Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management <p>The Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management is published by Jiwanta Nepal, New Baneshwor 32, Kathmandu, Nepal. The journal can also be found on its own website at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Jiwanta Nepal en-US Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management 2822-1729 Microbial Diversity in Rainwater with Correspondence to Particulate Matter and Environmental Factors <p>Microbial composition in rainwater has emerged as a trending research topic due to the increased use of rainwater harvesting systems (RWHS) worldwide. Studies have been conducted to analyze potentially pathogenic microorganisms in RWHS. However, the core focus in most papers has been on the rainwater collected in the storage tanks rather than the composition of microorganisms in fresh rainwater. Due to the microbial influence on air quality, this review dissects various studies that have identified the types of microorganisms in rainwater and their correspondence with atmospheric microbiota to understand airborne microbial movement and its effect. Current methods for rainwater analysis and technologies such as air mass models, that map the distribution of airborne microorganisms throughout the atmosphere, were evaluated to define factors that allow these organisms to move through different levels of the atmosphere. Additionally, the correlation between organisms found in rainwater and particulate matter was analyzed. This review discusses the importance of analyzing rainwater directly without limiting it to RWHS, like roof-harvested rainwater, in microbial source tracking. The paper also presents an overview of ecological contributions by microorganisms at a tropospheric level. Research gaps were noted in identification techniques, the type of microorganisms studied, and their ecological purposes, including paucity in viral detection. The uniqueness of this review is that potential new techniques were explored for prospective studies to improve and further analyze the microbial communities in rainwater. The more focus we give to microbial communities in fresh rainwater in the future, the easier it will be to predict the levels of pathogenicity and disease transmission related to airborne microbiota.</p> Walgampolage Achintha Kalani Perera Dhammika Nayoma Magana-Arachchi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 1 4 410 418 10.3126/josem.v1i4.50006 Media Advocacy in Climate Action: Showcasing Best Practices in West Africa <p>Despite the level of threat climate change poses to humanity, climate action is poorly advocated for using one of the most powerful and easily accessible tools, the media. This stands particularly true in West Africa, the part of the planet factually concluded to be most severely affected in the case of possible climate crises. Using desktop review, this research was carried out to comb through existing literature for evidence of Africa's active advocacy for climate action through the utilization of the media. In its aim to do so, the researchers examined a total of 144 sources. 52 sources were seen to achieve best practices, based on the authors’ conceptualization of media advocacy (a measure that incorporates sustainability). Out of the sources examined, the best practices were found most in Southern Africa and least in Western Africa. Furthermore, the best media practices to carry out climate advocacy in West Africa were highlighted and explained in detail. The study contributes to the scarce literature showcasing best media practices in advocating for sustainable actions in climate adaptation with West Africa. It has the potential to open new themes and spark media discourse surrounding the drivers of sustainable climate actions in West Africa, a region with the lowest enthusiasm for climate action amongst other regions in Africa. The paper acts as a wake-up call for countries in West Africa to emulate the showcased practices in tackling climate challenges.</p> O.A. Binuyo O.E. Bamgboye G.A. Adeola Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 1 4 419 424 10.3126/josem.v1i4.50007 Determination of Aflatoxin Levels and Prevalence of Fungal Flora of Cwande Condiments Sold in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State, Nigeria <p>Aflatoxins are group of secondary metabolites produced by certain mold species which are dangerous to humans and animals. Cwande is a local condiment that is used to add flavor to the food, it get infected with fungi and aflatoxins as a result of improper processing and storage procedures. This study aimed to determine the aflatoxin levels in Cwande condiments sold in Zuru Local Government Area, Kebbi State, Nigeria, as well as the prevalence of fungal flora. Twenty (20) dried processed samples from four different collection points in Zuru central market were chosen at random and placed in brand-new polythene bags. Fungi were isolated on Potato Dextrose Agar by Standard Dilution Plate method. Aflatoxin was determined using the ELISA method, which is enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Five fungal species were isolated and identified as <em>Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. fumigatus, Rhizopus stolonifer</em> and <em>Fusarium Oxysporum</em>. Fungal species were present in varying degrees, from 9.09% to 39.39%. Aflatoxins varied from 2.539 to 2.546 in all samples. These results led to the discovery that the commercially available Cwande in the Zuru central market was tainted with various fungal species, including aflatoxigenic ones. All of the samples tested positive for aflatoxin according to the analysis, however none of them had levels that exceeded the 10g/kg maximum permissible limit for humans stipulated by the EU and NAFDAC. More research should be conducted in order to determine the nutritional and anti-nutritional components of the regional condiment (Cwande).</p> A Ahmad J.N. Keta Dharmendra Singh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 1 4 371 375 10.3126/josem.v1i4.49997 Utilization and Conversion of Discarded Lobster Shells into Valuable Biopolymers - A Pilot Study <p>Chitin is one of the most abundant polysaccharides and can be made by combining shells of crabs, shrimp, lobsters, and fish. This study used discarded lobster shells as a raw material to produce a biopolymer.&nbsp; As part of the process, TiO<sub>2</sub> was incorporated into the film in order to increase tensile strength. As compared to the control sample without TiO<sub>2</sub> (3.34 MPa), the experimental sample with TiO<sub>2</sub> showed improved tensile strength (3.96 MPa). Bio composites containing chitin and chitosan have been shown to produce thin, labile, textured films with good apparent textures. Upon tensile testing, it was determined that the material produced was sturdy enough for use as packaging and medical equipment. The prepared samples were analyzed in a variety of ways to understand their properties. In the FTIR analysis, it is evident that certain functional components are present that are responsible for the plasticity of the material. A study conducted on pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus indicated that the film had antimicrobial properties, as indicated by the zone of inhibition between 13 mm and 11 mm in samples with TiO<sub>2</sub>, respectively, and 11 mm and 10 mm in samples without TiO<sub>2</sub>. According to the physical degradation test, the produced biopolymer was 100% degraded when compared to a synthetic plastic (12%), which makes it the best choice for creating a multipurpose material. In addition to its biodegradability, biocompatibility, and anti-microbial properties, this material is suitable for use as biomedical interfaces and packaging materials.</p> Aishwarya Lakshmi Thasvanth Raj Rinish Mortin John Sesvi Deepakraj Yuvaraj Dinakarkumar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 1 4 376 382 10.3126/josem.v1i4.49998 Ruderal Plants Biomass and Soil Physicochemical Parameters in Birnin Kebbi Metropolis, Kebbi State, Nigeria <p>This research was aimed to determine below ground biomass (BGB) of ruderal plants species and soil physicochemical parameters in seven homogenous sample plots in Birnin Kebbi Metropolis of Kebbi State, Nigeria and to assess their importance for energy flow in the ecosystems. Completely Randomize Design was adopted for monthly sampling (June-November 2019) and belowground biomass were collected after removing above ground biomass by digging 40 cm depth to collect fresh BGB in the central 20cm x 20cm quadrat using destructive method which was then oven dried at 650C for 48 hrs. Soil samples were collected between 0-15 cm depths using soil auger for analysis of soil physicochemical parameters using standard methods. Below ground biomass differed significantly between the months (P≤0.05) with gradual increase from a minimum values in June (18.18±0.82 gm-2/month) to a maximum values in October (71.92±1.93gm-2/month) and a decreased in November (61.31±1.36 gm-2/month). There was no significant difference among the sites (P&gt;0.05). Site A, F and C recorded the highest value of Nitrogen (0.15±0.06%, 0.15±0.02% and 0.13±0.11%), Phosphorus (14.07±0.37mg/kg, 12.03±0.33mg/kg and 9.14±0.13mg/kg), Potassium (0.16±0.08 cmol/kg, 0.15±0.11 cmol/kg and 0.12±0.04 cmol/kg) and Organic matter (1.03±0.15%, 0.88±0.33% and 0.76±0.08%) respectively and the result was not statistically different (P&gt;0.05).The research shows that ruderal plants adapted the ecological factors of the study area and provides based line information on below ground Biomass (BGB) of ruderal plants species in Birnin Kebbi town and also provide valuable information on the physical and chemical properties of soil that supports growth and development of the ruderal plants. Further research on the belowground biomass of most dominant ruderal plants in Birnin Kebbi ecological zone should be conducted to assess their contribution in providing land cover and soil compaction which can reduce percolation and carbon sequestration.</p> Dharmendra Singh Jafar Musa Jibrin Naka Keta Neelam Tomar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 1 4 383 390 10.3126/josem.v1i4.50000 Chemical and Microbiological Contamination of Natural Water Resources in Saedinenie, Bulgaria <p>Human impact on the quality of freshwater source creates a risk of long-term pollution in water bodies intended for drinking and irrigation purposes. In the present study, the chemical and microbiological contamination of natural water from two wells and Potoka River of the town Saedinenie, Bulgaria were studied. All groundwater samples showed very high NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> and Cd<sup>2+</sup> content – 400 mg/l and 0,167 mg/l for Well 1 together with 431 mg/l and 0,188 mg/l for Well 2, respectively. Strong contamination with <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> and sulfite-reducing microorganisms was also observed. In both cases limits for drinking purposes were exceeded. NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>-N in the Potoka River was around 4,47 mg/l, i.e. less than the maximum threshold value. However, the amount of Cd<sup>2+</sup> was found to be highest in all of the conducted experiments, reaching 0,300 mg/l at permissible values of 0,010 mg/l. This shows all tested samples require pre-treatment before using for any purpose.</p> Aleksandar Slavov Bogdan Goranov Zapryana Denkova Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 1 4 391 397 10.3126/josem.v1i4.50001 Nutritional and Antinutritional Analysis of Dawadawa Condiment in Aliero Local Government, Kebbi State, Nigeria <p>Dawadawa is among the most important soup ingredients in Aliero, Kebbi State, Nigeria. The locally produced condiment is being prepared and used to add flavor to soup for many decades without the scientific knowledge of its nutritional and anti-nutritional contents. This study aimed to analyze the proximate and antinutrional contents of Dawadawa in Aliero Local Government, Kebbi State, Nigeria. Five samples from each four collection areas were collected and transported to Botany Laboratory, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology Aliero for analysis. Analysis of the proximate and antinutrient parameters were carried out using the AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) recommended techniques.&nbsp; The result of the study revealed that the condiments had high moisture contents (33.34 + 2.09) followed by protein (29.37 + 1.31), fibre (13.07 + 0.54), carbohydrate (12.83 + 1.34), lipid (8.92 + 1.75) and ash (2.49 + 0.83). While the results antinutrional analysis revealed that that Cyanide has the highest composition (4.81 + 0.33) followed by Oxalate (4.07 + 0.50), Phytate (3.01 + 0.19) and Saponins (2.90 + 0.36). It was found that Dawadawa condiments have high nutritional contents with low level of antinutrients. In view of the high nutriental content and low antinutriental content, it is recommended that Dawadawa should be used as substitute to the monosodium glutamate-based seasoning salts.</p> A Ahmad J.N. Keta Dharmendra Singh S.R Hassan M Ibrahim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 1 4 398 402 10.3126/josem.v1i4.50002 Nature of Forest Crime in Bangladesh: An Empirical Study on Modhupur Reserve Forest <p>The national sal forest, includes the Modhupur Reserve forest, which takes up 76% of the total space. Along with a variety of tree species, this forest is rich in biodiversity. This forest is also threatened by forest crime since it has attracted the attention of grabbers. The scope of forest crime in the Modhupur Reserve Forest was examined in this study. Other objectives include understanding the causes and consequences of forest crime on the ecosystem and humans, as well as the role of law enforcement in forest crime prevention. The study adopted a quantitative methodology and collected data using a non-probability purposive sampling technique. A total of 150 people between the ages of 18 and 83 were collected from the Modhupur Reserve Forest in Tangail. The study' main findings include the smuggling of Sal, Gujjar, and Acacia, deforestation and squatting on forestland, as well as the trafficking of endangered and rare animals and flora. The primary factors that substantially contribute to the growth of forest crime include corruption and dishonesty among forest employees, security personnel, authorities, and even locals. The presence of forest crime jeopardizes both human and natural equilibrium. Acute environmental problems and livestock survival have a significant association. Water scarcity, air pollution, and an increase in natural calamities are just a few of the severe environmental issues that Modhupur people are currently dealing with. Additionally, police involvement is insufficient to eliminate forest crime.</p> Md. Abdul Kader Miah Anira Mohiuddin Srideb Chakrabarty Copyright (c) 2022 2022-12-12 2022-12-12 1 4 403 409 10.3126/josem.v1i4.50005