</p> Churamoni Kandel Copyright (c) 2022 Churamoni Kandel 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 50 57 10.3126/kdk.v2i1.42876 Ecophilosophy of Natural Harmony and Pragmatic Naturalism in Thoreau’s Poems https://nepjol.info/index.php/kdk/article/view/42877 <p>Ecophilosophy, as a holistic view of nature is implied in the identification of nature and human relation with definite sense of harmony. Pragmatic naturalism, as the combination of reason and fact in nature, works in a common ground of harmony in nature as the practical part and the part of observing the human wisdom to and towards nature. This study probes into Thoreau’s poetic imagination about nature and how Thoreau, as the transcendental naturalist, uses nature as a powerful means of understanding human essence to natural world. Also it examines how he has observed nature, though the life cannot be imagined detached from nature and natural force, as free and ontologically capable to exist with balanced relation with nature and society. Nature is self-regulating being but with unity for the sense of harmony through ecosystem and pragmatic aspect. As the ecological wisdom of realizing nature, he has seen nature as a metaphor of ‘book’ and thinks that nature provides the lessons to humans greater than anything else really could. This study is based on an identified problem - how Thoreau, through his poems, tends to illustrate the idea that nature is an already existing truth and guiding principle of human understanding and nature-human harmony.</p> Keshav Raj Chalise Copyright (c) 2022 Keshav Raj Chalise 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 58 68 10.3126/kdk.v2i1.42877 Femaleness in Shobha De’s Sisters https://nepjol.info/index.php/kdk/article/view/42878 <p>The objective of this article is to explore the female voice in Shobha De’s novel <em>Sisters</em>. The main female characters Mikki and Alisha discard the gender roles prescribed by the patriarchal society. In course of their struggle against the subjugation, they realize that the attributes of femininity are simply the trappings of male chauvinism. They speak that the be-all and end-all of a female is to realize the biological aspect of femaleness. Their dialogues and actions clarify that they want to disseminate the doctrines that sex and gender differ from each other. Sex is natural and biological while the gender is constructed by social and cultural patterns. The novel exposes this dichotomy between nature and nurture. Mikki readily leaves her home and rebels against the domination of her husband and determines to hear the inner voice of female. Alisha, on the other hand, believes that one can gain power by controlling the economic status. They both unite to come out of cesspool of patriarchal hegemony. In this regard, they become the revolutionary angels for the women. They become new women. The article exploits the paradigm of qualitative approach by using the perspective of feminism to explore all these dynamics of femininity and femaleness in the novel. It provides the points of departure between the femininity and femaleness by analyzing the issues in the novel.</p> Sabindra Raj Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 Sabindra Raj Bhandari 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 69 77 10.3126/kdk.v2i1.42878 Virginia Woolf’s To the Light House: Revelation of Sublime in Privileged Moments https://nepjol.info/index.php/kdk/article/view/42880 <p>Woolf’s narrator, in <em>To the Lighthouse</em> experiences the privileged moment in line with the sublime of Longinus, the epiphany of Joyce, and the Wordsworth’s concept of spot of time. The closure of Woolf’s fiction coincides with Lily’s completion of the painting with a flash of vision, and with the family’s arrival to the lighthouse, an ultimate destination of the excursion. The family excursion to the final destination of the lighthouse corresponds to the artist’s final stroke and the novelist’s closing line, and thus, marking an experience of the privileged moment of sublime that an individual can experience in his or her living process. The article qualifies the concept of sublime while exploring it in <em>To the Lighthouse</em>.</p> Satya Raj Subedi Copyright (c) 2022 Satya Raj Subedi 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 78 86 10.3126/kdk.v2i1.42880 Vaclav Havel’s Temptation: Modal Resources and Metaphors https://nepjol.info/index.php/kdk/article/view/42881 <p>This paper analyzes the tools of discourse in Vaclav Havel’s play: <em>Temptation</em>. Based on exploration of modal verbs and metaphors, I argue that metaphors and modal verbs assume their roles to represent the definite ideological stances. Not surprisingly, the metaphor draws parallel between concepts and displays the user's horizons, the modal verbs, specifically the use of deontic modality (obligation and necessity) shape the specific positions of the speakers. Centrally, these tools serve the purposes of exposing the inequality and spell out the domination. The glosses of examples from <em>Temptation</em>, particularly, the choices of modal auxiliaries subsume the attitude/meaning and/or confidence in the proposition the discourse participant. Similarly, the metaphors chosen by the discourse participants signal their location of the viewpoint. The method used for the study is the collection of the metaphors and modal resources, categorization of them for finding the analyzable patterns in them. The methodological thread is, obviously, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) that exposes the inequality and promotes resistance with the mandatory modesty. Through the study, the suggestive conclusion has been drawn that the play deploys the modal verbs- ought to and must, and also the metaphors- comedy, virus, brochures, hand, solitary soldier, two birds with a stone, unfortunate seed and Bluebird for the enactment of domination and resistance to it</p> Shiva Raj Panta Copyright (c) 2022 Shiva Raj Panta 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 87 95 10.3126/kdk.v2i1.42881 Imagery in Poetry: An Assessment of Poems in Compulsory English Course of Class Eleven in Nepal https://nepjol.info/index.php/kdk/article/view/42882 <p>This study aims to analyze poetic imagery applied in the poems prescribed in compulsory English course of class eleven in Nepal. Feeling and emotions in poetry are mostly expressed through imagery. Based on primary and secondary data, this paper first critically generalizes definition of imagery and its types and makes discussions on all prescribed poems. It is found that most common images in the poems are visual, auditory, tactile and kinesthetic. Olfactory and gustatory images are less realized in the poems. Most dominant imagery in all poems is visual. Most of the poet have used this imagery to condition things in a context and to communicate desired message effectively. The analysis asserts that understanding imagery and its types would certainly help students perceive ideas in poems and analyze them critically.</p> Yog Raj Paudel Copyright (c) 2022 Yog Raj Paudel 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 96 109 10.3126/kdk.v2i1.42882 संस्कृत साहित्यशास्त्रमा वर्णित रसदर्शन {Rasadarshan described in Sanskrit literature} https://nepjol.info/index.php/kdk/article/view/43166 <p>प्रस्तुत आलेख संस्कृत साहित्यशास्त्र, त्यसअन्तर्गतको रससम्प्रदाय, त्यसमा वर्णित रसदर्शन मान्यतासँग सम्बन्धितरहेको छ । साहित्यशास्त्रमा रसपरम्परा सबैभन्दा मुख्य मानिन्छ । त्यसमा विवेचना गरिएका विभिन्न पक्षमध्ये रसलाईदर्शन मानेर गरिएको व्याख्या अझ महŒवपूर्ण छ । रसलाई काव्य वा साहित्यको मुख्य विषय मान्ने क्रममा रसलाईकाव्यको आत्मा हो भनिएको छ । साथै विद्वान्हरूले रसलाई यो आध्यात्मिक दर्शन हो, यो ब्रह्मसमान छ, यो अनीर्वचनीय,अखण्ड, स्वप्रकाश, आनन्दमय, चिन्मय, छ भन्ने सन्दर्भमा दिएका दृष्टान्तहरू र व्याख्याहरूले रसलाई जुन उचाइ दिइएकोछ त्यो महŒवपूर्ण हुँदाहुँदै पनि यसले केही दार्शनिक प्रश्नहरू जन्माएको छ । रसलाई काव्य साहित्यको महŒवपूर्ण विषयमानिरहँदा र रसको दार्शनिकतालाई पनि स्वीकारीकन पनि सधैँ उठ्ने ज्वलन्त प्रश्न यसको आध्यात्मिक तहको व्याख्याहो । रसलाई आध्यात्मिक मान्ने, रसलाई काव्यको आत्मा मान्ने र विद्वान्हरूले मानेझैँ रसलाई ब्रह्म पनि मानेपछि रसकाव्यको विषयबाट अलग्गिएर दर्शन मात्रैको विषय बन्नेगरी दार्शनिक मान्ने हो भने यसको काव्यात्मक शक्ति र सामथ्र्यकमजोर बन्ने र आध्यात्मिकता बढ्न गई यसको लौकिक धर्म पनि मेटिएर भौतिक जगत्को विषय नभएर आध्यात्मिकजगत्का कुरो हुन जान्छ । त्यतिमात्र होइन जुन उचाइ काव्यमा यसले लिएको थियो त्यो सबै दर्शनमा रूपान्तरण हुनजाँदा दर्शन र साहित्य एउटै विषय हुन् भन्नुपर्ने अव्यवस्था आउने देखिन्छ । रसदर्शन उचित हो तर रसको अलौकिकता,ईश्वरसदृशता, अनिर्वचनीयता आदि जसरी व्याख्या भएका छन् तिनले रसलाई कतै काव्यको क्षेत्रबाट अन्तै लैजाँदै तछैनन् ? रसलाई आध्यात्मिक मात्र मानिरहँदा सबै विचार र भावका भावकहरूबाट छुट्याउँदै त छैन ? रस काव्यको भावनभएर दर्शनको वस्तु मात्रै बन्दै त छैन ? भन्ने केही जिज्ञासाहरू जन्मिन्छन् तिनलाई समेटेर रसलाई लौकिक नै मान्नेतर्फको प्रयास नै उत्तम हो भन्ने आशय यस आलेखको निष्कर्ष विचार हो ।</p> नारायण Narayan चालिसे Chalise Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 110 118 10.3126/kdk.v2i1.43166 ‘बन्धनबाट मुक्ति’ कथामा सीमान्तीयता र बुढ्यौली व्यवस्थापन {Marginalization and old age management in the story 'Freedom from bondage'} https://nepjol.info/index.php/kdk/article/view/43178 <p>प्रस्तुत ‘बन्धनबाट मुक्ति कथामा सीमान्तीयता र बुढ्यौली व्यवस्थापन’ शीर्षकको लेख शारीरिक अशक्ततागत सीमान्तीयताका कोणबाट ‘बन्धनबाट मुक्ति’ कथाको विश्लेषण गरी उक्त कथाका सापेक्षतामा बुढ्यौली व्यवस्थापनका उपायहरू सुझाउने उद्देश्यले तयार पारिएको हो । कथा विश्लेषण एवम् बुढ्यौली व्यवस्थापन सम्बन्धी आवश्यक सामग्री पुस्तकालयबाट सङ्कलन गरिएको छ । पुस्तकालयबाट सङ्कलित प्राथमिक र द्वितीयक स्रोतका सामग्रीहरूको अध्ययनबाट प्राप्त सूचना वा तथ्याङ्कलाई वर्णनात्मक तथा व्याख्यात्मक विधिको उपयोगगरी कथाको विश्लेषण गर्नुका साथै बुढ्यौली व्यवस्थापन सम्बन्धी उपायहरूलाई आलेखमा उल्लेख गरिएको छ ।राजेन्द्र विमल (२००३) द्वारा लिखित उक्त कथाको प्रमुख पात्र चोआलाल र उनकी पत्नीले जीवनको उत्तरार्धमा आफ्नै सन्तानबाट भोग्नु परेका पीडा र व्यथाहरूलाई उमेरगत सीमान्तीयताका कोणबाट केलाइएको छ ।केलाउँदा कथाका केन्द्रीय पात्र चोआलाल र उनकी पत्नीले आफ्ना सन्तानबाट घृणा, अपहेलना, संवादहीनता, एक्लोपन,अर्थ÷सम्पति हरणजस्ता विकराल समस्याहरू भोग्नु परेको पाइन्छ । कथाकै सापेक्षतामा बुढ्यौलीको असल व्यवस्थापनकालागि सक्रिय शारीरिक जीवन, स्वस्थ र सन्तुलित भोजन, तनाव व्यवस्थापन, सकारात्मक सोच र समान व्यवहार,सामाजिक र आध्यात्मिक सोच, आत्मसंयमता र आत्मसन्तुष्टि, सरसफाइमा ध्यान, अध्ययन र भ्रमणजस्ता उपायहरूसुझाइएको छ । सन्तानले आफ्नो भविष्यको परिकल्पना र बाबुआमाले आफ्नो विगतलाई स्मरण गर्ने हो भने मात्रै पनिकेही हद्सम्म वृद्ध अवस्थामा कुनै पनि बाबुआमा आफ्ना सन्तानबाट प्रताडित र अपहेलित हुनु नपर्ने निष्कर्ष लेखमाप्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।</p> सुरज Suraj पौडेल: Poudel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-02-16 2022-02-16 119 130 10.3126/kdk.v2i1.43178