Journal of Tourism and Himalayan Adventures <p>The Journal of Tourism and Himalayan Adventures is an international research journal of the Nepal Mountain Academy, Thapa Gaun, Bijulibazar, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> en-US (Tanka Prasad Paudel) (Sioux Cumming) Wed, 11 Oct 2023 07:44:28 +0000 OJS 60 Nexus between Tourism Industry and Economic Growth of Nepal <p><span class="fontstyle0">The tourism sector is essential to economic growth and has the capacity to stimulate the economy. The aim of this paper to assess the relationship between tourism industry and its economic growth. The gross domestic product (GDP) indicates the economic growth and tourism industry development relates to tourist arrivals, length of stay, and gross foreign exchange earnings from tourism. This study is grounded on secondary data collected from the Economic Survey of Nepal and the Nepal Tourism Statistics from 2000 to 2021. The study finds short and long-term causality between tourism industry and economic growth. The tourism development indicators include arrivals of tourist, length of stay, and gross foreign exchange from tourism. The unidirectional causality of economic growth to the length of stay of tourists and tourism to gross foreign exchange earnings were observed in the study. Adequate government strategies for the tourism sector can accelerate economic growth. The policymakers should give adequate attention to diversifying the tourism services, improving infrastructure, encouraging local communities, promoting sustainable tourism, enhancing marketing efforts, and promoting collaborations between the public, commercial sectors and local communities to support tourism industry for the sustained in Nepal.</span> </p> Bharat Ram Dhungana Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Mountain Academy Wed, 11 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the Development of Geotourism and Ecotourism in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal <p><span class="fontstyle0">This project was conducted in Pokhara, Nepal, to find the potential of geoheritage sites and to supply avenues for sustainable development and education. We assessed five tourist locations on their potential for geotourism and seven sites for their ecotourism practices. The geotourism quantitative assessment and degradational risk assessment used a survey developed by Brilha (2016). A modified version of the questionnaire created by Baral, et al. (2012) was used to evaluate locations for their ecotourism ability in combination with the 5 general Principles of Ecotourism. The study appraised Pokhara for its geodiversity, geological heritage, and ecological conservation in line with UNESCO’s list of attributes for aspiring Geoparks (aUGGp). These areas had high scores in geological diversity and geosite potential that may benefit from increased resources to support overall geological education and conservation as an aspiring UNESCO Global Geopark. This study aims to provide resources for tourists at these tourist locations with information on relevant geologic morphology, lithology, eco-conscious procedures, and conservation mitigations, as well as geo- and cultural history. The infographics included in the supplemental materials also aims to educate tourists on how to better take part in geotourism and conservation efforts in the Pokhara Valley of Nepal.</span> </p> Carter Gilbert, Anna Landsem Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 11 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Tourism, Mountain, and ‘Mystic Fire’: A Study on Spiritual Journey of a Vedic Sadhak Living in Panchasee Mountain in Central Nepal <p><span class="fontstyle0">This paper is on spiritual tourism associates: tourism, ecology, and spirituality in the specific context of Panchasee mountain in the central Nepal. It presents spiritual experiences of a Vedic </span><span class="fontstyle2">sadhak</span><span class="fontstyle0">, born and raised in the west, lived in Sri Aurobindo Ashram in India for forty years from his young age and now has been living in Panchasee. Its key concern is to understand his spiritual quest in the Himalayan ecology. Focused on the stage of the spiritual transformation of the </span><span class="fontstyle2">sadhak</span><span class="fontstyle0">’s inner journey it reveals that the </span><span class="fontstyle2">sadhak </span><span class="fontstyle0">is highly energized to remain close with his spiritual wisdom that he experienced in Panchasee ecology and being active as a member of a family of the mountain society. It concludes with some insights in relation to spiritual tourism. This study has adopted a special research strategy called </span><span class="fontstyle2">fursad </span><span class="fontstyle0">ethnography to generate data on the </span><span class="fontstyle2">sadhak</span><span class="fontstyle0">’s life history and his spiritual quest in the Panchasee mountain.</span> </p> Damodar Tripathi, Gary Millar, Tika Raj Kaini, Sahadev Gautam Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Mountain Academy Wed, 11 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Rising Participation of Non-Sherpa in Mountaineering in Nepal <p>Sherpa and mountaineering are almost synonymous in Nepal. Once there was a time when Sherpa without mountaineering used to be regarded as half empty and mountaineering without Sherpa would be full empty. But the time has changed now and many numbers of non-Sherpa are taking part in the mountaineering sector. The increasing participation of non-Sherpa in mountaineering has supplemented this sector, on one hand, but in another, their participation has challenged and questioned the Sherpa’s legacy and monopoly in the mountaineering. In this regard, the paper analyzes the dichotomous relationships between the Sherpa and the non-Sherpa mountaineers in Nepal. The paper is based on primary data obtained through interview schedule. Sixty one (Sherpa 46 and non-Sherpa 15) mountaineers were chosen for the research. Unstructured interviews and key informants interviews along with <em>kuragraphy</em> are the supplementary tools for collecting the information. Interestingly, the mountaineers have mixed views regarding the participation of both the Sherpa and the non-Sherpa in the mountaineering sector. Regarding the preferences for working together in mountains 65.2 per cent Sherpa mountaineers preferred Sherpa as fellow workers but none of the Sherpa informants preferred non-Sherpa whereas 13.3 per cent non-Sherpa informants preferred Sherpa as fellow workers. Similarly, 54.3 per cent Sherpa mountaineers preferred Sherpa for hiring them in mountaineering but none of the Sherpa mountaineers preferred non-Sherpa mountaineers and vice-versa. It seems that both the Sherpa and the non-Sherpa mountaineers are ethnocentric thus a competetive rivalry looms large among them.This study is an attempt to understand the impact of the non-Sherpa's rising participation in the mountaineering fields.</p> Khadga Narayan Shrestha Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Mountain Academy Wed, 11 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Social Capital Contributions to Resilience in an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in Nepal <p><span class="fontstyle0">Tourism is an important sector for many people in Nepal. There have been a number of damaging shocks in the last decade, including the 2015 earthquake and the COVID-19 pandemic, that have stopped the industry in its tracks. The effects of slow onset climate change are also impacting the industry and are forecast to get worse. An entrepreneurial ecosystem in Nepal has been established to foster resilience among participating businesses. This research addresses whether social capital contributes to the resilience of tourism startups in Nepal and whether an entrepreneurial ecosystem fosters that social capital. Further, it asks whether renewable energy and energy efficient practices have impacted resilience. And, finally, whether there is evidence of transformative change within the businesses studied. Results suggest that relationships generated through enduring historical shocks in the tourism economy in Nepal have fostered social capital, and that the entreprenuerial ecosystem has itself cultivated elements of social capital and resilience in the participating businesses. While firm conclusions could not be drawn as to whether transformative change has occurred in the businesses, the foundation for realising transformational opportunities has been established. This study suggests that resilience can be reframed from its historically ecological confines to be a more fluid and adaptable concept of human agency affected socio-ecological systems and may eventually allow, and be a driver of, transformational change in businesses participating in an entrepreneurial ecosystem.</span> </p> Rory Wood Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Mountain Academy Wed, 11 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Stakeholder Synergies for Enhancing Community-based Tourism Development <p><span class="fontstyle0">The rise of community-based tourism has ushered in a new era of home-staying. The paper intends to demonstrate a viable model of synergistic efforts of local community-led tourism, as well as to analyze its functions in culturally significant historic sites. The necessary data were collected in the touristic environment of the historical Panauti area. Open-ended questionnaires with homestay owners and people's representative respondents were employed for the study. This essay focuses on socio-historical perspectives, settings and conditions of modernization, and the success of homestays through collaborative function. The descriptive model was employed for the analysis. Collective features of homestay are recognized as fostering factors for intimate relationship among local people, and local government is also thought to produce sustainable resource use, social relationships, cooperation, and empowerment.</span> </p> Sahadev Gautam, Asim Thapa Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Mountain Academy Wed, 11 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Tourism Destination: A Potential of Mountain Tourism in Sudurpaschim Province <p><span class="fontstyle0">Exploring competitiveness of tourism destinations is very important in order to understand problems and potentials of regional tourism development and formulation of effective tourism strategies. Most of the tourists and tourism activities in Nepal are concentrated and clustered in central and north-eastern part of the country. In this context, the current paper assesses the existing status of tourism resources at provincial level and focuses on potentials and challenges in the far-western province. Three major components of tourism competitiveness as identified by Ritchie and Crouch (2003) namely, primary resources, secondary resources and tourist demand were analyzed based on 6 selected indicators and 25 variables identified by Goffi (2013). A total of 3224 sites in seven provinces were identified under core tourism resources. Core tourism is rated highest in competitiveness, while tourism policy and planning resulted a lowest rating. Bagmati has the highest score whereas Karnali has the lowest in overall competitiveness. Greater level of dispersion is found in adventure and leisure tourism resources. The study found that, though strategies like diversification and improvement of tourism products and the new area are acknowledged, specified 200 destinations under Visit Nepal 2020 don’t adhere to such standards. Visit Nepal 2020 identified the least number of touristic destination in Sudurpaschim. Though tourism infrastructure and services are found to be fair in the Sudurpaschim province, while destination promotion through digital platforms is limited. Increasing repetitive visits and seasonality are major areas of concern with the lowest rating value. It is concluded that the development and promotion of adventurous and leisure activities in Sudurpaschim have potential to diversify inbuilt seasonality of other provinces and increased length of stay. Essentially, local inhabitants should be encouraged in tourism sector, who are the immediate and most important stakeholders to proliferate the competitiveness of tourism destinations.</span> </p> Shobha Shrestha, Suresh Balayar Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Mountain Academy Wed, 11 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Mountain Tourism Workforce's Resilience During COVID Pandemic <p><span class="fontstyle0">Nepal is a home to different famous mountains including Mount Everest, the highest mountain of the planet. The geography of Nepal is both an opportunity and a threat to the country and the communities. More than 15 percent of land lies in mountainous regions where tourism is the major profession to rely on for the communities. However, the region encountered one of the greatest threats in the form of COVID-19 which restricted people's mobility. The livelihood of the mountain communities which are directly or indirectly dependent on tourism was severely affected by COVID-19. The prime trait that helped minimize the damage was the resilience of the mountain community. This qualitative study attempts to assess the resilience (community resilience) of mountain people with the cases from the Everest and Annapurna region and analyze it against the theory of resilience.</span> </p> Sitaram Dahal Copyright (c) 2023 Nepal Mountain Academy Wed, 11 Oct 2023 00:00:00 +0000