Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem <p>The Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management is published by Jiwanta Nepal, New Baneshwor 32, Kathmandu, Nepal. The journal can also be found on its own website at <a href="https://www.josemjournal.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">https://www.josemjournal.com/</a></p> Jiwanta Nepal en-US Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management 2822-1710 Coconut Tree (Cocos nucifera) Products: A Review of Global Cultivation and its Benefits https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45377 <p>The coconut tree (<em>Cocos nucifera</em>) is one of the most extensively and widely used palm trees. The coconut palm is regarded as the "tree of life," or "Kalpavriksha." Humans have been cultivating a wide range of coconut trees around the world. This study is based on analysis of secondary data on cultivation of coconut trees and its benefits. Due to increased insect infestations and a changing habitat, the lifespan of coconut trees have been affected. Coconut product market has become the fastest expanding business due to the anti-viral compounds found in it. The coconut is used to produce oils, even the shells used for craft materials. People have been using coconut trees to make brooms and woods are being used to make furniture, construction materials for dwellings, and hardwood floors. It shows the livelihood of people around the world have been changed due to the cultivation of coconut trees. Indonesia, India and Philippines are top three countries to be economically benefitted from the plantation of coconut trees. As there is high demand of coconut based products worldwide, farmers need to be made aware about this economic value for increment in production.</p> H. Mary Henrietta K. Kalaiyarasi A. Stanley Raj Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 257 264 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45377 Microplastic- An Imposing Commination to the Aquatic Ecosystem and its Removal Strategies in Wastewater Treatment Plants: A Systematic Review https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45378 <p>Plastic is broadly used for various human interests (technological devices, food packaging, medical products, etc.) and there is an increasing concern about the risks for our surrounding environment and health. In particular, microplastics (MPs), both primary and secondary, occur in all environmental pockets and constitute a potential warning, since they easily enter into the food chain. Moreover, microplastics have the ability to absorb diverse pollutants, which thereby get accumulated inside human body via processes of bioaccumulation and biomagnification. A systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of wastewater treatment facilities (WWTPs) in removing microplastics. Published research on the effectiveness of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for microplastic removal were searched using international databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus). Contamination of MPs in aquatic environment has presently been recorded as a transpiring environmental threat because of their fatalistic impact on the ecosystem. Their sources are numerous, but, undoubtedly, all are from synthetic matters. The sources of MPs are cosmetics and products of personal care, textile and tyre, abrasion processes of some other plastic products, bitumen and paints for road marking. Due to their low density and tiny particle size, MPs get easily extravasated into the wastewater drainage systems. Therefore, the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are designated to be the foremost recipients of MPs prior to getting excreted into the natural water reservoirs. The focus of this article is to put forward an all-inclusive review in order to preferably understand the channels of MPs into the environment, their characteristics in wastewater, and most importantly, the removal efficiency of MPs of the subsisting wastewater treatment technologies, as arrogated by the WWTPs. This review also encompasses the expansion of budding microplastics treatment technologies that have been investigated till date. Then, in the not-too-distant future, effective and standardised techniques for measuring MPs should be developed, as well as a greater understanding of sources and strategies for reducing microplastics contamination of treated effluent.</p> Anirudh Modak Shamayita Basu Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 265 274 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45378 Climate Change Perspective: The Advantage and Disadvantage of COVID-19 Pandemic https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45380 <p>Government initiatives during the COVID-19 outbreak had a significant impact on global energy consumption patterns. Many international borders were blocked, and individuals were confined to their homes, restricting mobility and changing social habits. The lockdowns introduced economic, physical, and social pastimes to a halt. However, as an advantage, the world had a good effect on air quality, the environment, and greenhouse gases (GHGs), in particular CO2 emissions. When compared to the mean 2019 levels, daily worldwide CO2 emissions had fallen by –17 % (–11 to –25 % for 1) by early April 2020, with changes in surface transportation accounting for little under half of the decline. The total global CO2 reduction from January to April 2020 was predicted to be more than 1749 Mt CO2 (a 14.3 % decline), with the transportation sector contributing the most (58%) followed by coal power generation (29%), and industry (10%). As a result, transportation was identified as the primary source of more than half of the emissions reduction during the epidemic. As of August 23, 2021, 193 countries produced 8.4 million tons of pandemic-related plastic waste, with 25.9 thousand tons dumped into the ocean, accounting for 1.5 percent of total riverine plastic discharge globally. As a result of China and India's record-breaking confirmed cases, MMPW generation and discharge are projected to be more skewed toward Asia. The study found that hospital trash accounts for 73% of global discharge and that Asia accounts for 72% of global discharge, indicating the need for better medical waste management in emerging countries. This review highlights the brief lessening in GHG outflows and expanded request for single-use plastics, including the weight of an as of now out-of-control worldwide plastic squander emergency caused by the COVID-19 widespread. This review also will be helpful for people to understand the COVID-19 impact on climate change point of view. There is advantage and disadvantage brought by this pandemic and it's the best time to change the new normal of globalization. Global policies makers should consider the acute need to change the policies for a circular economy with the best environment sustainable, both during the pandemic and, more significantly, thereafter. The authors of the reference articles on the COVID-19 pandemic hope their findings will aid attempts to better understand the disease's relationship to climate change. If lessons from both global crises are learned, the world may be better prepared to deal with global climate change, which has local consequences.</p> Kyaw Than Oo Moh Moh Zaw Thin Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 275 291 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45380 Role of Isolates of Bacillus Species for Biodegradation of Multiple Contaminants https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45381 <p>Nature is the precious gift for every organism on the earth but, only few species are taking benefits and rest are suffering from scarcity of natural resources because of over exploitation. There exist numbers of hazardous pollutants in environment that are required to eradicate for sustainable use of natural resources. To overcome these pollutants researchers introduced bioremediation with microorganisms. This paper has been prepared by collecting data from various research articles to show numerous applications of bacillus species for sustaining environment. The article is unique from other research studies as it elaborates removal of different pollution causing elements such heavy metals, soil contaminants, removal of dye contaminants from the environment. Although there are large numbers of microbial species to degrade pollutants but according to recent researches, Bacillus is more prominent among all bacterial species. Researchers have proved that Bacillus are safer and cheaper source for conserving environment and reduce toxics from environment. Removal of heavy metals such as cadmium, nickel, copper can be done with the help of Bacillus cereus. In waste water treatment, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus acidophilus are also responsible for reducing nitrogenous components like phosphates, nitrites and ammonia.</p> Jyoti Sarwan Jagadeesh Chandra Bose K Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 292 298 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45381 Pattu Weaving: A Sustainable Fabric Manufacturing Technique https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45382 <p>Sustainability is the need of the hour and the world is now looking for the environment-friendly options while choosing the materials, techniques, processes and disposal systems. In textiles, handloom weaving is considered as the sustainable way of fabric manufacturing. Many ancient crafts clusters are still existing and re-inventing themselves to create sustainable products. The craft of ‘Pattu weaving’ is one of them which is known as a traditional weaving technique. Pattu weaving is a traditional craft using extra weft weaving technique which is widely practised by the weavers in India. The study has reviewed the materials, tools, techniques and processes used in this craft, along with the challenges and opportunities for the upliftment of the craft. A comparative study of traditional and contemporary materials, colour palette, motifs and product range of the craft are also covered in this paper. Major part of the information and images have been collected during craft research documentation activity while visiting the craft cluster at Bhojasar and Karwa villages in Rajasthan where Pattu craft has been practiced by the weavers since ages. Along with this, secondary research has also been included in this document to strengthen the study.</p> Ankita Srivastava Ankur Saxena Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 299 305 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45382 A Review on Sustainable Eco-friendly Cutting Fluids https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45383 <p>In machining industries, cutting fluids plays a vital role as they are used to improve machinability and to have better productivity. Using mineral oil as cutting fluids has a negative impact on environment and also on the operator’s health as it is non-bio-degradable and hazardous. Research work is been carried out for replacing these mineral oils by bio- degradable oils. The few vegetable oils possess characteristics of good cutting fluids such as viscosity, heat absorption capacity, fatty acid chains, biodegradability, non-toxicity etc. This paper reviewed research works carried out on different types of eco-friendly oils used as cutting fluids for different machining operations and on different materials. The effects of using different vegetable oils as cutting fluids on machining parameters have been discussed. From the results, it was observed that, the bio-oils possesses properties of&nbsp; good cutting fluids and has shown better results in terms of&nbsp; improving machining efficiency&nbsp; when compared to mineral or petroleum oils. These bio-oils possess better sustainability and biodegradability. Hence also called as eco-friendly cutting fluids. There is more scope for modification of bio-oils by having some additives and nano particles to have improved lubricating properties.</p> Viraja Deshpande P N Jyothi Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 306 320 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45383 Socio-economic and Political Drivers of Renewable Natural Resource Conflicts among Crop Farmers in Southeast Nigeria https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45329 <p>The natural resource conflicts happen when there is variation on how natural resources and related ecosystems should be managed, owned, allocated, used, and protected. However, most researches on resource conflicts among different users, could not see the primacy of looking into these conflicts from the angle of their socio-economic and political causes. This paper among other things sought the socio-economic and political triggers of renewable natural resources conflict in Southeastern parts of Nigeria. Data were collected from 300 crop farmers purposively selected from three States - Imo, Abia and Enugu, using structured questionnaire and oral interview. Percentage and mean were used to analyze the collected data. The renewable natural resources considered in the study area were water, crop land, forests, and fishers/marine resources among others. The socio-political drivers of renewable resources conflict includes demand induced scarcity (87.7%), environmental degradation (83.3%), migration of people (91.6%) and unclear rights (85.3%). The study found that to reduce the occurrence of natural resource conflicts, following measures should be in place; reducing vulnerability to resources scarcity (M=3.57), increased availability of scarce resources (M=3.60), discourage/stop degradation (M=2.50), good governance framework (M=3.36) and effective resource sharing agreement (M=3.56) among others. It is recommended to resolve the natural resource conflicts which can be achieved by equal distribution of resources, clear rights to resources and good land governance.</p> J.U Chikaire C.N Atoma J.O Ajaero Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 46 51 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45329 Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment: An Evaluation of Social Dimension https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45333 <p>Climate change vulnerability is the function of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of its natural and socioeconomic systems. Following spatial “scale” of the assessment, administrative-territorial units were selected for this study. A field survey questionnaire was used to collect data for the study based on the sample size of 500 questionnaires that was administered to household heads in the study area. In the questionnaire, questions were designed to give respondents the opportunity to choose from several alternatives given in the instrument while descriptive statistics was for the analysis of data. Descriptive statistics analysis based on mean ranking was carried out to identify the level of peoples’ vulnerability to climate change in the study area. The exposure assessment was based on the response analysis of baseline information. The sensitivity assessment for the study was analyzed by using physiographical and socioeconomic characteristics, described by a set of specific indicators and responses of the residents. The adaptive capacity was captured by general economic and agricultural indicators, taking into consideration the major occupation the predominant lifestyle of the residents. Through a ranking approach, the relative vulnerability of each ATU was calculated by summing its sensitivity and adaptive capacity ranks; the latter were obtained as combinations of their primary indicator ranks, arranged in an increasing and decreasing order, respectively. The major climate change exposure pathway in the study area were reduction in green environment, decrease in total annual rainfall, warmer weather, early cessation of rainfall, late on-set of rainfall and shrinkage of water bodies. The major sensitivity to climate change was decrease in crop yield, whereas increase in cost of food crops, drought incidents, famine, poverty, indiscriminate falling down of trees and disaster. It was also established that the major adaptive strategies to climate change in the study area were irrigation farming, use of organic manure, planting of drought tolerant varieties and early planting.</p> Auwal Garba Bukar Abba Gana Isah Mohammed Haruna Adamu Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 52 61 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45333 Ponds’ Water Quality Analysis and Impact of Heavy Metals on Fishes’ Body https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45334 <p>The anthropogenic activities have caused increase in the aquatic heavy metals pollution. The higher concentration of heavy metals in fish’s body also affects the consumers as it reaches to human body through the food chain. This study was conducted to analyze the ponds’ water quality based on physicochemical parameters and nutrients in relation to the dissolved heavy metals accumulated in the fishes’ body by using R programing. In this study, the heavy metals bio-accumulated from barrage pond and diversions ponds was analysed. Kigembe, Nyamagana, Rwasave fertilized and Rwasave non-fertilized ponds were purposively chosen for the study. The water sample was analysed using HACH DR5000 UV-Vis Spectrophotometer to measure Ammonium-Nitrogen, Nitrate-Nitrogen, Phosphates and Total Phosphorus at Chemistry Department’s Laboratory of University of Rwanda. While after filtration of water samples using Whatman filter papers, heavy metals including Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co, Cd, Cr and Pb were determined using ICP-MS 7900. The analysis of physicochemical parameters showed that the temperature, pH, Conductivity, Turbidity and TDS were within the permissible limit of ponds’ water (20-300C, 6.5-9, less than 1000 µs/cm, 30-60 NTU and less than 2000 mg/L respectively) quality for all the sites except Rwasave fishponds, where lower pH was observed. The nutrients level in these ponds were low comparing to the standard limit. The assessed heavy metals were Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pb whose concentrations analyzed in water were within permissible limit of 0.3ppm, 1ppm, 0.1ppm, 3ppm, 0.003ppm, 0.5ppm and 0.01ppm respectively while heavy metals bio-accumulated were within the permissible limit of 0.1ppm, 1ppm, 0.05ppm, 5ppm, 0.05ppm, 0.05ppm and 0.05ppm respectively for all the sites except for both dissolved and bio-accumulated Fe and Mn concentration which were high for all sites. The highest level of heavy metals concentration was obtained in particular Fe and Mn. This shows that there is urgent need of continuous water quality analysis within the ponds for maintaining the favorite conditions for fish. The water quality monitoring will help the farmers to create the safe aquatic environment for fishes and improve their production output.</p> J.D. Ndayisenga S. Dusabe Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 62 72 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45334 Study of Ichthyofauna: Fishes in the Enipeas River's Catchment Area, Central Macedonia, Greece https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45335 <p>The management of water resources and the achievement of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 / EC's objectives were the key research themes for this study. The study of Ichthyofauna was conducted at nine areas of Enipeas river basin in central Macedonia region of Greece. At the sampling stations, the electrofishing method was applied. The physicochemical parameters at the sampling site were measured with a multiparametric HANNA water quality meter, while water samples were collected and transferred to laboratories of the Biology Department of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki for analysis of nutrients and major ions. Out of nine stations, only one station discovered fish. Because the sampling was only done once, it is suggested that it be repeated at a different time because the research location is located in one of Greece's major catchments. Only three fish species were identified in the entire catchment area, indicating that more detailed studies are needed covering different surrounding areas.</p> Konstantinos Fytilis Evangelos Palatos Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 73 76 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45335 Energy Consumption Analysis in the Plastic Waste Recycling Process: A Case Study of Amazia Vision Enterprise Private Limited, Satara, India https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45338 <p>Every year, over 400 million MT of plastic are produced around the world, majority of which aren’t managed properly, leading to immeasurable damage to the environment. Only 14-18% as a global average of plastic waste is recycled with only few companies take part in the plastic recycling process. The main goal of the study was to analyse the energy demand and provide a feasible technical solution to conserve energy and reduce the plant's operating costs. A plastic waste recycling station, Amazia Vision Enterprise Private Limited, Satara, India, was purposively chosen to conduct an extensive evaluation of energy requirements. An energy analysis was performed on the process to determine the potential for energy savings and cost reductions. It also aims to reduce the amount of energy used at each stage of the process. Theoretical solutions to conserve energy, reduce waste generation, and thus lower operating costs have been proposed. According to the analysis and subsequent evaluation, the energy requirement can be reduced to 8% of the initial value. A technical solution for recycling of plastics has been proposed which can be implemented to test the feasibility interms of both technical and economical parameters. An energy conservation analysis of a plant has been presented in this paper which will provide a road-map to conserve ever increasing energy consumption and drive more investors in the plastic recycling sector for best plastic waste management practices.</p> Tanmay Ghadge Vrushti Khare Shailesh Bhosale Prashant A Giri Vikas Jadhav Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 77 83 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45338 Socio-economic Impacts of Rural Energy Poverty on Women and Students in Esa-Oke, Nigeria https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45339 <p>Energy poverty is a growing global challenge with significant adverse effects on well-being and health. However, its social impacts on vulnerable population in deprived communities have been largely ignored. Consequently, this study examines the social-economic impacts of energy poverty among women and students in Esa Oke, a hilly and rural and energy-deprived community in southwestern Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey design approach was adopted, while purposive and random sampling technique was used in selecting respondents. Findings from the study revealed differences in energy consumption behaviour of women and students in rural settings; while women adopt traditional biomass for cooking, students adopt modern energy services. Additionally, the impacts of poor energy access differ per women and students. For instance, on one hand, the use of traditional biomass significantly affects rural women's health, as the majority (95%) of women respondents reported exposure to emissions through indirect combustion of fuelwood. On the other hand, students' academic performance and academic activities were significantly disrupted due to the poor electricity supply in the area. Based on the foregoing, the study recommends an inclusive rural energy policy that captures all social groups affected by energy poverty.</p> Ayomide Samuel Famewo Vincent Abimbola Uwala Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 84 93 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45339 Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite for Sustainable Pure Water by PES Membrane https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45341 <p>The urgent concern of water shortage have promoted to the development of different sustainable technologies with the rapid evolution of nanotechnologies. Graphene oxide (GO) is a water-soluble material that can be constructed into a number of structures such as membranes, and has many applications in environmental sectors. Furthermore enhancing membrane characteristics to improve water flux performance and mitigate fouling is crucial issue for membrane separation technology. GO serves as nanofiller to overcome fouling during filtration as well as water flux improvement. This work aimed to develop PES membranes by phase inversion method and the fabricated membranes subjected to series analysis of FESEM, hydrophilicity and water flux. The results showed that the GO improved the contact angle of the pure PES membrane and the water flux increased from 13 to 16 L/m<sup>2</sup>.h. Therefore, the PES-GO membrane proved its capability to be used for various applications to reduce membrane fouling.</p> Khalefa A. Faneer Ebrahim Mahmoudi Muneer Ba‑Abbad Rosiah Rohani Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 94 98 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45341 Impact of Climate Change on Gujjar and Bakarwal Communities of Jammu and Kashmir https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45342 <p>Climate change is a global issue that affects everyone. It has been estimated that the developing nations will suffer the most from the effects of climate change. The underdeveloped nations will most likely experience the negative effects of climate variability. They are more susceptible to climate change due to their low adaptive capacity. This study has found the impact of climate change on the Gujjar and Bajarwals of Jammu and Kashmir. The present study is based on the primary data collected from 507 respondents of Thanala village of Bhaderah tehsil of Doda district of Jammu and Kashmir. The data was collected using survey questionnaire and was analysed through various statistical tools to draw results. The pastoralist community is one of the many communities that were most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Modernization was identified as the major cause behind climatic changes. Climate change and the livelihood patterns of pastoralists are interlinked with each other. This relationship is not only linked to the traditional adaptation strategies but also to the level of land-use change.</p> Sajad Ahmad Mir Maliha Batool Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 99 104 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45342 Clean Transport Network in Nigerian Environment: Climatic Issues and Way Forward https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45345 <p>There is dire need for adequate planning and digital innovations for developing clean transport networks in African urban communities for better climatic condition and sustainable green environment. This paper examines climatic actions and sustainability perspectives of clean transport network development in Nigeria. Methodology adopted included reconnaissance survey of transport facilities, literature survey, checking of available data and government policy on clean transport network in Nigeria. Other information was also obtained from interview of selected engineers and energy experts in transportation sectors. Finding revealed that there is need to improve on financial capacities and future investments in digital advancements for integrated solutions in infrastructural development, resilient communities and transportation facilities for environmental health and clean transport network. The transportation industry is crucial to meet climate change mitigation goals and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Because of the expanding demand for transportation from various economic sectors such as industry, energy, health, home, and commercial and other aspects, the demand for transportation is in increasing trend. All issues related to road construction, Public Private Partnerships, traffic management and contract adjudication in transport sector must be carefully resolved. The paper concluded that there is urgent need to strengthen the development of clean transport network in Nigerian environment especially on climate action and sustainability perspectives. The impact of sustainable applications of mobility cannot be over emphasized. Adequate engineering and sustainable green initiatives should be deployed for economic growth and clean transport network in Nigeria.</p> Oluwadare Joshua Oyebode Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 105 111 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45345 Using Fishermen’s Knowledge and GIS to Identify Fishing Grounds, Gears and Species in the Projected Marine Protected Area ‘Jabal Moussa’ https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45346 <p>Marine spatial planning and ecosystem based management such as MPA’s has been used as tools to manage human activities, to conserve coastal ecosystems and biodiversity for the sustainable use of oceans, seas and marine resources. In this study, we focused on establishing a spatial distribution of the fishing grounds used by local fishermen in the projected MPA “Jabal Moussa”, identifying the most important species targeted, the gears used, and the depths of fishing grounds. A survey with 99 skippers was conducted between February and March 2019. Then data collected was analyzed and geo-referenced through geographic information system (GIS). The results identified 16 fishing grounds. Distribution of fishing gears was dominated by the blackspot seabream longline which was the most used gear. The most targeted species was the blackspot seabream. Fishing grounds where blackspot seabream was found had a deep ranging from 95.9 m to 328.9 m. Results of the study will provide managers of the projected MPA with valuable information and data to help the to adopt direct measures that can reduce the pressure on these valuable species, preserve the ecosystem and lead to a sustainable fishing.</p> Mohamed Rida Derdabi Mustapha Aksissou Ihssane Toujgani Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 112 119 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45346 Properties of Upgraded Bio-oil from Pyrolysis of Waste Corn Cobs https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45348 <p>Technologies for conversion of waste solid materials to liquid fuel and bio-crude oil have been researched widely for the production of renewable energy as substitute to fossil fuel oil. However, ash composition of biomass affects the pyrolysis process and the bio-crude oil product has unsatisfactory properties compared to conventional petroleum oil, such as, low heating value, high viscosity, corrosiveness, and the presence of oxygenated compound which causes bio oil ageing. This paper investigated the total waste materials; corn cobs and paper sludge obtained in municipal areas of Abuja, Nigeria, employed in pyrolysis of demineralized corn cobs and the upgrade of crude bio oil via thermal cracking using zeolite prepared from waste paper sludge, with expectation to improve bio oil properties. Demineralization of corn cob removed most of the ash content of biomass allowing for pyrolysis process. The prepared zeolite with mesoporous cage-like crystals analyzed using SEM was able to effectively catalyze thermal cracking of the crude bio oil and reduce the quantity of less desired high molecular weight oxygenated compounds. The bio oil chemical composition obtained from GC-MS analysis indicated the bio oil consisted of oxygenated compounds and hydrocarbons such as aliphatic hydrocarbons (28.768%), alcohols (-0.001%), amines (10.472%), carboxylic acids (0.144), phenols (0.047%), and esters (60.57 %), which significantly influenced the bio oil properties. The physical and chemical properties of the corn cob bio oil was determined for density (0.852 ± 0.03), viscosity (1.66 ± 0.01), cloud point (-34.0 ± 0.02) and calorific value (30.9 ± 0.01). With the exception of Flash point (58 ± 0.01) and acid value (13.1 ± 0.03). In comparison, the produced bio oil had properties likened to petroleum fraction of conventional gasoline than diesel. In conclusion, pyrolysis of corn cob and upgrade of the crude bio oil using prepared zeolite was found as a promising process in improving bio oil quality. The pyrolysis study has potential in the management of environmental wastes to help resolve the challenge of solid waste disposal.</p> Michael Terungwa Abatyough Victor Olatunji Ajibola Edith Bolanle Agbaji Zakka Israila Yashim Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 120 128 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45348 Assessment of Compliance with Preliminary Environmental Investigations for Erecting Sustainable Building Structure in Abuja Metropolis, Nigeria https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45350 <p>The continuous collapse of structures which is usually accompanied by great loss of lives and properties, the conscientious construction activities in the country has a direct or indirect impingement on the environment by displacing settlements, hampering farming activities and the destruction of beneficial plants. This pose threats to the continuous existence of man and the sustenance of natural vegetation. Based on the foregoing, the study was designed to assess compliance with preliminary environmental investigations for erecting sustainable building structures in Abuja Metropolis. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The research was carried out in Abuja Metropolis Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The targeted population for the study was 148 subjects comprising of 72 builders and 76 engineers. Since the population was manageable no sampling was done. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Cronbach’s alpha statistical tool was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and was found to be 0.80. Data collected for the study was analyzed using mean, standard deviation and z-test. Mean was used to analyze the research questions while z-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that builders and engineers are aware of all the necessary preliminary investigations that should be conducted before erecting building structures. The findings also showed that despite the fact that builders and engineers are aware of the necessary preliminary environmental investigations to be conducted before erecting building structures, they still fail to execute the investigations of the building which aren’t environmentally friendly. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended that all the preliminary investigations identified in this study should be made a requirement for approving any building plans and construction and also government should enact laws to punish violators of preliminary investigations in Nigeria.</p> M. B. Ibrahim I. Dauda C. O. Igwe A. M. Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 129 135 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45350 Analysis of Trace Metals in Hand Dug Wells around Dumpsites in Okene Metropolis, Nigeria https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45351 <p>This study examined the levels of trace metals in leachates from dumpsites and hand dug wells used as sources of drinking water by the inhabitants of Okene Metropolis, Kogi State Nigeria. This is important because the presence of toxic heavy metals in the environment continues to generate a lot of concern to environmental scientists, government agencies and public health practitioners leading to adverse health implications. The leachates and hand dug well water samples were collected during the wet season of 2019-2021 and analyzed for some selected trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Mn) using AA320N atomic absorption spectrophometer. The result showed that there was high concentration of most of the trace metals in the leachate samples compared to the groundwater samples with some of the trace metals above the maximum limit set by W.H.O. It is recommended that a systematic treatment of heavy metals concentration in hand dug well in the study area should be carried out regularly either through chemical precipitation, ion exchange or reverse osmosis.</p> Omeiza Samuel Folorunsho Adebayo Albert Ojo Adebayo Mathew Ayorinde Ajayi Olubode Olumuyiwa Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 136 143 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45351 Utilization of Safety Facilities in Building Construction Sites in Federal Capital Territory Abuja and Niger State, Nigeria https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45352 <p>The study was designed to determine the utilization of safety facilities in building construction sites in Federal Capital territory Abuja and Niger State, Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The study was conducted in FCT Abuja and Niger State, Nigeria. A total of 181 respondents consisting of 20 contractors, 71 builders and 90 tradesmen with 43 items structured questionnaire were used. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was determined using Cronbach alpha method and coefficients of A ꞊ 0.889 &amp; B ꞊ 0.727 respectively. Weighted mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the research questions while ANOVA was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that the respondents agreed with that of the safety facilities were utilized by the construction site worker while some were not complied. This implies that, safety facilities needs to be utilized in building construction. The findings revealed that there was significant difference in the mean ratings of the responses of the three groups of respondents (20 contractors, 71 builders and 90 tradesmen) as regard the of safety facilities. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the man ratings of the respondents as regards the extents of utilizing safety facilities in building construction sites. It was therefore recommended among others that contractors, builders and tradesmen require appropriate training/induction regularly on the use of safety facilities in building construction site base on their peculiarities. There should be appropriate information concerning the use personal protective equipment (PPE) at work to prevent accident from site. Working environment should always be cleared and kept free from all objects that can cause harm or injure the workers in building construction site.</p> Umar Garba D. Ibrahim W.B Karem Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 144 150 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45352 Impact of Climate and Land Use Changes on the Livelihood of Residents in Calabar River Basin, South-eastern Nigeria https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45356 <p>Human activities such as deforestation, urbanization, and fuel combustion have caused climatic and land use changes, affecting the livelihood of residents negatively in Calabar River Basin, South-eastern Nigeria. In the region, there has been a constant and prolonged rise in temperature. To determine the status of climatic change, data sets spanning 43 years (1971-2014) were obtained from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) and compared to NIMET's historical meteorological data maps of Nigeria between 1941-1970 and 1971-2000, commonly known as the base period. In contrast, utilizing imageries from several satellites (Landsat), multi-temporal dates (MSS 1980, TM 1990, ETM 2000, and ETM+2010) and ArcGIS, researchers were able to determine the Land Use Changes / Land Covers (LULC) that have occurred in the Calabar river basin through time (1980-2020). Climate data revealed a historical sequence of temperature rises, as evidenced by late beginning and early cessation of rainfall, which had a negative influence on agriculture. Similarly, the investigation found that the environment has been warmer as temperatures have risen significantly, and that the harmattan dust haze has also increased in recent years. The investigation for LULC came up with six broad classifications: urban (built-up), water bodies, forest, farm, grass, and bare areas. Built-up area and farmland land uses have increased dramatically (3.19%-20.73%) and (10.20% -23.79%), respectively; forest (35.85%- 24.84%), water bodies (8.77%- 5.27%), Grassland (24.68%- 12.67%), and bare land uses have decreased dramatically (17.31%-12.69%). Since 1941 through 2020, temperatures have risen at a pace of 0.14° F (0.08° C) every decade, and the rate of warming is more than twice that: 0.32° F (0.18° C) per decade. The shortening of the rainy season has been forced by the late start and early cessation of rains. This has had a negative impact on the region's farming activities. The study recommends reforestation and the formation of forest reserves, greater energy efficiency, a shift to renewable resources / cleaner sources of energy (solar and wind), and reduced deforestation to mitigate the risks connected with climate and land use changes.</p> Ibiso Michael Inko Tariah Temple Probyne Abali Leonard Michael Onyinyechi Aminigbo Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 151 160 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45356 Implication of FIFA 2022 on Active Living and Environmental Changes: A Managerial Perspective https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45357 <p>This study is focused on the environmental impact of hosting FIFA 2022 in Qatar on the well-being and the active living of the residents. The primary data was collected through the questionnaire which was validated and tested using confirmatory factor analysis. The second-generation statistical analysis using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was adopted which undertakes both regression and factor analysis simultaneously using Partial Least Square Method. The results have shown that there is a significant influence of environmental factors on material-based factors, community-based factors, emotion-based factors, and health-based factors. Further, the community-based factor had significant influence on mental health, emotion-based factor has significant influence on social health, and health-based factor had significant influence on spiritual health. The environmental factors had significant influence on mental, social, and spiritual health. Surprisingly, the environmental factors and material-based factors had no significant influence on physical health. The implications of the study are in the form of suggestions to the managers of tourism industry and the strategic planners of FIFA 2022 in Qatar. Application of scenario planning tools may be required to make an estimate of the material-based factors. Optimum number of events to be hosted in the country may have to be estimated such that it contributes to the betterment of the community-based factors.</p> Girish K. Nair Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 161 175 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45357 Bridging the Gaps of Clean Mobility and Transport through Engineering Interventions https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45359 <p>Transportation plays a significant role in sustainable development, civilization, industrialization and commercialization in many countries around the globe. This paper looked into bridging the gaps in clean mobility and transport through engineering interventions and other innovative ideas. Salient issues affecting clean mobility and an effective transport system were highlighted and possible solutions were suggested. The methodology includes a literature survey and consultation of environmental experts. A deeper understanding of the gaps between mobility and transportation management can provide insightful information into how cities must be structured. Clean mobility refers to all forms of transportation that do not require the use of fossil fuels exclusively. Mobility specializes in making ground-breaking solutions that enable mobility and industry to attain zero-emissions status. It was concluded that engineering interventions and other innovative ideas can be used to bridge the gaps in clean mobility and transport. Monitoring climate change and reduction of environmental pollution are very vital for the sustainable green environment in African urban communities. There is a need to strengthen digital advancements for integrated solutions in infrastructural development and transportation networks. Proper planning, adequate funding and sustainable development are very crucial for bridging the gap and attaining of a cleaner environment.</p> Oluwadare Joshua Oyebode Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 176 181 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45359 Tree Growth Analysis as a Panacea for Sustainable Forest Management in Northeast Nigeria: Study of Lannea Kerstingii (Anacardiaceae) https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45360 <p>Lannea kerstingii (Anacardiaceae) is found mainly in the Guinean and Sudanese savannas with health benefits and also used as timber, firewood and charcoal. Growth analysis of Lannea kerstingii was carried out to fill existing data gaps and enhance the practice of forestry for sustainable forest and environmental management. Twenty sample trees were assessed for different growth parameters yielding a coefficient of determination (r<sup>2</sup>) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r). The analysis showed the relationship between DBH and tree height, crown diameter, crown area, basal area, crown ratio and volume as 0.617, 0.264, 0.103, 0.907, 0.009, 0.864, 0.79, 0.051, 0.32, 0.95, 0.94, and 0.93 respectively. In addition to generating data for tree growth analysis, forestry extension and capacity should be deepened with provision of adequate funding to relevant agencies to promote biodiversity conservation.</p> Justus Eronmosele Omijeh Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 182 187 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45360 Analysis of Environmental Impact and Waste Management of Egg Poultry Industry in the Philippines: A Case of San Jose, Batangas https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45362 <p>The poultry industry produces a lot of waste, and environmental issues grow as the egg industry expands. Poultry owners in the Philippines, notably in San Jose, Batangas, face numerous waste management concerns. This study examined these issues as well as their environmental safety policies. San Jose, in Batangas province, is renowned as "The Egg Basket of the Philippines" for its large-scale egg production. This study collected data using qualitative descriptive analysis. The poultry farms in the municipality were about 376 as of 2021, but with no definite total number of poultry owners. Interviews with the municipal agriculturist and ten poultry owners was utilized. The study revealed substantial waste management difficulties such as manure disposal, water and air pollution, odor disturbance and insects, weather conditions, and virus outbreaks (bird flu). The study's concerning SDGs were 6 (Clean Water and Sanitation) and 12 (Responsible Consumption and Production). Waste disposal over the past decades still poses a threat to the environment. The local government adopted poultry ordinances/resolutions: Resolution 164 of 2008, Resolution 341 of 2016, and Resolution 348 of 2016/Ordinance 007 series of 2016. These policies and initiatives were concluded to be environmentally friendly, but most poultry owners lack awareness of the said policies. Awareness is vital for better policy responses, and the municipality needs to develop its information dissemination. It is essential to improve waste management policies and farm monitoring methods. The local government should implement concrete socioeconomic and environmental programs to empower residents and poultry owners, especially the younger generation, and improve the municipality's knowledge of waste management techniques.</p> Ramces M. Dili Ruthra Mae B. Kalaw Anne Dominique L. Miguel Gloria M. Ting Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 188 196 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45362 Integrated Management of Construction and Demolition Waste as Key Factor of Urban Circular Economy https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45363 <p>This paper has highlighted the importance of implementing a comprehensive action plan to promote the circular economy at municipal level using as a case study of the municipality of Kavala in the management of construction and demolition waste. There is a strong interest in this particular sector due to the significant building stock that requires demolition and also the pressures to the municipal waste management services due to the small-scale renovations of mainly short-term tourist accommodation. This study was conducted to understand the impact of an integrated strategic circular economy approach to urban sustainable development and resilience. To identify this correlation, the upper strategy was analyzed in its partial components and key pillars following the four-helix model while a link with the broader theoretical framework was formulated. Of particular added value is the underlining of the barriers and weaknesses identified during the planning process, which can act as a pilot in all corresponding Greek medium-sized cities. The results suggest that the integrated management of construction and demolition waste, which comprises actions at all distinct stages (raising awareness, planning, implementation and monitoring) have a positive impact on achieving the SDGs and in creating conditions for urban resilience. However, a quantitative assessment is recommended in order to evaluate through specific indicators when this strategy moves into the implementation phase.</p> Samourkasidou Elena Kitis Konstantinos Gkiouzepas Giorgos Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 197 209 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45363 Appraisal of Socio-economic, Infrastructural and Environmental Impacts of Flood in Makurdi Local Government Ares of Benue State, Nigeria https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45364 <p>Among the common natural hazards experienced in the world today, flood is said to be the most devastating in terms of the area covered and frequency of occurrence. Floods cause serious damage to lives and properties, disrupt economic activities, and, in turn, threaten the sustainable development of human settlements. In Nigeria, flooding has become a recurring phenomenon, sometimes with devastating effects. This study was aimed at assessing the socio-economic, infrastructural, and environmental impacts of floods in Makurdi Local Government Area (LGA). A non-probability sampling technique involving the use of a well-structured questionnaire was adopted in obtaining the required information. Purposive random sampling was used to select four hundred (400) flood victims from the nine (9) local wards bordering the Benue River. Analysis was done using Microsoft Excel and the findings were presented in tables and charts using percentages. The result showed that floods have a huge impact on the community, with greater damage 44% recorded on socio-economic activities (farming, marketing, and administration), followed by a 32% impact on infrastructural facilities (roads, hospitals, and schools), and a relatively lower impact 24% recorded on environmental variables (water, land, and vegetation). An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test conducted on these revealed that there is a significant variation in the impact created by floods on the study variables. Flood mitigation and preparedness plans were found to be the leading challenges to long-term flood disaster management in the area. The paper calls for collaborative efforts from residents, flood disaster management agencies, or stakeholders to reduce the impact and improve decisions towards ameliorating the menace of floods in the area. The evidence in this paper seeks to promote actions toward combating flooding and improving flood disaster management in Nigeria.</p> Tertese Peter Ikyapa Adnan Abdulhamid Tasi’u Yalwa Rilwanu Mala Muhammed Daura Philip Aondosoor Alogo Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 210 217 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45364 Effects of Palm Leaf Ash and Palm Kernel Fibre on Properties of Compressed Laterite Earth Brick https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45365 <p>This study was designed to compare the effects of the properties of compressed laterite earth brick (CLEB) stabilized with palm leaf ash (PKA) and palm kernel fiber (KPF). The study was carried out in Building Technology Department, Federal Polytechnic Bida, Niger State. Bricks of 222×110×70 were produced using manual pressed machine where nine bricks each were stabilized with palm kernel fiber for 1%, 2%, and 3%. Also 9 bricks each were stabilized with palm leaf ash for each percent 5%, 10% and 15%. The materials used were Palm Kernel Fiber, Palm Leaf Ash laterite soil, and water. The abrasion resistance test and water penetration test were carried out. The findings revealed that the water penetration rate for the CLEB bricks stabilized with PKF recorded average penetration rate of 10.18 at 1%, 11.52 at 2% and 12.19 at 3%. Only 3% produced higher penetration rate while CLEB stabilized with PLA recorded average water penetration rate of 11.58 at 5%, 10.63 at 10%, and 11.27 at 15%. All were in conformity with NBRRI specification of 12.5%. The abrasion resistance of the 28 day CLEB stabilized with PKF recorded average abrasion of 1.40 at 1%, 1.28 at 2% and 3.68 at 3%. All result were conformity with the NBBRI specification of 6.9. While the abrasion resistance of the 28 day CLEB stabilized with PLA recorded average abrasion of 2.39 at 5%, 2.22 at 10% and 2.32 at 15% which were in conformity with the NBBRI specification of 6.9. Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that the CLEB stabilized with palm kernel fiber at&nbsp; 1% and 2% are in conformity with NBRRI specification of compressive strength, water absorption rate and abrasion resistance. While compressed laterite bricks stabilized with palm leaf ash should be improve to conform to NBRRI specification.</p> K. Jude C. O. Igwe B. M. Mohammed Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 218 223 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45365 Measurement of Activity Concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in Commercial Wall Paints Used in Nigeria and Inherent Radiological Hazards https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45368 <p>Ionizing radiations from building materials portend serious health risk to atoms and molecules of body cells by damaging tissues and altering the DNA in genes. In this study, the measurement of radioactivity concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th to determine inherent radiological hazards in major brands of commercial wall paints used in Nigeria was carried out. Twenty paint samples were selected based on the popularity and quantity of sales of these paints’ brands as obtained from oral interview with these paints’ marketers. A NaI (Tl) detector (76×76 mm) was employed in the measurements. High mean levels of the radioactivity of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were observed in emulsion paints 174.73, 58.18 and 56.98 Bq/kg while oil paints gave lower values of 119.66, 44.66 and 37.86 Bq/kg for 40K, 226Ra and 232Th respectively. From results obtained, most of the emulsion and oil paints available in Nigeria present low level of radioactivity concentration which does not pose significant radiological risk to user population. However, average excess lifetime cancer risk of these paints gave a value higher than the recommended limit. Based on this, regulation, quality control and constant monitoring of raw materials used for paint production in Nigeria is highly advised.</p> E. O. Echeweozo G. M. Onwunyiriuwa P. A. Nwigwe Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 224 232 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45368 Environmental Impacts of Automotive Air Conditioning System Maintenance Practices Embraced by Service Technicians in Niger State, Nigeria https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45371 <p>This research work examined the environmental impacts of automotive air conditioning system maintenance practices embraced by service technician in Niger State, Nigeria.&nbsp; The study sought out the problem associated with automotive air conditioning maintenance practices and the way of improving automotive air conditioning system maintenance practices by automotive air conditioning services technicians in Niger State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. A descriptive survey research designed was adopted for the study. A total population of 155 respondents comprises of 97 highly experienced registered air conditioning service technicians and 58 moderately experienced registered air conditioning service technicians in Niger State. The respondents were selected according to the year of service, which was 1-14 years for moderately experienced and 15 above for highly experienced service technicians. Due to manageable sizes of the respondents, the entire population was used i.e no sampling techniques was utilized for the study. A structured questionnaire title “Automotive Air Conditioning System Maintenance Practices Questionnaire” was faced validated by three experts (one lecturer from Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology Minna, one expert from Ministry of Environment Niger State and one expert from Ministry of Health Niger State). The questionnaire was pilot tested using 30 automotive air conditioning service technicians from Abuja. The data collected were analyzed using Cronbach Alpha Statistics and its yielded to 0.71 reliability coefficient. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyze the research questions and hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using z-test statistics. The numerical values obtained from the responses of the respondents were tabulated and analyzed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 23. The findings among other revealed that&nbsp; inhalation of concentration refrigerant vapour is dangerous and can be fatal, exposure to level of fluorocarbons above recommended exposure levels can results in loss of concentration and drowsiness, inhaling refrigerants adds to the effect of chronic illness. It is recommended amongst other that hazardous automotive air conditioning waste generated by automotive service technicians’ shops should always be removed by licensed personnel under the supervision of environmental agencies. Manufacturer instructions on refrigerants should be followed by technicians.</p> U O Ogunleye R Audu A M Hassan M Abdulkadir Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 233 240 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45371 Determination of Heavy Metals Concentration in Soil and Leafy Vegetables in Urban Expressway and Peri-urban Road Farms of Lagos State, Nigeria https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45372 <p>Farmers have long considered urban agriculture as a panacea to urban food insecurity. However, growing food in cities is faced with many challenges like food contamination. Past studies on leafy vegetables focused on vegetables cultivated in urban centres. However, this paper aimed to determine and compare the level of heavy metals concentrations in soil and leafy vegetables in Urban Expressway Farms (UEF) and Peri-urban Road Farms (PRF) in Lagos, Nigeria. These two locations were purposefully selected. Soil Auger was used to drill holes to the required soil depth to collect soil samples. Sample of <em>Amaranthus hybridus, Celosia argentea</em> and <em>Corchorus olitorius</em> were collected using “envelope” principle. Pb, Cd and Mn residues in the samples were digested and determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The collected data were analysed using mean, standard deviation and Analysis of Variance. The mean pH value for UEF soil is 6.5 while PRF soil is 6.6. The highest Pb (0.93±0.06) was recorded in <em>Celosia argentea</em> at UEF. The highest mean concentration of Cd (0.51±0.11) was recorded in <em>Amaranthus hybridus</em> at UEF. The highest concentration for Mn was recorded in <em>Amaranthus hybridus</em> (0.98±0.02) at UEF. The concentrations of Pb in <em>Celosia argentea</em> at UEF 5 m from the expressway and Cd concentration in <em>Amaranthus hybridus</em> at 10 m from expressway were above the WHO/FAO permissible levels in vegetables. Level of heavy metal residue observed in soil and vegetables under this study were mostly influenced by the location of the farm-environment and not mainly the vegetable type.&nbsp; The relative concentrations of Pb and Cd in all the three leafy vegetables raise some serious environmental concerns and need to be monitored regularly to prevent consumption of contaminated leafy vegetables. Farmers are encouraged to cultivate in fields far away from expressway.</p> Peter Sanjo Adewale Sunday Clement Olubunmi Makinde Victor Owolola Kusemiju Olawole O. Obembe Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 241 246 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45372 Assessment of Task, Activities and Working Materials Used in Non-Formal Training of Solar and Satellite System Installation in Niger State https://nepjol.info/index.php/josem/article/view/45376 <p>The study was designed to assess the tasks, activities and workings materials in the non-formal training of craft man in solar and satellite systems installation in Niger State of Nigeria. Descriptive survey research method was adopted. The population for the study comprised of 243 trainees and 99 master trainers. For this study, the entire population of the trainee and the master trainers was used; hence, sampling was not carried out. The research instrument used in this study was a structured questionnaire, and it involved the use of a Likert scale. The instrument was validated by experts in the Department of Industrial and Technology Education, Federal University of Technology, Minna. Cronbach Alpha co-efficient was used to determine the internal consistency of the instrument and it yielded reliability coefficient of 0.99. Data were collected through questionnaire with the help of six research assistants. SPSS was used to perform analysis of the data. Mean and standard deviation was used to evaluate research questions, while z test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings from the hypothesis of the study revealed that that there is no significant difference between the mean responses of trainers and trainee on tasks in non- formal training of solar system installation with a the mean and standard deviation of trainer are 3.55 and 0.70 while the mean and standard deviation of trainee are 3.39 and 0.73 respectively, since the p-value (0.52) is greater than 0.05. The study concluded that the need for training of trainee in the working environment and the participation of master trainers in the structuring of the apprenticeship learning to learn comprehensively. The study recommends that master trainers should be appropriate in planning tasks in non-formal training of trainees in solar system installation. The government should provide working materials for trainers and trainee in non-formal training of solar and satellite system installation.</p> J. I. J. Kuta O. O. Yusuf E. Raymond Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-05-26 2022-05-26 1 2 247 256 10.3126/josem.v1i2.45376