Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management 2023-05-30T09:03:23+00:00 Mr. Ashish Khanal Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Sustainability and Environmental Management is published by Jiwanta Nepal, New Baneshwor 32, Kathmandu, Nepal. The journal can also be found on its own website at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> Mangrove Land Suitability Assessment Using Weighted Linear Combination: A Case Study of La Union Province Coastline, Philippines 2023-05-28T00:15:03+00:00 Alexis Ann Aduana-Alcantara King Joshua Almadrones-Reyes Nikki Heherson A. Dagamac <p>Land suitability assessments play a crucial role in determining optimal land use patterns to meet specific requirements, particularly in the context of forest restorations and plantations. However, there is a lack of studies reporting such assessments for mangrove rehabilitation and reforestation in the Philippines, leading to low survival rates (10-20%) due to improper site selection and site-species matching. This study aims to identify and narrow down suitable sites for mangrove growth in La Union Province, facilitating ground truthing for site selection and species matching. The Geographic Information System (GIS) method, specifically the Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) using ArcMap software, was employed. The study identified four suitable sites along the coastline of La Union within the jurisdictions of Aringay, Bangar, Sto. Tomas, and the City of San Fernando, all actively involved in mangrove conservation. However, mangrove planting efforts in other municipalities along the coastline of La Union, such as Agoo, Balaoan, and Bauang, were not reflected on the maps due to data resolution limitations. Nevertheless, the study's findings should be regarded as a supportive tool in the site determination process, with ground truthing and assessment remaining essential. Integrating the study's results with mangrove rehabilitation/reforestation efforts offers efficiency options that have the potential to enhance project success rates.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregates with Plastic Waste in Paver Blocks 2023-05-28T00:55:22+00:00 Adetoye Olubunmi Rabiu Olayemi Olamoju Afolayan Taiye <p>Plastics are widely used worldwide, but their non-biodegradable nature leads to significant waste generation. Improper management of plastic waste poses environmental hazards. Paver blocks made of concrete offer versatility, aesthetic appeal, and low maintenance when manufactured and placed correctly. Utilizing plastic as a building material aligns with Sustainable Development Goals. Concrete production contributes to the depletion of natural resources like aggregates. This study investigates the partial replacement of coarse aggregates with plastic waste in pavement blocks, using a mix ratio of 1:2:4. Coarse aggregates were replaced at volumes of 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%. After batching and mixing, 54 cubes were produced and cured for 7, 14, and 28 days. Tests conducted included slump, compressive strength, and water absorption. The results indicate an optimal replacement of 10% of coarse aggregates with plastic waste which reduced water absorption. Plastic waste is recommended for use in low-load bearing walls and structures like pedestrian footpaths and water retaining structures, reducing costs and conserving natural resources. Effective utilization of plastic waste in the construction industry benefits the environment.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Assessment of Working Environment Factors Influencing Construction Workers' Performance in the Nigerian Construction Industry 2023-05-28T01:25:12+00:00 Kingsley Sunday Ihedigbo Hamzat Mohammed Awwal Rasaq Ademola Sakiru Christopher Egwu Olughu Abdulkabir Opeyemi Bello <p>The working environment plays a crucial role in determining the performance of employees in the construction industry. Factors such as physical conditions, ergonomics, and the social and cultural atmosphere significantly impact how well employees carry out their tasks. Unfortunately, these factors have been negatively affecting the performance and productivity of the Nigerian construction industry. This study aims to assess the working environment factors that influence construction workers' performance in Nigeria. A quantitative research approach was adopted, utilizing a five-point Likert-based questionnaire for data collection. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed, resulting in 187 valid responses, which is considered adequate for analysis. The results indicate that 11 out of the 16 hypothesized barriers were statistically significant, surpassing the set threshold of 3.5. The most significant factors influencing construction workers' performance in the working environment were found to be disputes among workers, poor weather conditions, equipment failure, changes in orders during unpredictable execution, and major rework due to unforeseen conditions. Through factor analysis, the barriers were categorized into three components: "Physical and Social-related barriers," "Operational-related barriers," and "Welfare-related barriers." This study highlights the paramount importance of working conditions in determining employee performance and recommends the development and implementation of strategies to mitigate working condition challenges in the construction industry. The findings of this study can be applicable to construction industries in other countries with similar characteristics to Nigeria.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Implementation Strategies for Modular Construction Systems in Developing Countries: Perspectives of Nigerian AEC Professionals 2023-05-28T01:35:28+00:00 Abdulkabir Opeyemi Bello Kingsley Sunday Ihedigbo Taofiq Bello Hamzat Mohammed Awwal <p>This study aimed to develop effective strategies for implementing Modular Construction Systems (MCS) in developing countries, with a specific focus on the perspectives of Nigerian Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) professionals. A quantitative research approach was adopted, involving a survey of 227 AEC professionals in Nigeria. The survey collected respondents' perceptions on the developed MCS strategies in developing countries using a structured five-point Likert scale questionnaire. The professionals were identified through a snowball sampling technique. The results indicated that all fourteen hypothesized strategies were statistically significant for implementing MCS in developing countries. The strategies that received the highest mean scores were "Increasing awareness among professionals and stakeholders," "Creating an enabling environment within the industry," and "Government participation in the usage of MCS." The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed that professionals, regardless of their varied professions, held similar opinions on the identified strategies. The study has practical implications for the AEC industry in developing countries by providing valuable insights into strategies for implementing MCS. It can also assist policymakers in making informed decisions. Overall, this study offers a pathway for implementing MCS, addressing the housing shortage, and improving the quality of housing in developing countries.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Understanding the Challenges of the Hilsa Fishing Community in Bangladesh: The River of Life 2023-05-28T01:44:26+00:00 A.B.M. Arman Hossain Gazi Muhammad Abdullah Mahdi Md. Mehedi Hasan Pramanik <p>This study examines the economic, livelihood, and social-environmental conditions of the Meghna Riverbank Hilsa fishermen in the Chandpur region of Bangladesh. The research methods encompassed household surveys, surveys conducted during fishing activities, individual interviews, focus group discussions (FGD), key informant interviews (KII), direct observation, and problem analysis with priority ranking. To gather comprehensive information about the socio-economic conditions and livelihood strategies of the Meghna Riverbank hilsa fishermen, a semi-structured interview schedule was conducted. The findings reveal that these fishermen face exploitation, financial instability, and extreme poverty, relying solely on the river for their income. They lack access to fishing equipment and land due to river erosion, and basic necessities such as family planning, health and sanitation facilities, and education are inadequate. The overall situation is further exacerbated by social and economic constraints, including a growing number of fishermen, low incomes, limited alternative sources of income, loan repayment difficulties, piracy, rising prices, and resource disputes among stakeholders. To improve their standard of living, the study recommends effective interventions, cooperation between government and non-government organizations, and meticulous execution of strategies.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sundarbans Mangrove Mapping and Above Ground Biomass Estimation Using Earth Observation Techniques 2023-05-28T02:40:29+00:00 Md. Kamruzzaman Tusar Md Abid Hasan Niger Sultana <p>The Sundarbans, the world's largest mangrove forest, plays a crucial role in Bangladesh's economy and environment. However, overexploitation, anthropogenic activities like tree cutting for development and agriculture, as well as natural disasters, have caused severe damage and changes to the Sundarbans. This research aims to detect changes in the mangrove forest areas and create an above-ground biomass map of the Sundarbans Forest. Previous studies relied on time-consuming and inaccurate traditional methods, while this study seeks to make a significant contribution to mangrove mapping and forest resource management. Landsat 5 and 8 images from 2007 to 2017 were used to generate the mangrove index (including CMRI and MI) for different years. ALOS-PALSAR 2 and JERS images from 1996, 2007, and 2017, with HV+HH polarization, were processed to calculate the backscatter ratio, enabling identification and estimation of vegetation loss and gain over the years. To estimate the above-ground biomass (AGB), tree height was derived from SRTM DEM, and an allometric equation was used to calculate AGB. The results indicate a continuous shrinkage of the mangrove forest. The 2017 maps of the two different indexes reveal significant mangrove vegetation loss compared to 1996 and 2007. Additionally, the study estimates the total above-ground biomass of the Sundarbans mangrove forest to be 329 million tons. The findings can assist relevant authorities in taking necessary action, formulating policies, and implementing plans for sustainable management of the Sundarbans mangrove forest resources.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Nepal and South Asia: Challenges, Progress, and Recommendations 2023-05-28T02:53:46+00:00 Suja Giri Aman Prabhakar Rohit Babu Malla Sameeksha Oli Sandip Poudel Ashish Khanal <p>This study examines the challenges and status of climate change mitigation and adaptation in South Asian countries, with a specific focus on Nepal. The study employs a purposive sampling approach, selecting countries based on the engagement of researchers in those regions and performing a comprehensive literature review. The analysis of the gathered literature provided valuable insights into the challenges of climate change mitigation and adaptation in South Asian countries, particularly Nepal. The study highlights the significant impacts of climate change on sectors such as agriculture, infrastructure, and coastal regions. However, it also acknowledges the progress made through the implementation of climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. Despite the progress, challenges remain in effectively addressing climate change, with current measures falling short of the ambitious targets set by the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement. To address these challenges, the study recommends strengthening regional collaboration and knowledge sharing, prioritizing the adoption of renewable energy technologies, investing in climate-resilient infrastructure, promoting sustainable agricultural practices, developing comprehensive policy frameworks, exploring innovative financing mechanisms, and enhancing capacity and awareness.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Assessing Climate Change Challenges and Adaptation Strategies in South Asian Countries: A Review 2023-05-28T03:03:19+00:00 Suja Giri Aakriti Prasai Ashish Khanal Renuka Khamcha Saksham Tiwari Sharmila Khadka Yashodha Thapa Nitesh Rai Mamata Pantha <p>The wide range of environmental consequences caused by climate change highlights the urgent need for global action to mitigate its effects, as it poses a significant threat to forest ecosystems, freshwater systems, and the overall stability of our planet. This review paper addresses the limitations in availability of country-specific documents on climate change in South Asian countries and identifies gaps in addressing climate change challenges. By reviewing secondary literature and utilizing online resources, the paper provides insights into the current status of climate change issues and adaptation strategies in Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Maldives and Sri Lanka. The paper emphasizes the importance of sustainable practices, community involvement, and adaptive management plans in addressing climate change impacts on forests in these countries. It also highlights the need for international collaborations, research, and monitoring to enhance their capacity to mitigate and adapt to climate change. The research findings are valuable for various stakeholders, including ecologists, geologists, hydrologists, local authorities, and governments, as they can be utilized for climate-sensitive planning, project evaluation, integrating gender perspectives, and further research.</p> 2023-05-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023