Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 2024-05-07T11:47:31+00:00 Mr. Mohan Bhandari Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies is published by the Research Management Cell, Gupteshwor Mahadev Multiple Campus (GMMC), Chhorepatan, Pokhara-17, Kaski, Nepal. The journal is dedicated to fostering collaboration and knowledge integration across diverse disciplines. The aim is to provide a platform for researchers, scholars, and practitioners to explore and contribute to the intersections between different fields of study. </p> Incredible Contradiction between Liminality and Communitas in Nehru’s An Autobiography 2024-05-05T06:51:36+00:00 Yog Raj Lamichhane <p>This paper examines An Autobiography of Jawaharlal Nehru focusing on the performativity of his liminality at Harrow and Cambridge in England from 1905 to 1912. Being separated from his family and nation, he got a higher education there. The concepts of liminality and communitas by Turner and the idea of the ‘rites of passage’ by van Gennep are used as theoretical bases for analyzing the autobiographical narrative. The analysis of the textual evidence responds to how Nehru, the icon of Indian political and economic modernity, performs in a liminal space of a foreign land and explores how and why the organicity between liminality and communitas as theoretically claimed does not work in the cases of his life-writing. The discussion then finally identifies the distinct economic status, multiple references to politics, diverse family legacy, and lack of ‘we feeling’ among the group members responsible for breaking the organic union between liminality and communitas and promoting an incredible contradiction. Fundamentally, this study supports perceiving the notions regarding the performance of the person in a liminal space. At the same time, it also assists in spotting the obstructive aspects behind the organic relation between the generally inseparable concepts of liminality and communitas in the customary rites of passage.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Socio-Economic Consequences of Remittance on Households in Pokhara Valley 2024-05-05T07:10:05+00:00 Amrit Gurung Mohan Bhandari <p>There has been a continuous discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of the continuously increasing remittance flows. On the one hand, few studies in different parts of the world have noted that remittances have increased conspicuous consumption and decreased the Labour supply for farming and agriculture. Instead, several others have shown how enhancing food, health, and education can help recipient households’ quality of life. Thus, this study aims to analyze the socio-economic consequences of remittance on households in Pokhara Valley Through the use of a structured questionnaire, data on how much money families who receive and do not receive remittances spend and invest on a variety of household activities, such as food, children’s health, education, consumer goods, and asset investment, were collected, compared and analyzed using various statistical tools like frequencies, mean, standard deviation and independent samples t-test. The association of the two categories of households of the study on involvement in agriculture and farming was examined using the chi-square test. The study has shown that the remittance income has increased the purchasing power of remittance-receiving households which has led to an increment in the spending capacity of those households. The results indicate that remittance positively affects the improvement of human capital as the remittance recipient households spend more on family members’ education and health services than remittance non-recipient households do. However, remittance has also resulted in conspicuous consumption and higher spending on non-productive activities. In addition, it has adversely affected the participation of recipient families on involvement in agriculture and farming, ultimately necessitating the importation of food grains. On this basis, it is recommended that the government should develop measures that can stimulate remittance recipient families on remittance investments in the development of the domestic economy, national output, and agricultural production rather than spending on unproductive activities.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Customer Delight in Futsal of Pokhara Valley: A Narrative Study From the Customer Perspective 2024-05-05T07:19:56+00:00 Aamod Koirala <p>Futsal is a popular sport in Nepal and futsal centers play an important role in providing opportunities for people to play and enjoy the game. This study explored the factors that contribute to customer delight in futsal centers in Pokhara. A narrative analysis of the stories of futsal participants identified three distinct themes: physical environment, social interaction and surprise and joy. The participants emphasized the importance of a safe and comfortable physical environment, as well as the opportunity to socialize with friends and meet new people. They were also surprised by some of the positive benefits of playing futsal, such as weight loss and improved sleep quality. Finally, they experienced joy from a variety of things, such as winning games, spending time with friends, and being recognized by others. The findings of this study suggest that futsal centers should focus on providing a safe and comfortable physical environment, fostering social interaction, and surprising and delighting customers with unexpected benefits. By doing so, futsal centers can attract and retain customers, build loyalty, and generate positive word-of-mouth.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Future of Education in the Era of Artificial Intelligence 2024-05-05T07:25:44+00:00 Dipendra Karki Nirupan Karki Rewan Kumar Dahal Ganesh Bhattarai <p>The increasing use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the field of education has raised significant concerns regarding the potential displacement of educators by AI systems. The present study explores the diverse domain of artificiala intelligence’s influence on academia, examining its capacity to transform conventional educational frameworks. By conducting a methodical investigation using scholarly resources including IEEE Xplore, ACM Digital Library, ERIC, and Google Scholar, this study develops an extensive compilation of 135 publications that were published between January 2017 and June 2023. The results of the study demonstrate a dynamic environment in which artificial intelligence serves as both a stimulant and a challenge. The present analysis emphasizes the complex relationship between artificial intelligence (AI) and education, as evidenced by the theoretical underpinnings emphasized by Panaou et al. (2012), as well as the promise of AI advocated by Luckin et al. (2016). The research highlights the significance of adopting a well-rounded strategy, wherein artificial intelligence serves to enhance the responsibilities of educators rather than replace them.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Changing Structure of Concessional Loan in Nepal 2024-05-05T07:37:13+00:00 Shyam Sunder Gautam <p>This article highlights the changing scenario of concessional loan in Nepal. It examines the policies, trends, and structural shifts within the country’s financial framework. A concessional loan is a crucial tool for the economic development of Nepal. It aimed at promoting economic efficiency and equitable distribution of income throughout the country. Using secondary data from FY 2017/18 to FY 2021/22, this study evaluates the trend and structure of concessional loan in Nepal. The findings reveal that there is a significant surge in both the volume of concessional loan and the number of borrowers across different headings of concessional loan. Particularly, the number of borrowers of Women entrepreneurship loan are remarkably increased in the recent years. However, the concentration of loan among larger borrowers and the misappropriation of funds raises concerns regarding the program’s effectiveness. Furthermore, the commercial banks play a dominant role in disbursing concessional loan. Agricultural Development Bank Limited is a key contributor, aligning with the government’s focus on promoting the agricultural sector. This study recommended a call for a comprehensive evaluation of the concessional loan program. The reevaluation of the program could be crucial to fine-tune the policies, address challenges, and focus the program toward its goals of enhancing productivity, promoting financial inclusion, and fostering equal distribution income distribution in Nepal.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Exploring the Painting Artist Perceptions Towards Their Career Sustainability in Pokhara 2024-05-05T07:42:27+00:00 Ujjwal Adhikari <p>This qualitative study investigates sustainable career perceptions among painting artists in Pokhara, utilizing pseudo names for participants: Ram, Hari, Purnima, and Kalpana. Through purposive sampling, semi-structured interviews was conducted to gather insights. Thematic analysis was applied to identify patterns and themes within the data. Ethical considerations, such as informed consent and participant confidentiality, was strictly followed. By employing these methods, this study shed light on the intricacies of sustaining an art career in Pokhara. This study reveals how personal passion and adaptability influence painting artists’ careers in Pokhara, emphasizing their contribution to personal fulfillment, the art community, and society. It underscores the importance of resilience, personal branding, financial awareness, and gender dynamics in navigating challenges. Art communities and organizations can use the insights of this study to develop collaborative initiatives that support artists, encourage networking, and nurture emerging talents, ultimately contributing to a thriving art community.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Unveiling the Dimensionality of Pricing Strategy in the Tourism Industry: An Exploratory Factor Analysis 2024-05-05T07:48:28+00:00 Ghanashyam Tiwari <p>Tourism is a dynamic and ever-changing industry that plays a significant role in the global economy. As competition intensifies, tourist firms must design effective pricing strategies to attract and retain clients. The objective of the study is to explore the most influencing pricing strategies in the tourism business. A structured questionnaire was developed to discover the price strategy of various tourism enterprises in the Gandaki Province of Nepal. Exploratory factor analysis entails several stages to uncover these hidden components. Factors with eigenvalues greater than one are considered significant to confirm the constructs. Among five construct variables, competition-based pricing explains the highest variance and is followed by a customer-centric pricing strategy. This study provides significant insights into tourism industries’ sustainable competitive advantages.</p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 An Exploratory Study of Food Waste in the Hospitality Industry of Pokhara 2024-05-05T07:54:02+00:00 Anita Ranabhat <p>One-third of the global food production is wasted globally. Food production is a resource intensive process and safe disposal of food wasted requires additional resources. In tourism industry food is just more than fulfillment of basic needs. Food is linked with the experience. Food wastage in hospitality is accepted as a major challenge with multifaced consequences and awareness to address the issue of food waste is also increasing. In the context of developing countries like Nepal the topic is still under-studied. Therefore, this study is focused on owners and managers perspective on food wastage in tourism industry of Pokhara with the objectives of identifying current composition and causes of food waste and established approaches to mitigate it. This study was carried out with key informants’ in-depth interview and on-site observations. Unrealistic expectations, unsustainable consumption patterns, lack of general public awareness and management limitations on wastage controlling were major themes identified by the study. The findings call for quantitative study in mass scale to know the exact situation of the food waste in hospitality industry of Pokhara.</p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Exploring Opportunities and Challenges of Destination Branding of Pokhara 2024-05-05T08:03:52+00:00 Subash Malla <p>The tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industry and has been a key factor for economic growth in several developing countries. But in the present era of globalization, due to rapid technological changes and increased global competition, destinations are now also directed towards branding themselves to deliver the correct brand image in the global arena. Pokhara has been the pioneer tourism destination and the market leader destination in Nepal. Due to the unique and stunning view of mountains, lakes and other natural, cultural as well as cultural amenities, Pokhara has been the first choice of tourists coming to Nepal and so it has been living with its self-made destination brand. This research has been carried on the same background to find the real essence of destination branding in an exploratory approach using In-depth Interview as the methodology of data collection. The opportunities and challenges of destination branding of Pokhara have been discussed using the various determinants. 5 experts were taken as the key informants from diverse fields in order to get the valid and reliable data. The research has provided with some framework of destination branding of Pokhara under the brand name ‘Paradise Pokhara’ and tagline/slogan ‘Nature, Culture and Adventure’.</p> 2024-05-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Factors Affecting Investment Decisions of Permanent School Teachers in Pokhara 2024-05-05T08:09:44+00:00 Yubaraj Subedi <p>Investing is the use of money to increase its worth or generate more revenue. This article has been designed to examine the factors affecting investment decision of permanent school teachers in Pokhara. This study is based on causal comparative research design. It has used structured questionnaire to collect information. Samples were selected by multi sampling technique, selecting the than Chhorepatan Resource Center by purposive sampling in the first and selecting 139 permanent school teachers by simple random sampling in the second stage. The Total population of permanent school teachers of Pokhara Metropolitan City was 1,588 and targeted population was 211. The reliability of data is checked by calculating Cronbach Alpha and it was 0.77. Accounting information (AI), Firm`s Image (FI), Advocate Recommendation (AR), Personal Financial Need (PFA) and Dividend Policy (DP) were independent variable and Investment Decision (ID) was dependent variable. This research discovered that 61.2% of permanent teachers invest their fund in equity share. Lump sum investment method was more popular than systematic investment plan and monthly investment. 80% of permanent teachers invest less than 20% of their savings. Respondents prefers both cash and stock dividend policy. Regular income was found as main objective of investment. Friends and coworker’s advice was also considering while investing in equity share. This research has also presumed that there was positive significant relation between investment decisions and decision factors. It is suggested to the investors of stock market, to analyze the fundamental factors of issuer and the issuer should follow regular dividend policy to attract the value investors toward their securities.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Exploring Key Factors Shaping the Effectiveness of Mobile Banking in Pokhara’s Financial Landscape 2024-05-05T08:14:35+00:00 Bibek Karmacharya <p>In the contemporary financial landscape with the anticipated transformation of engagements through mobile banking, this study aims to understand the factors influencing the efficacy of mobile banking services in the Pokhara valley. Using a survey approach with 410 participants, the Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicates a well-fitting measurement model (RMSEA=0.034, GFI=0.941, AGFI=0.923, χ2/df = 1.486, CFI=0.901, TLI=0.887). Key associations reveal that User Adoption negatively impacts effectiveness, while Security Concerns, Ease of Use, and Customer Support positively influence it. Technical Issues, however, have a negative effect. The Squared Multiple Correlation for Mobile Banking Effectiveness is 0.608, emphasizing a substantial proportion of explained variance. Implications stress the need for Pokhara valley financial institutions to recognize and address user adoption and security concerns, with strategic efforts focusing on user education and technological support to enhance mobile banking effectiveness.</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 नेपाली साहित्य, समसामयिक सन्दर्भ र अभिलक्षण 2024-05-05T08:19:22+00:00 जमुना अर्याल <p>मानवीय अनुभव र संवेदनालाई कलात्मक रूपमा प्रस्तुत गर्ने काम साहित्यमा हुन्छ । साहित्यले लेखक पाठक, स्रोता सबैलाई हित गर्दछ । नेपाली साहित्य अन्तर्गत लघुकथा, कथा, उपन्यास, गजल, मुक्तक, फुटकर कविता, खण्डकाव्य, महाकाव्य, नाटक, एकाङ्की, संवाद, वादविवाद, जीवनी, निबन्ध आदि विधा, उपविधा पर्दछन् । प्रस्तुत लेखमा नेपाली साहित्य समसामयिक सन्दर्भ र अभिलक्षणलाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ । नेपाली साहित्यका प्रमुख विधा नाटक, कविता, आख्यान र निबन्धका समसामयिक सन्दर्भ र अभिलक्षण के कस्ता रहेका छन् ? प्रस्तुत गर्ने सन्दर्भमा यो लेख तयार पारिएको छ । नाटक विधामा प्रयोगवादी प्रवृत्ति, विज्ञान नाटक, सडक नाटक (समूहगत) अभिलक्षणलाई जोड दिइएको छ । कविता विधामा सरलता, सम्प्रेष्य विषयवस्तु, स्वतन्त्रता, प्रजातान्त्रिक मूल्यमान्यतालाई जोड दिइएको छ । आख्यान अन्तर्गत पर्ने कथा र उपन्यास विधामा समतामूलक समाजको निर्माण, क्रान्तिकारी प्रगतिवादी चेतना, शोषित वर्ग सङ्गठित भइ अन्यायका विरुद्ध लाग्नुपर्ने पक्षलाई प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ भने निबन्ध विधाका समसामयिक प्रवृत्ति यात्रा वर्णन, हास्यव्यङ्ग्य दार्शनिकता, बौद्धिकता आदि रहेका छन् । यो लेखबाट स्नातक, स्नातकोत्तर तहका विद्यार्थी, प्राध्यापक, लेखक र जिज्ञासु पाठकलाई सहयोग पुग्दछ ।</p> 2023-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023