Journal of TESON 2023-01-25T10:09:44+00:00 Dr. Binod Luitel Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of TESON is published annually by the Teacher Educators’ Society - Nepal. This research journal publishes papers in the areas of teacher education, higher education, general education and educational issues in all subject areas having important implications for the promotion and improvement of teacher education and teaching in Nepal.</p> Leading Schools for Innovation and Change: A Case Study of Successful Schools 2023-01-24T15:58:09+00:00 Krishna Prasad Shiwakoti <p>This study explores the role and leadership management practices of head teachers in public schools. In schools, the leadership goals are for developing innovative and excellent student outcomes. The data were collected from interviews with five head teachers or principals of five schools. The findings showed that the innovative head teachers adopted several leadership strategies to enhance the school's success and quality enhancement. An innovative model for innovative leadership was developed that provided a road map of the influence for their leadership. This study makes clear that head teachers have experienced noticeable success in school’s quality enhancement through establishing innovative cultures. The findings of this study imply that leadership behavioral changes can lead to great positive impacts in improving school’s teaching and learning quality.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Teacher Educators’ Society- Nepal, Kathmandu Curricular Goals and 21st-century Competency in Mathematics Education in Master’s Degree Program 2023-01-24T16:03:43+00:00 Sarala Luitel <p>The rapidly changing innovation in information and communication technology (ICT), digitalization and globalization has created unprecedented challenges and opportunities for education and educating practices globally. The higher education institutions now need to reform their curricula and the educating practices to promote employability skills to open door for every graduate to engage in the globally networked employment platform. With this background, this study focused on analyzing the professional courses of Mathematics Education at master level in reference to behavioral objectives and directed activities by curriculum. Among the professional courses, this qualitative document-based study is based on the purposively selected two courses; Math Ed 515 and Math Ed 535, as they largely represent the curricular goals of Mathematics Education. The data were analyzed based on theoretical understanding and conceptual framework. This study found, based on objectives and instructional activities, that the course Math Ed 515 focused on knowledge transmission rather than development of 21<sup>st</sup> century competencies. However, another course Math Ed 535 focused more on skill development along with knowledge transmission. These findings imply that courses in Mathematics Education program at the Master level at the selected university require reforms towards incorporating the 21<sup>st</sup> century competencies to enable the graduates to compete in the global marketplace.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Teacher Educators’ Society- Nepal, Kathmandu Leadership Theory of Human Relationship and its Educational Implication 2023-01-24T16:09:32+00:00 Mohan Mani Pokhrel <p>The paper explores the concept of leadership, human relationship theory, its assumptions, contribution to education and criticism. Drawing on relevant existing literature, this document-based paper reports that the theory of human relationship emphasizes the study of behaviour of workers and examines the effects of social relations, motivation and employee satisfaction on productivity. The main finding in relation to this theory is that the physical condition of a workplace does not determine the employee’s morale and output but group efforts and effective human relation increase workers' morale and productivity. The effective implementation of the theory of human relation develops workers’ efficiency, service quality in any organization, which the educational institutions that produce human resources need to consider while designing their policies and implementing their programs.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Teacher Educators’ Society- Nepal, Kathmandu A Survey on Existing Measures of Cost-Benefits Analysis in Education 2023-01-24T16:14:35+00:00 Minraj Paudel <p>Cost-benefit analysis helps the private sector to decide on additional investments in education. It also helps the social sector to make educational plans and policies. This paper aims to review the methods and procedures, current practices, and guiding theories for the study of cost-benefit analysis of education. This study is based on the review survey design, and the materials have been collected using the purposive sampling method. It is concluded in the study that to study the cost-benefit analysis of education, researchers have used only five sources of data; households, employees, employers, students and educational institutions. Furthermore, to estimate the rate of return to education, Ingredient Approach, Mincerian Log Earnings Function, Ordinary Least Square, Multiple Regression and Age-earning Profiles (before-tax, after-tax, adjusted and unadjusted profiles) have been used. Likewise, it is also found that the value of BCR, NPV, IRR, adjusted R2, Mean, and Standard Deviation should be used; and human capital theory as a guiding theory should also be used to analyze the cost-benefit analysis of education.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Teacher Educators’ Society- Nepal, Kathmandu Secondary Level Students’ Choice of Learning Styles in Nepalese English as a Second Language Classrooms 2023-01-24T16:19:18+00:00 Parmeshor Baral <p>Many research studies agreed that learning is an idiosyncratic process since individual learner possesses a unique style of learning. This research is an attempt to investigate the learning style students in grades 11 and 12 employ in learning academic and nonacademic texts. For the same, 10 students from five higher secondary schools were chosen as the sample for the study using a judgmental sampling procedure. Semistructured interviews were conducted, and data were analyzed descriptively. The findings suggest that learning style depended on the type of texts they learned and the time-bound contexts of learning. In this, it was identified that each of the learners shifted from creative learning to rote learning when they needed to prepare for the examination.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Teacher Educators’ Society- Nepal, Kathmandu (Re)thinking English Language Teacher Education: Towards Contextualized and Coordinated Efforts for Enhancing Teacher Competencies 2023-01-24T16:23:19+00:00 Prem Prasad Poudel <p>This paper explores issues around the implementation of English language teacher education programs in Nepal. It also presents the challenges facing teacher education and stakeholder opinions on future transformation of English language teacher education. The data were obtained through in-depth interviews with four teacher educators, four school heads, one assistant dean and 2 education officials. The analysis of the data adopted a grounded theory that enabled the author to build on themes emerging from the interview data, and the authors’ insider experience as an English language teacher educator further facilitated the contextual interpretation of the available data. The findings showed an existence of misalignment of the teacher education programs and contemporary market demands, thereby creating gaps between the graduates’ attributes and expectations of the schools. It further identified lack of coordination between school curriculum regulating agencies, teacher education institutions and the schools, that eventually led to the production of teaching human resources that lacked adequate competencies. This implies that English language teacher education programs needed reforms through competency-based framework. Findings further indicated a need for contextualization of current and prospective teachers’ professional development initiatives.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Teacher Educators’ Society- Nepal, Kathmandu English Language Teachers’ Perception of Teaching Writing in Nepali High Schools 2023-01-24T16:27:54+00:00 Madhukar Pandey <p>Writing is a part of learning a language in any academic institution. As teaching writing is a process of learning this article tries to dig out the reasons why teaching writing is becoming complex and rigid in Nepali high school classrooms. In this study, for the purpose of data collection, ten Nepali high school English teachers were interviewed and they shared their experiences of teaching writing skills in their classrooms. The study found some issues that make teaching writing more complex: central- design curriculum, a lack of resources and training, and a lack of English competency of the students in the classrooms. Moreover, students’ performance in grammar, word combination, and sentence composition is rather low that does not encourage students to write. Hence, teaching writing in Nepali high school classrooms is considered a complex genre.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Teacher Educators’ Society- Nepal, Kathmandu स्नातकोत्तर तहमा विद्यार्थी उपस्थिति र सहभागिताको मूल्याङकन प्रक्रियाप्रति सरोकारवालाको दृष्टिकोण {Evaluation process for student attendance and participation in post-graduate level The concern's point of view} 2023-01-25T04:55:58+00:00 राजेन्द्र Rajendra खनाल Khanal <p>यस लेखमा त्रिभुवन विश्वविद्यालय शिक्षाशास्त्र स्नातकोत्तर तहको सेमेस्टर प्रणालीको आन्तरिक मूल्याङकनमा उपस्थिति र सहभागिताको अङकनप्रति शिक्षार्थी तथा शिक्षकको दृष्टिकोणलाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । यसमा क्षेत्रीय सर्वेक्षण विधि उपयोग गरिएको छ भने सुविधाजनक नमुना छनोट प्रक्रियाबाट तथ्य सङकलन गरिएको छ । यसका लागि शिक्षाशास्त्र सङकाय स्नातकोत्तर तहमा अध्यापनरत २५ जना शिक्षक तथा उक्त तहमा अध्ययनरत १०० जना विद्यार्थीलाई नमुनाका रूपमा लिई उनीहरूबाट प्राप्त अभिमतको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । यस अध्ययनबाट पाठयक्रमको प्रावधान अनुरूपको विद्यार्थीहरूको उपस्थिति बापतको अङक वितरण प्रक्रिया एवम त्यसको विश्वसनीयता राम्रो रहेका ेअभिमत प्राप्त भएको छ । उक्त कथनमा शिक्षकको ९२ पतिशत र शिक्षार्थीको ९८ प्रतिशत सकारात्मक प्रतिक्रिया प्राप्त भएको छ । यसले आन्तरिक मूल्याङकन प्रक्रियामा उपस्थितिका लागि व्यवस्था गरिएको पाँँच अङक र त्यसको अङकन प्रणालीप्रति शिक्षक एवम शिक्षार्थी विश्वस्त भएको प्रमाणित गर्दछ भने त्यसको सान्दर्भिकता पनि पुष्टि हुन्छ । अर्कातर्पm आन्तरिक मूल्याङकन प्रक्रियामा सहभागिताका लागि निर्धारण गरिएको पाँच अङकको मूल्याङकन प्रक्रियालाई विद्यार्थीमैत्री बनाउन नसकिएको निष्कर्ष प्राप्त भएको छ । यस कथनमा ५८ प्रतिशत शिक्षार्थी र ६० पतिशत शिक्षक मात्र सकारात्मक देखिएका छन । यसबाट उक्त आधारमा गरिएको मूल्याङकन विद्यार्थीमैत्री हुन नसकेको अवस्थालाई उजागर हुन्छ । यो आँकडाले सहभागिता शीर्षकमा व्यवस्था गरिएको अङक र त्यसको प्रभावकारितामा सीमा रहेको प्रमाणित गर्दछ । {In this article, the views of learners and teachers towards the assessment of attendance and participation in the internal evaluation of Tribhuvan University Master's Degree in Education Semester System are presented. Regional survey method has been used and facts have been collected through convenient sample selection process. For this, 25 teachers and 100 students studying at the post-graduate level of the Faculty of Education have been analyzed. From this study, it has been concluded that the grade distribution process and its reliability regarding the attendance of the students according to the provisions of the curriculum are good. 92 percent of the teachers and 98 percent of the students responded positively to the statement. This proves that teachers and learners are confident about the five points arranged for attendance in the internal evaluation process and its marking system, and its relevance is also confirmed. On the other hand, it was concluded that the evaluation process of five points determined for participation in the internal evaluation process could not be made student-friendly. Only 58 percent of students and 60 percent of teachers are positive about this statement. This highlights the fact that the assessment done on that basis is not student-friendly. This figure proves that there are limits to the number of participation titles and their effectiveness.}</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 नेपाली भाषाको अक्षर व्यवस्था र कक्षा नौको ‘नेपाली’ पाठयपुस्तकको शब्दभण्डार {Nepali Alphabet and Vocabulary of Grade 9 'Nepali' Textbook} 2023-01-25T08:30:26+00:00 दिनेश Dinesh घिमिरे Ghimire <p>प्रस्तुत लेख नेपाली भाषाका अक्षर निर्धारणको संरचनात्मक आधार उल्लेख गर्ने र त्यस आधारमा कक्षा नौ को नेपाली भाषा पाठयपुस्तकका शब्दभण्डारको अक्षर संरचना पहिल्याउने उद्देश्यले तयार पारिएको हो । यस अध्ययनमा परिमाणात्मक ढाँचामा आधारित रहेर पुस्तकालयीय अध्ययनबाट पाठयपस्तकमा रहेका ३२८० ओटा अनावृत्त शब्दहरूको अक्षर संरचना पहिल्याई तिनको विश्लेषणबाट निष्कर्षमा पुगिएको छ । अक्षरीकरणका दृष्टिले यस पाठयपुस्तकका २७.३ प्रतिशत शब्दहरूमा अतिरिक्तवर्णहरू प्रयोग भएका कारण शब्दहरूको उच्चारणमा भिन्नता पाइन्छ । पाठयपुस्तकमा एकाक्षरी शब्द ८.५ पतिशत, दुई अक्षरी ४४.०८ प्रतिशत, तीन अक्षरी ३२.१३ प्रतिशत, चार अक्षरी १२.८३ प्रतिशत,पाँच अक्षरी २.१ प्रतिशत छ अक्षरी ०.३ प्रतिशत अनि सात अक्षरी शब्द ०.०३ प्रतिशत रहेका छन । यस आधारमा पाठयपुस्तकको शब्दभण्डार अक्षर सङख्याका दृष्टिले उपयुक्त देखिन्छ । शब्दहरूलाई अक्षरको प्रकृतिका आधारमा हेर्दा ब–वसँग सम्बन्धित ९.०८ प्रतिशत, श, ष, स सँग सम्बन्धित ७.५६प्रतिशत, क्ष सँग सम्बन्धित १.६१ प्रतिशत, ज्ञ सँग सम्बन्धित ०.३६ प्रतिशत, त्र सँग सम्बन्धित १.६२प्रतिशत, द्वित्व उच्चारण, अल्पप्राण आगम र अनुकरणमूल द्वित्व हुने शब्दहरू &nbsp;व्रमशः ४.३३, ०.४९ र१.३१ प्रतिशत अनि द्विस्वर संरचना भएका शब्दहरू ११.०९ प्रतिशत गरी ३७.४५ प्रतिशत शब्दहरूयस आधारमा उच्चारणगत भिन्न देखिन्छन । शब्दको उच्चारणमा हलन्त अजन्त उच्चारणका कारणसमेत उच्चारणमा भिन्नता आउँने हुँदा ती समेत समग्रमा चाहिँ ५८.९३ प्रतिशत शब्दहरूको उच्चारणर अक्षर संरचना भिन्न हुने तथ्यका आधारमा अक्षर निर्माणका दृष्टिले शब्दभण्डार जटिल रहेको निष्कर्षप्राप्त भएको छ । यस अध्ययन कार्यबाट वर्तमान नेपाली भाषा पाठयपुस्तकका शब्दहरूको अक्षरीकरणको आकलन हुनुका साथै शब्दभण्डारमा अक्षर संरचनागत सरलता खोजी गर्नुपर्ने तथ्यगत आधार प्राप्त भएको छ ।</p> 2023-01-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022