Journal of International Affairs 2020-05-28T10:47:10+00:00 Dr. Khadga K.C. Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of International Affairs is an annual publication of the Department of International Relations and Diplomacy, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> North-Western Boundary of Nepal 2020-05-28T10:46:56+00:00 Dwarika Dhungel Jagat Bhusal Narendra Khanal <p>Following the publication of new political maps by India on 2nd and 8th November 2019, the issues related to the source of Mahakali River and Indian occupation of the Nepali territory east of the river, have, once again, come to the surface. And, the Nepali civil society has come out strongly against the newly published political maps of India, prepared a new map of Nepal, showing the whole of the territory east of Mahakali River (about 400 sq. km) as Nepalese land on the basis of Treaty of Sugauli signed in 1816 by East India Company of Great Britain and Raja of Nepal. An analysis of the maps, so far available, shows that changes have been made in the names of the river and places, and there is cartographic aggression and manipulation by India in relation to Mahakali River and its boundary with Nepal’s northwest. It has also been found that Nepal has published a map in the past showing its international boundary without any basis of the treaties and other historical documents. Analysis clearly shows that the river originating from Limpiyadhura is the Mahakali (called Kalee/Kali River) as per Article 5 of the Sugauli treaty and it forms the international boundary between the two countries.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 MIRD, TU Challenges to Regional Cooperation in South Asia: An Overview 2020-05-28T10:46:58+00:00 Don McLain Gill <p>&nbsp;The devastating effects of the Second World War significantly affected states, their resources and the overall balance of peace. As a result, states began to search for a new model that would not only promote and expand trade but would also contribute to world peace. Since the 1980s there has been an increase in regional cooperative projects all over the world. The concept of regional cooperation revolves around the idea that states in a shared geographical space cooperate with each other in order to achieve goals that go beyond the capacity of individual national attainment. Regional cooperation eventually found its place in South Asia. As a result, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was established in 1985 and the South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA) agreement came into force in 2006. Despite these mechanisms, regional cooperation remained relatively low. Both economic and non-economic factors are responsible for this situation. Factors that range from tariff and non-tariff barriers to physical connectivity to asymmetric power relations and security concerns have served as obstacles to achieve regional cooperation in South Asia. In order to overcome these barriers, South Asian states must maintain flexibility in dealing with highly political issues in order to make way for regional growth and economic development.</p> 2020-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 MIRD, TU Small State Constraint: International System or Domestic Politics? A Case of Nepal and Fiji 2020-05-28T10:46:59+00:00 Gaurav Bhattarai Vasiti N.B. Cirikiyasawa <p>&nbsp;Available literature on the role of small states in international relations has focused on the international system’s impact on the maneuverability of small states. The influence of domestic politics in determining the foreign policy goals of small states seems to have lacked enough deliberations. Identifying this research gap, this article aims to analyze the foreign policy behavior of small states, including Fiji and Nepal. More precisely, this write-up argues that the small states' behavior cannot be adequately comprehended if it is only assessed from the system level of analysis, as their behavior is not only influenced by external factors or the international system. This research sheds light on how domestic factors play an important role in shaping the foreign policy of small states. In this regard, the prime objective of the paper is to examine how the domestic events of 2006 in Fiji and Nepal influenced their post-2006 foreign policy agendas. The 2006 Military Coup in Fiji and the Second People’s Movement of 2006 in Nepal are examined here to appraise how foreign policy was devised and formulated to address the issues that arose out of these events, thus allowing the two countries to remain functional in the international society of states.</p> 2020-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 MIRD, TU Critical Issues Related to Connectivity in South Asia 2020-05-28T10:47:01+00:00 Hari P. Chand <p>&nbsp;This paper mainly deals with connectivity of Nepal with neighboring countries and beyond. Nepal entered into an agreement with India for a Raxaul – Kathmandu railway line survey last year. After rail connectivity is established with India, Nepal is expected to benefit through transport costs compared to existing road connectivity. Nepal also signed an MoU with India for the development of inland water ways during the last visit by Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli to India. This is expected to provide Nepal with greater opportunities of better connection with Indian ports to promote trade with her southern neighbor and beyond. Moreover, Nepal and Chinese governments have agreed to work together to construct a rail link between Kerung and Kathmandu. This should allow Indian and Chinese railways to link in Kathmandu although that may yet take some time. Similarly, if Nepal deals tactfully with India and Bangladesh to make the Kathmandu-Kakarvitta-Phulbari-Banglabandha corridor function smoothly, there is a high possibility of establishing China-Nepal-India-Bangladesh (CNIB) Economic Corridor in the future. This paper attempts to explain the critical geo-political issues and challenges in connectivity facing Nepal. This paper is based on secondary data and both the qualitative and quantitative methods have been adopted for analysis. The key point of arguments presented by the paper is that all South Asian countries need to come up with “Connectivity Diplomacy”, preferably on the Track 1.5 level.</p> 2020-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 MIRD, TU Nepal-India Relations: Beyond Realist and Liberal Theoretical Prisms 2020-05-28T10:47:02+00:00 Karun Kishor Karki Hari KC <p>Taking the historical narratives that tout Nepal-India relations as based on mutual respect of each other’s sovereignty as a point of departure, we provide a critical reflection upon the flaws of such a single uncritical discourse that not only risks the danger of creating stereotypes but also leaves it incomplete and misleading. Although many aspects of the Nepal-India relations indeed predate the origin of the modern nation-state, any historical discourse that downplays the realpolitik in these relations leaves the story untold about India being a hegemon interfering in Nepal’s internal affairs and obstructing Nepal’s social, economic and political progression. From a neocolonial lens, we provide snapshots of the ways and instances in which India has infringed upon Nepal’s sovereignty and independence.</p> 2020-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 MIRD, TU Labour Market Outcomes and Skill Endowment of Nepali Migrant Workers in India: Case of Uttar Pradesh and Delhi 2020-05-28T10:47:03+00:00 Keshav Bashyal <p>Migration to India of Nepali workers is a historical phenomenon. Due to 'open border' and multidimensional inter-linkages, migration for work persists to this day. The importance and challenges of the labour market for Nepali migrants in India are yet to be recognized and studied. This study examines the existing skill endowments of Nepali migrant workers and strategies to enhance their labour market outcomes in India. The Indian labour market is fragile. Recruitment neither follows a strict rule or process nor are any specific skills required. From this standpoint, the situation of Nepali migrant workers is not much different than India’s internal migrants. However, Nepali migrants are neither well documented nor properly recruited in the labour markets of India. Because of their low level of education and lack of skill, they are deprived of good job opportunities and their income is also low. Most of the Nepali migrants are not netted in by the social security scheme of India. This study suggests that education; training for skills and social security benefits can go a long way in improving the labour market outcomes of the Nepali migrants.</p> 2020-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 MIRD, TU Power Trading in South Asia: Some Aspects of Benefits 2020-05-28T10:47:04+00:00 Mahendra P. Lama <p>Of having immense regional capacity of 395,096 MW as of mid-2018, South Asia is gradually emerging as a fulcrum of electricity exchange and powers trading so, bilateral exchanges are occurring, as evident in the noteworthy Bhutan-India power flow of 1,410MW. India and Bangladesh have four historic power trading practices in place and the Power Purchase Agreement of 2014 between Nepal and India, these two countries exchange up to 350 MW of electricity. All these have triggered immense possibilities opening the scope for multilateral power flows. A huge jump from the present total cross-border trading of hardly 2500 MW is very possible. Nepal could potentially be the biggest beneficiary in this game. If harnessed steadily, its power could be sold across South and South East Asia, with wheeling facilities provided by Indian national grids. A Bangladesh–Bhutan–India trilateral hydroelectric power-generation agreement is likely to be signed soon. Energy secretaries of Bangladesh and Nepal have decided to develop hydropower projects in Nepal through government-to-government investment and then export the electricity thus produced to Bangladesh through the Indian transmission system Power trade would change the composition of the export baskets of power exporting countries and help them address their adverse balance of trade and balance of payment. Additional income from power export and an enhanced level of economic activity can be invested in social infrastructure.</p> 2020-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 MIRD, TU From Inner Peace to World Peace: Buddhist Meditation in Practice 2020-05-28T10:47:05+00:00 Netra P. Sharma <p>&nbsp;The concept of 'peace' is defined and understood in various ways. Understanding peace as absence of violence is a limited vision. Peace encompasses happiness and harmony among living beings. In a wider understanding, peace is the nature and goal of every sentient being. Being peaceful is living in friendship with oneself and with every creature. Peace is indivisible but peril anywhere can be a threat to peace everywhere. Buddhism envisions peace as inner state of mental tranquility which spreads outward. Attaining a state of inner peace could be an inspiration to all. Buddha attained inner peace by the practice of meditation, which inspired him to work for world peace. In most of his teachings, Buddha has emphasized that the practice of vipassanā uproots mental defilements, which are, according to him, the causes of suffering and restlessness. Once a person overcomes suffering, he realizes inner peace. Inner peace projects itself outward, towards the family, friends and the larger society. This ensures peace and harmony in the outer world. Thus, world peace can be achieved through inner peace. This article presents the existing potential of this postulation based on Buddhist understanding. Buddha became a source of inspiration to all humanity as he attained peace of mind. This research talks about how mental defilements can be uprooted, how a person finds the peace of mind and how inner peace may lead towards world peace.</p> 2020-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 MIRD, TU On The Crossroads of Economy and Environment: Nepal and BRI 2020-05-28T10:47:06+00:00 Niha Pandey Binita Subedi <p>Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), has imploded the international regime with much speculation and expectation. Primarily an economic move, BRI has its roots in infrastructure building around the less developed parts of the world in an attempt to increase connectivity and collaboration for trade among and between these states with all of them connected to Beijing. While BRI promises massive economic returns through connectivity, the question of environmental sustainability hangs in a balance. The situation is graver still for a country like Nepal that has been struggling for politico-economic as well as social stability. The dilemma discussed here is not only unique to Nepal, but reverberates through many developing and economically challenged nations around the world. The complexity of the situation becomes apparent not only because of environmental threats that loom large over the country, owing to mega infrastructure projects, but the lack of political as well as economic measures that need to be in place in order to assuage and counter the eminent threats through proper steps. All this requires further elaboration on how the Nepalese infrastructure sector and the BRI development model promise to address environmental sustainability. Nepal’s already constrained economy hangs in the dilemma following its decision to join the initiative.</p> 2020-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 MIRD, TU Soft Power in International Relations: Opportunities for Small States like Nepal 2020-05-28T10:47:08+00:00 Shweta Karki Sarashree Dhungana <p>The study of power has been one of the main features of IR. While hard power remained at the forefront of the academic discourse for a long time, soft power emerged as an alternative to understand the complex interactions between states and how states employ different sources of non-coercive means to persuade global actors. Nye, in the late twentieth century, perpetrated the idea to indicate the shift from assertion to attraction. This research has focused on why soft power has been a more relevant device for certain states in the system that lack military might. The research has largely analyzed and described the various ways in which small states around the world have resorted to soft power in the face of the interdependent world order. It then has looked into the different ways through which Nepal as a small state can effectively examine its soft power sources, to garner influence in the global power structure and obtain its foreign policy objectives, keeping in mind that the soft power of any state is dependent of the resources that it has and is also able to mobilize.</p> 2020-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 MIRD, TU Diplomatic Language: An Analysis of Salutations from Speeches used in International Diplomacy 2020-05-28T10:47:09+00:00 Surendra Pokharel <p>This paper analyzes the core aspects of diplomatic salutations through the discussion of speeches used at international summits. Speeches by heads of states were chosen from two Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Summits (1989, 2005), South Summit of Group 77 and China (2005), Islamic-American Summit (2017) and Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (BRICS) Summit (2018). Examining the context of salutations from the summits mentioned above, this paper aims to provide some insight into the international diplomatic protocol of salutations as applied at international gatherings. Research findings suggest that most leaders use salutations in a way that reflects their position within the political and cultural systems of their respective countries.</p> 2020-05-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 MIRD, TU