Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management <p>The Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management is published by Jiwanta Nepal, New Baneshwor 32, Kathmandu, Nepal. The journal can also be found on its own website at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Jiwanta Nepal en-US Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management 2822-1729 Distribution and Abundance of Pila globosa in Biltongi, Natore, Bangladesh <p>Freshwater snail population numbers and their ecological significance need to be better understood. This study aimed to measure snail abundance in Biltongi-Narayanparabeel in the Natore district. The objective was to establish the population density of snails using the CMR (Capture-Mark-Recapture) method in four sections of the Biltongi-Narayanpara beel between August 2022 and February 2023. Snail samples were collected from four sampling sites, each located in different areas: one near agricultural land, one in the shallows, and one in the middle of the deepest part of the beel. The plot with the highest overall mean population density in terms of CMR for the presence of snails was plot 3 (33.25 ± 2.75), while the field with the lowest density was plot 4(22.75 ± 2.22). The biomass showed only slight variations across the different habitat categories. This is likely due to the presence of many young snails in shallow areas, whereas young snails in nearby regions were nearly nonexistent.</p> Umme Habiba Shathi Md. Rashidul Hasan Md. Redwanur Rahman Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-16 2023-10-16 2 3 150 157 10.3126/josem.v2i3.59103 Impact of Climate Change on Economic Development Associated with Water Scarcity: A Review <p>Concerns about climate change-induced water scarcity has the potential to hinder development activities. This study aimed to investigate the impact of climate change-related water scarcity on economic development. The study was based on a comprehensive analysis of secondary data obtained from online various sources, including websites, journals, and publications. The analysis revealed a robust inverse correlation between economic growth and water shortages resulting from climate change, with adverse consequences observed in multiple sectors, including health, energy, and agriculture, among others. This study recommends prioritizing the development of water infrastructure, enhancing groundwater replenishment, promoting wastewater recycling and rainwater harvesting practices, improving agricultural techniques, and adopting cutting-edge water conservation technologies to address water scarcity and foster sustainable water resource management.</p> Mst. Suraiya Sultana M. G. Mostafa Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-16 2023-10-16 2 3 158 169 10.3126/josem.v2i3.59105 Socio-Economic Impacts of Landslides and Applied Mitigation Techniques: A Case Study in Bagnaskali, Nepal <p>This study aimed to estimate the socio-economic impacts of landslides and identify mitigation techniques being applied for landslide control in Bagnaskali rural municipality, Palpa. Purposive sampling was conducted to focus the research on plots with frequent landslide occurrences. Out of the 20 identified landslide-prone sites, a random sampling method was used to ensure representative data collection with a 40% sampling intensity. Data were collected through direct observation, transect walks, and household surveys conducted in areas prone to landslides. Additionally, discussions were held with key informants, the technical team, and experts in the field to validate the collected data. In Bagnaskali rural municipality in the year 2020, six households reported damage, two cases of death occurred, 24 livestock fatalities were recorded, and there was damage to cultural heritage due to landslides, resulting in social losses. Affected communities also incurred compensatory losses ranging from NRs 10 to 50 lakhs due to the destruction of water resources, road blockages, and agricultural land damage. As mitigation measures for landslides, the municipality applied civil engineering techniques such as gabion walls, masonry, culverts, check dams, and reinforced concrete (RCC), as well as bioengineering techniques including plantation, wattling, and brush-layering. Civil engineering techniques were prioritized for mitigating landslides, with bioengineering serving as a supporting base. Plots where both civil and bioengineering techniques were employed together exhibited greater slope stability and reduced vulnerability. Therefore, it is recommended to use mitigation techniques that stabilize slopes and reinforce the soil to control landslide hazards effectively. To successfully reduce landslides and protect vulnerable communities, comprehensive policies, laws, and investments are required. Technical and financial assistance from governmental and non-governmental sectors is essential to minimize the impacts of landslides and implement the most effective mitigation techniques for landslide control.</p> Anushka Shakya Pawan Sigdel Saroj Pokhrel Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-16 2023-10-16 2 3 170 178 10.3126/josem.v2i3.59106 Determination of October to December Seasonal Rainfall Variability, its Seasonal Onset and Cessation Dates in Zanzibar, Tanzania <p>This study aimed in determining the October to December (OND) rainfall variability, seasonal onset and cessation dates in Zanzibar, Tanzania. The study used 10 years daily rainfall (2012–2021) and 30 years monthly rainfall datasets obtained from six meteorological stations. Other climate parameters of Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Winds, Relative Humidity and Vertical Velocity having temporal resolution of 30 years (1992-2021) were also used. Rainfall seasonal variability was analyzed using Climatological mean and Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis, onset and cessation dates was calculated using Cumulative percentage anomalies. The composite analysis was taken to examine the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with OND seasonal rainfall. The study revealed that; OND season is characterized by normal to moderate rainfall variations from region to region with its peak marked at November (mid-season). Despite the slight differences over both Islands, average onset dates occur on&nbsp; third dekade of October (22<sup>nd</sup>&nbsp; – 25<sup>th</sup>) and cessation dates on the second dekade of December (i.e.10<sup>th</sup> -12<sup>th</sup>), indicating a&nbsp; maximum duration of 55- 60 days and makes a cycle of the short rains. The atmospheric circulation anomalies of SST, Winds, Relative Humidity and Vertical Velocity during wet years are linked with low level unstable moist winds originated from Congo basin. These anomalies are organized and converges with maritime north easterly winds from the Indian Ocean (mostly over the northern coast of Tanzania, including Zanzibar) and becoming a potential cause for rainfall during the season, while during dry years, the winds diverge as a result of dryness over the region. Therefore the results indicates that convergence (divergence) of the northwesterly to westerly, easterly and southeasterly flow contributed to the early(late) wetness (dryness) over Zanzibar and its surroundings. The study results will help to enhance the improvement of short rains seasonal onsets and cessations forecasts and improve the socio - economic activities over Zanzibar and Tanzanian at large.</p> Riziki Ali Suleiman Wang Wen Jonah Kazora Elias Julius Lipiki Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-16 2023-10-16 2 3 179 189 10.3126/josem.v2i3.59312 Trip Generation Model for Gboko Town, Benue State, Nigeria <p>Nowadays many urban planning authorities especially in less developed countries have been struggling with traffic related challenges like traffic congestion, air pollution and traffic accidents in their cities. However, solutions to these problems cannot be achieved without rational planning decisions and cannot be attained without the basic understanding of the urban transport system. This study was carried out to assess commuter trip generation in Gboko town, Benue State with a view to estimate long-range future travel demand that would accommodate future transportation needs. Trip generation data was collected from 440 households using questionnaire and travel diary. The information from questionnaire and travel diary was used to prepare the origin-destination matrix, and gravity model was used to translate trip distribution into trip length frequency. Work trip had the greatest trip percentage (%) share among other trip purposes and was proxy for trip distribution. The 25-minute work trips dominated the urban trip pattern in Gboko town with 17.01 % annual increase. It implied that people would take much longer time and distance to reach their destination in Gboko town due to the large expanse of the town, or due to deficiency in public transit facilities and poor road infrastructure. Trip generation and distribution models for Gboko town provided accurate scenarios of the current travel pattern in the town and aided in forecasting future travel situations in the study area. The study recommended that urban transportation policy should encourage provision of public transit buses, incentives for public transit users and improve on the road network system to shorten the trip length frequency of the town.</p> Akaawase Alexander Mchi Victor Umoren Copyright (c) 2023 2023-10-16 2023-10-16 2 3 190 202 10.3126/josem.v2i3.59311