Journal of Nepalese Association of Pediatric Dentistry 2022-03-23T11:06:28+00:00 Dr Senchhema Limbu Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of the Nepalese Association of Pediatric Dentistry is the official journal of the <a title="NAPD" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Nepalese Association of Pediatric Dentistry</a>, Hattisar, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> Burden of Dental Caries in the Nepalese Children: A Literature Review 2022-03-22T19:09:08+00:00 Sanskriti Khanal Priyanka Shah Pratikshya Ghimire <p>Dental caries is a biofilm mediated, sugar driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. It is one of the most common global oral health problems that can occur throughout life, affecting both primary and permanent dentition. The only National Pathfinder survey of Nepal 2004 had shown 57.5% of 5-6 years age group and 25.6% of 12-16 years age group suffer from dental caries. Pain and discomfort due to untreated dental caries was 18% in 5–6-year-old. This review article draws attention to the current scenario of prevalence of dental caries in Nepalese children, which is needed to frame preventive strategies, policies and manpower allocations suitable for children. After identifying articles from PubMed, Google Scholar and hand searching, the prevalence of dental caries in Nepalese children is reviewed together.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sanskriti Khanal, Priyanka Shah, Pratikshya Ghimire Conservative Management of a Radicular Cyst Associated with a Primary Molar: A Case Report 2022-03-18T16:15:58+00:00 Alina Rai Kabiraj Poudel Mamta Dali Bandana Koirala <p>&nbsp;Radicular cysts associated with deciduous teeth are rare findings and affect mostly the mandibular teeth. Pain or loosening of tooth, swelling of jaw is a common clinical findings. A 7-year-old boy presented to the department with complaint of pain and swelling in the left side of face since one month. Orthopantomogram revealed radiolucent lesion with respect to the lower left second primary molar. Extraction of the offending tooth was done followed by marsupialization. Cystic lining sent for histopathological examination confirmed radicular cyst. Early diagnosis and treatment of radicular cyst is quite essential to avoid harm to the adjacent teeth and other vital structures, not to miss the essence of impact on the tender growing mind and body.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alina Rai, Kabiraj Poudel, Mamta Dali, Bandana Koirala Impacted Compound Odontoma in a 13-year-old Child: A Case Report 2022-03-22T18:37:50+00:00 Manisha Malla Senchhema Limbu Parajeeta Dikshit Satyapriya Shivakotee <p>Odontomas are considered the most common, asymptomatic odontogenic tumors. They are generally found on routine radiographic examination. However, signs and symptoms relating to their presence may occur. It is commonly associated with retained or impacted deciduous teeth, impaction of permanent teeth, and displacement of teeth. The radiographic examination (intraoral periapical, panoramic radiographic as well as cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) enables the identification, thereby ensuring early management. This case reports surgical management of odontoma under local anesthesia with ground sectioning revealing a compound odontome.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Manisha Malla, Senchhema Limbu, Parajeeta Dikshit, Satyapriya Shivakotee A Rare Case Report on Sewing Needle as an Interdental Aid: Ignorance or Paucity of Oral Health Education 2022-03-22T18:46:54+00:00 Royasa Shakya Bandana Koirala Gajendra Birajee Chandrakant Pasvan <p>The regular use of interdental aids for maintenance of oral hygiene is relatively sparse especially in the developing countries like Nepal. Rather, use of home-based alternatives is more popular among people, which may cause injury to both the hard and soft tissues of oral cavity. This case reports a 14-year-old-female patient who used sewing needle for removing lodged food which broke and got embedded in the buccal mucosa. Exploration of the site of injury revealed the broken needle which was retrieved under topical anaesthesia. Lack of awareness is still a major hindrance causing poor oral hygiene practices among people. Promotion of effective oral health at all levels is the need of hour for achieving holistic health care of especially the dependent population. It is thus high time that we, as dentists evaluate our role in the society and ponder upon the oral health education provided to patients regarding oral health.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Royasa Shakya, Bandana Koirala, Gajendra Birajee, Chandrakant Pasvan Infected Dentigerous Cyst in a 14-year-old Child Associated with Unerupted Third Molar: A Case Report 2022-03-22T18:56:56+00:00 Subhani Vaidya Senchhema Limbu Parajeeta Dikshit Manisha Malla Lokesh Verma <p>The dentigerous cyst is a developmental odontogenic cyst, accounting for 10% of all cysts of the jaws, being the vast majority of current odontogenic cyst. Its characteristic features are unilocular radiolucent lesion which encloses permanent tooth buds or, under certain circumstances, displaced tooth buds. This paper presents a case of an infected dentigerous cyst associated with right mandibular unerupted third molar in a pediatric patient with various clinical and radiographic characteristics. The treatment comprised of proper evaluation of the past medical history, clinical, radiographic, histological examinations that helped to administer appropriate diagnosis and treatment plan; followed by complete removal of the cyst along with the involved tooth structure under general anesthesia.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Subhani Vaidya, Senchhema Limbu, Parajeeta Dikshit, Manisha Malla, Lokesh Verma Online Learning Modalities in Dental Education during COVID-19 Pandemic 2022-03-22T19:19:55+00:00 Sadikchya Pokhrel <p>Remote learning on digital platforms has replaced conventional learning to alleviate the effects caused by the pandemic. Dental educational institutions had opted for alternative methods to continue with the academics to allow students to pursue their education even with the physical shutdown of schools worldwide. Embracing various challenges, remote learning has been implemented since over a year in many dental schools in Nepal. Although still practiced in many educational institutes, the efficacy of these new modalities, however, remains in doubt, especially in medical/ dental field, where practical and clinical practice is concerned.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sadikchya Pokhrel Early Childhood Caries: Scenario in Nepal 2022-03-18T15:25:35+00:00 Sunanda Sundas <p>Early childhood caries (ECC) is a virulent form of dental caries present in primary dentition and is the most common infection related disease in young children worldwide.1 It’s been on the rise in many countries, and has become a significant health problem especially in socially disadvantaged populations. ECC does not only affect teeth but it also leads to other health consequences like pain, infection, altered eating habits, sleep disturbances, altered childhood development and psychological outcomes</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sunanda Sundas Oral Health Status and Practice among Buddhist Monk and Nun Students: Monastery Based Study in Nepal 2022-03-18T15:33:53+00:00 Dilip Prajapati Sonam Rinchen Lama Swagat Mahanta Shreya Subedi Swastika Mahat <p>&nbsp;<strong>Introduction: </strong>Oral health conditions can be largely preventable but still major health burden for many countries.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health status and practice among Buddhist monk and Nun students in Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Monastery based cross sectional study was performed among 422 students from six monasteries with age group 6 to 20 years old from March to October 2021. A set of oral health related questionnaire were used followed by intraoral examinations including assessment of Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT), Gingival Status and Calculus Score along with dietary habits. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS with descriptive, Mann Whitney test and Spearman’s correlation test.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Oral health knowledge attitude and practice were good in compared to other school children with same age groups. The mean DMFT Score were 1.62 ± 2.19 and mean dmft 0.59 ± 1.4 with good gingival and calculus score. Very few of them (47, 11.1%) had filled permanent tooth and 98 (23.2%) of them had dental pain within past six months of study. None of them (100%) had undergone orthodontic treatment where 23% had class III Angle’s Molar relationship. Dental caries showed an increasing trend in relation to age with significant moderate correlation (r=0.35, p&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>The increased oral pain among Buddhist monk and nun with untreated dental caries regardless of sugary foods seems to be a challenging problem in monasteries with limited provision of dental service.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dilip Prajapati, Sonam Rinchen Lama, Swagat Mahanta, Shreya Subedi, Swastika Mahat Prevalence of Malocclusion and Orthodontic Treatment Needs in Mixed Dentition of School Going Children of Dharan, Nepal 2022-03-18T15:44:57+00:00 Sapna Agrawal Bandana Koirala Mamta Dali Sneha Shrestha Tarakant Bhagat Surya Raj Niraula <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Malocclusion can be defined as a mal-relation between the dental arches in any planes beyond the normal limits. With the rise in concern about good dental appearance, people compare it with success in different fields of life and are always willing to pursue the orthodontic treatment.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To determine the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs according to gender, race and age in mixed dentition of school going children of Dharan, Nepal.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross sectional study was conducted among 830 school children from 10 randomly selected schools from January 2017 to December 2017. The type of malocclusion was determined using a structured questionnaire and the orthodontic treatment need was calculated based on Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Chi-square test was used to test the associations.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The prevalence of Class I, Class II division 1, Class II division 2 and Class III malocclusion was 49.11%, 11.43%, 4.03%, and 12.24%, respectively. Normal occlusion was found in 5.79% and 17.39% had asymmetry. The prevalence of orthodontic treatment needs was: 70.06% for slight or no need, 18.67% for elective need, 7.76% for highly desirable need, and 3.52% for mandatory need. Class I malocclusion was statistically significant for both Caucasians and Mongolians and among 8-year-old children (P≤0.001) whereas, 6-and-7-year-old children had no need for orthodontic treatment which was significant (P&lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study highlights the prevalence of malocclusion to be high with Class I being the most common and nearly one third in need for treatment as assessed by the DAI.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sapna Agrawal, Bandana Koirala, Mamta Dali, Sneha Shrestha, Tarakant Bhagat, Surya Raj Niraula Antibiotic Prescription Knowledge among Dental Students at BPKIHS, Dharan, Nepal 2022-03-18T15:58:39+00:00 Mamta Dali Sneha Shrestha Bandana Koirala <p>&nbsp;<strong>Introduction: </strong>Drug prescription is the act of indicating one or more drugs which requires theoretical and clinical knowledge combined with practical skills. Wrong drug posology is the most common prescription error done by students creating a serious issue because it directly affects patients’ health and safety.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To assess the knowledge of fourth year and final year BDS students on antibiotic prescription for the common oral conditions.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A pretested questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted involving 82 BDS students from 4th and final years of BPKIHS, Dharan from January - December 2017, to assess the most commonly prescribed antibiotics, the dental conditions that need antibiotics, barriers during prescribing antibiotics, sources of information used for prescribing drugs, and awareness regarding the WHO Guide to Good Prescribing. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS and expressed as frequency distribution in percentages.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Amoxicillin was the most commonly prescribed drug for majority of dental infections (93%). It was used for 97% of orofacial infections and 88% of dentoalveolar abscess. The main barriers for the prescription were “not knowing the exact drug dose” (28%) and not knowing the brand names (24%). The WHO guidelines were not followed by 82% of the students, whereas 92% were aware of antibiotic resistance and their possible reasons.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Knowledge on antibiotic prescription was found insufficient and following of the specific professional guidelines was regrettably low. Most commonly prescribed drug was amoxicillin and main barrier during prescription writing was lack of knowledge on the proper drug posology.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mamta Dali, Sneha Shrestha, Bandana Koirala