Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Journal <p>The Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Journal is published by the Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace, P.O.Box. 273, Kathmandu, Nepal. JSDPJ is published once a year in February focusing on sustainable development and peace.</p> Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace, Kathmandu en-US Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace Journal 2976-1360 Governance, Innovation, and Sustainable Development <p>The role of good governance and innovation is critical in ensuring a favorable investment environment and sustainable development. A review of the literature suggests that there is an affirmative relationship between governance, innovation, and sustainable development directly or indirectly. Without governance, innovation and sustainability could not go ahead smoothly, and the same in light of innovation. Good governance is crucial for tackling any kind of challenges regarding development. At the same, innovative technology enhances governance and sustainable development.</p> Deepak Chaudhary Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 1 02 1 5 10.3126/jsdpj.v1i02.58258 Conceptual and Methodological Questions on the Changing Paradigms of Governance <p>Globally, governance studies have been an emerging paradigm of research and scholarly debate in social sciences. This paper takes this debate as an entry point and aims to analyze its metaphysical construction in terms of ontology, epistemology, and methodology. Data and materials used in the paper are based on the sources of secondary literature. The findings reveal that the political construction of governance is now becoming complex in contemporary societies and it has then adjoined with social, economic, and regional issues in particular. The paper concludes that governance is a contested notion that is moving around different concepts, theories, methodologies, and paradigms. The paper, therefore, is expected to contribute to the governance study in particular along with different disciplines of social science research in general.</p> Mahendra Sapkota Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 1 02 6 24 10.3126/jsdpj.v1i02.58260 Appropriate Technology Development for Energy Conservation in Animal Husbandry in the Context of Southeast Asian Countries <p>Climate change is a global issue causing adverse effects in different sectors all over the world. Nations in Southeast Asia are mostly developing nations and do not have adequate resources to tackle the catastrophic effects of climate change. An increase in greenhouse gas emissions led to a significant rise in temperature all over the world, which is more vivid in Southeast Asian nations as they are tropical countries. Many residents of rural areas in these nations rely on agriculture and animal husbandry as means of their income. Over the last decade, farmers and poultry owners have faced more challenges to mitigate the extreme temperatures in which livestock cannot survive. Additionally, depleting fossil fuel levels, rise in the price of commodities and frequent power outages only add to the problem. Thus, a new environmentally friendly sustainable strategy has been proposed which makes use of renewable energy. The study also focuses on energy conservation technologies and techniques that the farmers can implement. If farmers and poultry owners are able to control the ambient temperature of the livestock housing, they are more likely to stay in business because of more profits. This temperature control can be acquired from livestock wastes, which the farmers usually dispose, of by generation of heat and electricity. This not only promotes the use of green technology but also reduces pollution associated with these wastes creating a more hygienic environment, producing more power, and enhancing the economy while aligning with sustainable development goals.</p> Arup R. Das Tasriba K. Sayanno Nadim R. Khandaker Copyright (c) 2023 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 1 02 25 46 10.3126/jsdpj.v1i02.58218 Climate Change Variability and its Impacts in Nepal <p>This paper aims to explore the climate variability in agriculture and discuss adaptation. Climate change has been an issue in relation to water, agriculture, and ultimately livelihood in the community. It impedes the ecosystem of nature and society. In Nepal, the temperature growth rate is increasing day by day and it reached 0.180C which contributes to climate change variability and it is contributing to the scarcity of water and hence, the impact on agricultural production. Similarly, only a small amount of available water (4.7%) in Nepal has been effectively utilized. The majority of households in Nepal depend upon agriculture and livestock. The imbalance in agriculture production is also directly related to nutrition and health. Many parts of the Karnali province have been faced with food deficiency and malnutrition. Due to the challenges, the proper utilization and sustainable use of water sources for securing food security in Nepal is imperative.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Deepak Chaudhary Kabita Maharjan Copyright (c) 2023 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 1 02 47 57 10.3126/jsdpj.v1i02.58219 Exploring Investment Governance within Social Security Organization: A Key to SDG Achievement <p>The Employees Provident Fund is a prominent Social Security Organization in Nepal, and it aims to invest the long-term savings it accumulates in various sectors of national and infrastructure development. This investment is intended to create diverse employment opportunities for Nepali citizens, all while maintaining a robust governance mechanism to safeguard the collected contributions, ensuring there are no losses. This strategy aligns with the goal of achieving sustainable development. In order to address the pressing issue of unemployment, which has been consistently raised as a concern by the International Labor Organization, there is an imminent requirement to adapt and enhance the investment framework within the broader Investment Governance concept. This adaptation is necessary to actively generate job opportunities in the areas where unemployment is a significant concern. The main objective of this research is to assess the awareness of current contributors to the Employees Provident Fund regarding Investment Governance and Sustainable Development Goals. Additionally, it aims to validate the developed theory of Investment Governance and its impact on achieving SDGs in practical terms. Furthermore, this study intends to offer insights into the current state of the Employees Provident Fund's investment mechanism, serving as a valuable resource. The result shows that the existing contributors to the Employees Provident Fund in Nepal are highly aware of investment governance. Furthermore, the study has confirmed the accuracy of the developed theory through these tests involving the contributors of the Employees Provident Fund. This fund is a prominent Social Security Organization in Nepal and plays a vital role in focusing its long-term savings on investments in key sectors such as social (health, production, education, and tourism) and the environment. These investments are crucial for achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), particularly in generating employment, which is a significant aspect of the 8th goal among the SDGs. Beyond examining investment governance, this study also highlights the importance of further exploration into the role of the Employees Provident Fund in advancing national development.</p> Bijaya Lal Pradhan Gehendra Bhusan Dhungel Copyright (c) 2023 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 1 02 58 75 10.3126/jsdpj.v1i02.58220 To drill or, not to drill for natural gas in Bangladesh: A comparative economic and reservoir analysis <p>With the growing population, Bangladesh is struggling to provide energy to meet the demands of energy-dependent sectors. Bangladesh has a total of 28 gas fields which are lagging in terms of production and fulfilling national demand. The government of Bangladesh has decided to import liquified natural gas (LNG) from the international market to pace up its energy supply. Being subjected to a highly volatile market, LNG prices are unstable and quite high compared to other natural gas alternatives. This paper examines to what extent the economic investments vary between LNG import and drilling for natural gas within Bangladesh. It also analyzes the reservoir types and characteristics of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs in both onshore and offshore Bangladesh to evaluate the prospect of future drillings. The cost analysis estimates that the price of LNG import will be 14 times higher than exploring for and producing from domestic hydrocarbon resources and reserves respectively till 2030. Even in a situation with fewer (than expected) resources in the unexplored potential zones of the country, future investments in new reserves will still be profitable for the long-term development of the energy sector in Bangladesh.</p> Haniyum Maria Khan Mohammad Moshiur Rahman Nadim R. Khandaker Copyright (c) 2023 Journey for Sustainable Development and Peace 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 1 02 76 94 10.3126/jsdpj.v1i02.58221 Achievements and Issues in Sustainable Development in Nepal <p>By conducting a comprehensive literature study on viewpoints regarding sustainability and development, this research aims to synthesize the accomplishments and challenges associated with sustainable development. The study utilizes a review-based methodology that is based on discussions and debates among academics, scholars, and philosophers. In order to advance development narratives, sustainable development (SD) necessitates achieving a harmonious balance among three fundamental pillars: social, economic, and environmental. The literature draws the conclusion that SD has emerged around three fundamental concepts. Based on the available evidence, it can be firmly concluded that sustainability represents the sole viable pathway for achieving sustainable development. This entails the integration of profound contemplation, responsible actions, and the assimilation of valuable lessons from diverse successful practices on a global scale. While acknowledging the praiseworthy achievements resulting from historical endeavors and recent initiatives such as Agenda 2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals, it is essential to recognize the imperative of addressing the existing challenges to enhance the overall effectiveness and comprehensiveness of sustainable development efforts.</p> Gyanendra Raj Sharma Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 1 02 95 112 10.3126/jsdpj.v1i02.58264 Factors Shaping the Landslide Trend in Nepal and their Impact on Human Lives and the Economy <p>This paper explores the status of landslide occurrence in Nepal, attributing it to a combination of factors such as geographical features, seismic activity, climate conditions, and anthropogenic factors like unregulated road construction. The landslides pose a serious threat to human lives and economic stability, particularly in high-risk areas like the mid-hills and mountain regions of Nepal. Seasonal variations in landslides have been influenced by monsoon activity, while poorly planned and constructed roads exacerbate the issue. The paper aims to highlight the vulnerability of Nepal's geography to landslides through case studies and existing literature. It concludes that landslides result from a complex interplay of geographical, climatic, and anthropogenic elements. To address the situation, the focus should be on sustainable infrastructure development, especially in mid-hills and mountain regions, by considering proper grading and drainage patterns during road construction. This approach can effectively mitigate anthropogenic factors and bring economic benefits to the nation while promoting a safer and more resilient future.</p> Aashish Thapa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 1 02 113 131 10.3126/jsdpj.v1i02.58265 Three Pillars of Sustainable Development: Challenges versus Achievements <p>This study provides an in-depth exploration of the challenges and achievements associated with the three pillars of sustainable development, namely economic growth, social equity, and environmental protection. Utilizing qualitative research designs, along with the utilization of secondary sources and data collection techniques, this study aims to offer a comprehensive and scholarly understanding of the intricate dynamics inherent in these pillars. Drawing upon an extensive array of scholarly articles, and reports from reliable secondary sources, this research identifies and critically analyzes the salient challenges prevailing within each pillar. This study delves into the nuanced experiences and perspectives of diverse stakeholders engaged in sustainable development initiatives globally. This encompasses a comprehensive assessment of key indicators pertaining to poverty reduction and social equity, ecological preservation, and the implementation of sustainable economic practices. This paper could contribute to an empirically grounded and academically rigorous analysis of the challenges encountered and the accomplishments realized in the domain of sustainable development.</p> Bidhya Jyoti Ghimire Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 1 02 132 146 10.3126/jsdpj.v1i02.58266 Gender Equality in Sustainable Development Goals: Some Reflections from Nepal <p>The paper examines the connection between gender equality and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It explores how gender equality is essential for achieving sustainable development and addresses the specific challenges and progress made in Nepal towards SDGs. Methodologically, the paper is based on the review and synthesis of secondary sources of information by explorative method. This paper mainly discusses the social, economic, environmental, and partnership aspects of SDGs in relation to gender equality and their contribution to human well-being and justice. It emphasizes the need for comprehensive and coordinated efforts to address gender disparities, promote women's empowerment, and ensure the active participation of women and girls in decision-making processes. Finally, the paper concludes by discussing the importance of integrating gender equality into policies, programs, and strategies aimed at achieving sustainable development in Nepal.</p> Shushila Devi Khanal Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 1 02 147 161 10.3126/jsdpj.v1i02.58267 Tourism development planning in local level government: A proposal for Devdaha Municipality, Nepal <p>Tourism development has been a prominent issue in Nepal’s development. With the promulgation of a new Constitution in 2015 and federal delineation in the country, the local governments have been further provided with the rights of development planning and implementation. In this context, tourism has been an unavoidable part of development planning at the local levels. This paper is based on the case study of the tourism development plan of Devdaha municipality of Rupandehi, Lumbini province. Following both primary and secondary sources of data, this paper discusses different potentialities, challenges, policies, strategies and action plans for 10 years (2023-2033). The plan prepared for the tourism development gives a guideline for bringing about changes in the tourism sector in this Municipality.</p> Bal Bahadur Tamang Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 1 02 162 176 10.3126/jsdpj.v1i02.58272 Post-Earthquake Reconstruction in Kathmandu Valley: Progress and Challenges <p>The 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal inflicted significant human casualties and economic losses, highlighting the need for improved construction techniques and seismic safety measures. This study examines the post-earthquake scenarios, types of earthquake-induced damages, reconstruction methodologies, and reconstruction progress in Kathmandu Valley. The dominant pre-earthquake building types were Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) structures in Kathmandu, and Stone Mud Mortar (SMM) and Brick Mud Mortar (BMM) structures in Bhaktapur. The earthquake caused extensive damage to both reinforced and non-reinforced masonry structures due to their low strength and poor construction practices. Failures included wall separation, in-plane, and out-plane failures, overturning, and floor collapse. The reconstruction efforts have been primarily focused on private housing, with progress varying across different sectors. While private housing has seen satisfactory reconstruction, public heritage sites, buildings, educational and health institutions, and government structures lag behind. Retrofitting techniques have proven to be more cost-effective than rebuilding RCC structures. The preference for SMM and BMC structures persists in other regions. This abstract provides a concise overview of the article's key findings regarding post-earthquake reconstruction in Kathmandu Valley, emphasizing the need for accelerated efforts to restore public infrastructure and heritage sites.</p> Riya Kadel Ribence Kadel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 1 02 177 197 10.3126/jsdpj.v1i02.58274 Implication of a Smart Farming System for Disease Detection and Crop Protection in Nepalese Agriculture <p>The paper explores the integration of advanced technologies such as IoT, apps, machine learning, and image recognition in the development of a smart farming system for disease detection and crop protection in Nepalese agriculture. Emphasizing the importance of timely disease detection in crop management, the paper discusses the utilization of IoT-based sensors for real-time monitoring of crop health parameters. Furthermore, it examines the application of image recognition techniques and machine learning algorithms for automated disease detection and identification. By leveraging these technologies, the smart farming system aims to address disease control challenges, optimize resource utilization, and promote sustainable agricultural practices in Nepal. The use of IoT and ML for Smart Farming Systems using timely disease detection and further crop management has been theoretically discussed.</p> Ribence Kadel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-08-30 2023-08-30 1 02 198 219 10.3126/jsdpj.v1i02.58277