Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Journal <p>The Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Journal is published by the Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace, P.O.Box. 273, Kathmandu, Nepal. JSDPJ is published once a year in February focusing on sustainable development and peace.</p> en-US (Deepak Chaudhary) (Sioux Cumming) Thu, 29 Feb 2024 09:40:52 +0000 OJS 60 Hydropower Development and Economic Growth in Nepal: Challenges and Prospects <p>Nepal is rich in water resources, and hydropower development has been a key issue for the country's socio-economic development. But, it needs to produce huge amounts of electricity to support economic activities and growth, though it faces challenges. The paper attempts to fill this gap by studying hydropower development in support of economic growth and overall development, and further discussing its challenges through a literature review analysis and Key Informant Interviews. Economically, Nepal has more than 42000 MW of hydropower generation capacity, but the present generation capacity is 2945 MW, though only below more than 50 percent of the total generation capacity works out in the dry season due to low water discharge and faces a deficiency of electricity. Nepal also imports electricity from India to fulfill domestic demands in the season. There is a gap in the demand and supply lines. Hydropower has become a de-facto reality in light of economic development and the production of hydropower is crucial as Nepal exported electricity of Rs.15.4 billion worth last year. However, this study shows that the prospect of hydropower development is optimistic, though, there are several challenges in terms of priorities of needy projects, investment, environment-forest-land policies, and governance aspects. If pragmatic policy, effective governance, and leadership interventions are adopted on time, challenges can be overcome.</p> Deepak Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2024 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Wed, 28 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Is the Existing Hydropower Development Policy, 2001 Investment Friendly? <p>Nepal is endowed with an abundance of hydro resources. Its gross hydropower potential is estimated to be 83,290 MW technically. Out of which, 42,133 MW is ascertained as economically exploitable. However, in the span of 112 years, only around 2,900 MW is harnessed. It is obvious that the development of hydropower is a public policy-related matter. Previous studies exhibit several complications in hydropower development policy, 2001 such as private sector participation in electricity trade, lack of one window system, term of project, hedging mechanisms, foreign direct investment, and so forth. In this regard, this study aims to investigate its efficiency and effectiveness through quantitative research design. Herein, for the sake of empirical research three independent variables namely, Financial Incentives Sufficiency (FIS), Return on Investment Sufficiency (RoIS), and Market Access Sufficiency (MAS), and one dependent variable namely, Investment Friendliness (IF) was dealt. To collect the opinion of respondents a set of questionnaires comprising 11 questions was developed and approached to 108 informants from 25 diverse sectors of the hydro-industry. Herein, deductive reasoning was persuaded. For analyzing data, statistical tools such as arithmetic mean, standard deviation, factor analysis, Chi-Square tests, Mann Whitney "U" test, and Kruskal-Wallis "H" test were computed. Based on empirical analysis this study concludes that the hydropower development policy, of 2001 is investment-friendly. However, the study manifested a number of rooms that were to be addressed as changing the expectations of investors. On this ground, the findings of this study will be applicable with a view to formulating a more investment-friendly hydropower policy in the future.</p> Bijay Lal Pradhan, Dhun Bahadur Budhathoki, Rajeshwori Malla-Pradhan Copyright (c) 2024 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Wed, 28 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Harnessing Untapped Resources for Sustainable Energy Production from Municipal Solid Waste in Recourse Challenged Economies: A Case Study of Rajshahi City Corporation, Bangladesh <p>The sustainable management of municipal solid waste is of utmost importance for cities in Bangladesh, including Rajshahi City, which faces unique challenges due to rapid urbanization, industrial growth, and population expansion. This study aimed to gain insights into waste generation patterns and characteristics in Rajshahi by analyzing factors like moisture content, bulk density, dry density, and calorific value of municipal solid waste at the Rajshahi landfill site. The objective was to identify the most feasible method for waste characterization and segregation. The research methodology utilized a comprehensive approach, incorporating field surveys, laboratory analyses, and statistical modeling to create an energy matrix and assess the potential for waste-to-energy production in Rajshahi City. This study aligns with several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) related to waste and energy management, including SDG 7: Affordable and Clean Energy - by exploring waste-to-energy options. SDG 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities - by addressing waste management challenges in a rapidly urbanizing area. SDG 12: Responsible Consumption and Production - by promoting sustainable waste management practices. SDG 13: Climate Action - by potentially reducing greenhouse gas emissions through efficient waste-to-energy conversion. Overall, this research contributes to Rajshahi City's efforts to achieve sustainable development while addressing its waste and energy needs by converting its 75.8% organic waste to electricity using an anaerobic digester.</p> Md. Sahil Rafiq, Mohammad Shakhawat Hosen Apurba, Nadim Reza Khandaker Copyright (c) 2024 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Wed, 28 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Ginger Oleoresin on Leaf Tripe of Sapumhicha <p>The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of ginger on the leaf tripe of '<em>SapuMhicha</em>'. <em>SapuMhicha</em> is a special dish consisting of buffalo leaf tripe stuffed with bone marrow; it is boiled and fried. This dish is popular in Kathmandu Valley, especially in Newar community. The use of ginger makes this dish tasty and hygienic. It is indigenous knowledge and practice; with this, it can be preserved for a certain time period. Ginger is valued in nutritional importance as it contains fiber. Ginger contributes to minimizing Microbial growth that helps to stimulate the digestive system. The use of ginger in a tripe recipe makes low microbial. This study focuses on this indigenous knowledge of how ginger enhances leaf tripe to use for a long time. The impact of ginger on leaf tripe is tested using the AOAC direct moisture determination method on different days from 1 to 16 at normal room temperature. The result was that the impact of ginger on tripe leaf was positive i.e. low microbial growth was noticed. The result showed that ginger enhances the shelf-life of tripe at room temperature as it can be stored for a certain period of time and remain suitable for use. </p> Dipika Shrestha, Kabita Maharjan Copyright (c) 2024 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Wed, 28 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Harnessing Bangladesh's Undeveloped Geothermal Potential: A Case Study of the Barapukuria Coal Basin <p>Despite its vast potential, geothermal energy still needs to be tapped in Bangladesh. This study addresses this gap by employing a data-driven, systematic approach to evaluate the Barapukuria Coal Basin as a candidate reservoir for the nation's first geothermal power plant. While existing research mainly focuses on resource identification, this work utilizes geotechnical data from the well-studied Barapukuria region to conduct a comprehensive and thorough analysis. The aim is to quantify the available geothermal power and assess the project's lifetime, energy output, and capacity. The methodology leverages the high geothermal gradient (&gt;48°C/km) observed in the area and existing information on reservoir and fluid properties. This enables the estimation of the recoverable thermal energy and subsequent validation of geothermal system models with empirical data. With no operational or planned geothermal plants in Bangladesh, this study represents a crucial step toward unlocking the resource's potential. The initial results are promising, suggesting the Barapukuria basin is a viable location for transitioning toward cleaner baseload power generation.</p> Haniyum Maria Khan, Mohammad Moshiur Rahman, Nadim Reza Khandaker Copyright (c) 2024 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Wed, 28 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Critiques of Development using Foucault’s Discourse and Power Theory <p>Analyzing the modern development program through Michel Foucault's theory of discourse and power provides insights into its origins and shortcomings. This research aims to critique modern development theory in terms of Foucault’s theory of discourse and power. Development, and modern development theory as well as Escobar’s articles about the implementation of Foucault’s theory were studied. The research found that the discourse surrounding development serves as a means of exerting power and control, often driven by the interests of dominant nations. However, despite ambitious promises, development programs frequently fail to achieve meaningful progress due to the power dynamics and inequalities embedded in the modern development discourse which excludes local discourse. Applying Foucault's framework challenges universal claims and grand narratives, opening avenues for critical analysis and a post-modern understanding of development. This approach prompts a reevaluation of power dynamics, knowledge production, and discursive practices, aiming for context-specific approaches that address the diverse needs of underdeveloped nations.&nbsp;</p> Bijaya Gautam Copyright (c) 2024 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Wed, 28 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Trends of Foreign Employment and Remittance Inflow in Nepal <p>This paper discusses the employment situation of Nepalese youth in foreign countries and its impact on remittance. The main objective of this study is to assess the impact of foreign employment on remittance. This study is based on secondary data and quantitative analysis is adopted. The available data has been interpreted using descriptive statistics as well co-relation coefficient test. The study shows that the remittance inflow in the country has highly increased, though migration of youths has decreased compared to past years. There is a vast gap between male and female migrants. The number of male migrants is substantially high as compared to female migrants and the number of youth migrants going abroad for foreign employment is studied to be high in Gulf countries. The study further reveals that migration has a huge contribution to the nation’s economy as well as to the livelihood of their households with the inflow of remittance.</p> Ram Kumar Pant Copyright (c) 2024 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Wed, 28 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Gender equality in Nepal: How is it going as a goal of SDG? <p>This paper explores the relationship between gender equality and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in the context of Nepal. The paper aims to shed light on the multifaceted challenges faced by Nepalese society in achieving gender parity and sustainable development simultaneously. It begins by providing a comprehensive overview of the status of gender equality in Nepal, examining key indicators such as education, employment, healthcare, and political participation. The study then delves into the intersectionality of gender issues and the SDGs, analyzing how achieving gender equality contributes to the accomplishment of broader development objectives. It investigates the interlinkages between gender-specific targets outlined in the SDGs and their impact on poverty reduction, economic growth, environmental sustainability, and social inclusion in the Nepalese context. It uses a method of exploring and consolidating secondary sources to discuss how SDGs impact social, economic, and environmental aspects, emphasizing the significance of gender equality for human well-being and justice. It stresses the necessity of unified efforts to address gender gaps, empower women, and involve them in decision-making. The findings and recommendations presented in this paper contribute to ongoing discussions on gender equality and sustainable development in Nepal, providing insights for policymakers, researchers, and practitioners alike.</p> Bandana Pokharel Copyright (c) 2024 Wed, 28 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Opportunities and Challenges of Nepal’s Health Systems: A Critical Study in Federal Context <p>This paper aims to analyze the health system in Nepal by exploring different opportunities and challenges. It takes an integrated approach to define and analyze the health system. The paper employs secondary sources of data and then follows a systematic review approach. The major findings include that the health system in Nepal is making remarkable progress after the federal system was adhered to in 2015, and there are several opportunities with changing political and economic contexts. However, some policy-level issues, problems related to health governance, issues of skilled and professional human resources, poor financing, weak regulatory and monitoring systems, and community empowerment are some of the critical challenges to addressing the health system in Nepal. The conclusions of the paper can contribute to the policymakers, health researchers, and health professionals in Nepal and beyond.</p> Kabita Dahal Copyright (c) 2024 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Wed, 28 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Per Capita Health Expenditure on Child Health Outcomes in Nepal <p>This paper explores the relationship between child health outcomes and per capita health investment in Nepal, using key indicators such as child mortality rate, stunting, skilled birth attendance, and appropriate treatment for acute respiratory infections. The study utilizes the data primarily from the World Bank and the Ministry of Finance in Nepal. The study adopts quantitative analysis techniques, including correlation and regression analysis, to assess the impact of health investment on child health outcomes. The results show that increased per capita health expenditure is positively correlated with improved child health outcomes which shows linear growth in different variables if compared with the per capita investment done in health. There is a negative correlation between per capita health expenditure and child mortality under 5 years of age and this is evidenced that increased per capita health expenditure reduces the child mortality among under 5 years of children. Thus, the study aims to highlight the importance of allocating resources in policy reforms, capacity building and allocating resources in the health sector. The study also incorporates relevant resources from scholarly articles and academic literature to provide a comprehensive understanding of the topic and support the analysis regarding the relationship between per capita health investment and child health outcomes.</p> Manisha Paudel Copyright (c) 2024 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Wed, 28 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Potentiality <p>We are delighted to say that we have entered two years with two volumes and three Issues. We believe that we served to come up with some new and innovative ideas and contributions. The role of the authors/researchers/contributors involved in the journey is worthy of praise. This journal family is grateful to all authors and contributors. We started with seven articles from different fields of disciplines in the first volume in 2023 February. After that, we were able to publish the special edition on 'governance, innovation, sustainable development'. It is our great pleasure that we got the articles from scholars outside Nepal as well. The present world has faced a lot of challenges in development sectors and every sector is searching for sustainability. At the same, every person has potential in some subjects, but they cannot share it. Our one motto is to explore such potentiality in light of sustainability and ultimately peace. A motivational approach to bringing new and innovative ideas and contributors is our primary objective. We are dedicated to walking on this journey with our vision. We hope for goodwill from everywhere.</p> Deepak Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2024 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Wed, 28 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000