Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 2023-10-03T10:31:33+00:00 Mr. Mohan Bhandari Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies is published by the Research Management Cell, Gupteshwor Mahadev Multiple Campus (GMMC), Chhorepatan, Pokhara-17, Kaski, Nepal. The journal is dedicated to fostering collaboration and knowledge integration across diverse disciplines. The aim is to provide a platform for researchers, scholars, and practitioners to explore and contribute to the intersections between different fields of study. </p> Editorial Vol.11 2023-09-20T12:55:24+00:00 Mohan Bhandari <p>No abstract available.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 GMMC, Pokhara Role of Remittance in Gender Transformation- A Study of Women Labor Migration in Pokhara Metropolitan City 2023-09-20T13:00:28+00:00 Anchala Chaudhary <p>The power, authority, and empowerment attained with the aid of economic capitals not only aids in the transformation of gender roles, but social and cultural capital also facilitates various facets of life, including: the standard of education, the types of employment involvement, the level of awareness, the types of family living, and the modes of interaction. As a result, both benefits and drawbacks can be found in the daily lives of both migrants and non-migrants due to the growing trend of female labor migration. In a traditionally patriarchal nation like Nepal, the migration of women for labor raises moral concerns about their moral decency as they struggle to reintegrate into their families and communities. The gender shift in the slum community of Pokhara Metropolitan City, Nepal, is the main emphasis of this paper's examination of the various features of remittances and ways through which they are transferred. Particular focus is placed on the conversion of economic capital into social and cultural capital as well as the function of proxy managers in managing household duties and remittances. Data from both secondary literature and original sources are used to support the arguments made here. The data came from 199 households of women migrants' families who had moved away at least three years prior to the survey, which was conducted between March and July 2022. The data collecting and analysis techniques used were both quantitative and qualitative. The numerous facets of remittances are examined in this paper. The findings explain the diverse forms of capital accumulation and how women gain more influence in various spheres of social life. The study also offers a more nuanced view of how women are becoming more involved in household decision-making as a result of economic empowerment and how to address forthcoming socio-cultural barriers that prevent their engagement in public sphere.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 GMMC, Pokhara Study of Nepali Sculptures Reveals Hindu-Buddhist Religious Harmony in Nepal 2023-09-20T13:07:26+00:00 Niranjan Ojha <p>In a multi-religious country like Nepal, religious harmony is essential for sustaining peace and calmness. Religious discord in society may result if religious concord is not addressed. Despite the fact that Nepal is a secular country with a Hindu majority, Buddhists remain crucial and inseparable elements of Nepalese society. They have lived in religious harmony in Nepal. At the period, there were no religious riots or tensions between Hindus and Buddhists. According to the Principle of Religious concord, when two cultures meet and interact, religious ideas will be exchanged, with the dominant culture prevailing. Harmony in cultures and customs evolved in Nepal for a variety of reasons. Because of their social acceptance and respect in society, Buddhists have become a vital part of it. Buddhism is seen as a component of Hindu philosophy by Hindus, and vice versa. In recent years, however, they have sought to differentiate themselves by religiously violating decades of peace and harmony. The purpose of this research is to examine the critical factors that contribute to religious harmony in a multi-faith society, as well as the reflection of religious harmony in Nepali sculptures. An in-depth interview and library research technique are used to investigate the topic of religious harmony. The goal of this article is to examine the underlying factors that lead to religious harmony in a multi-religious community, as well as its reflection in Nepali sculptures. This study also looks at the elements that influence harmony in the setting of Nepali sculptures. As a result, the conversation strives to foster long-term religious harmony between Nepal's Hindu and Buddhist religious communities. The findings may motivate them to keep strong connections.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 GMMC, Pokhara Protestantism; Spirit of Capitalism and Inequality 2023-09-20T13:15:19+00:00 Prakash Chandra Giri <p>Max Weber, a German Sociologist, clearly states that one of the key factors of capitalism is the Protestantism and its religious values. He critically argues that the religious ideas and concepts of groups like Protestants promoted the capitalistic spirit. He further explores that the religion is one of the key causes of the modern economic conditions. Even though there are some critiques and opponent views, he states protestant (Calvinism) helped to bring a dimension and a stage for the social development of capitalism. Therefore, it was a first major analysis of the effect of religion to form an economic system because Protestantism was one supporting factor for the Capitalistic spirit which also led inequality.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 GMMC, Pokhara Impact of Organizational Citizenship Behaviour on Organizational Commitment: Evidence from University Faculty 2023-09-20T13:20:14+00:00 Resam Lal Poudel <p>The present research has been carried out to determine the OCB impact on OC (Organizational Commitment) among university teachers (faculty members). Positivism research philosophy and descriptive and causal comparative research design were employed in the study. Multistage sampling was employed in the study including 164 faculty members in Pokhara, Nepal as a sample size. Primary sources of data were used through questionnaires and statistical tools were employed as per the necessity to fulfil the research gap. The study revealed that sportsmanship behaviour denoted as OCBSPO was the least among university teachers in Pokhara. On the other hand, courtesy behaviour as denoted by OCB was perceived as the highest contributing factor of OCB. The study revealed a higher level of normative commitment (OCNOR) among the faculty members. The present study demonstrates that significant impact has been observed in civic virtue (OCBCIV) and courtesy (OCBCOU) and Civic Virtue (OCBCIV) dimensions on organizational commitment (OC). The research has policy implications as the findings of this research can be used by university authorities to further develop human resource policies. The future researcher needs to conduct research on the same area employing a larger sample, including different constructs and also to examine the impact of COVID-19 on organizational commitment.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 GMMC, Pokhara Impact of Non-Performing Loan and Macro-Economic Variables on Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in Nepal 2023-09-20T13:27:04+00:00 Santosh Ranabhat Raj Kumar Subedi <p>This study aims to measure the impact of non-performing loan and macro-economic variables on financial performance of commercial banks in Nepal. The dependent variables are return on assets, return on equity and capital adequacy ratio which measure the financial performance and independent variables are NPL, GDP growth, inflation and interest rate measure the macro-economic variables. Primary and secondary data were collected through the structured questionnaire and annual reports of commercial banks and economic survey respectively. Convenience sampling was used to select the commercial banks located in Pokhara for collecting primary data of 80 respondents. Stratified simple random sampling was used to select 10 commercial banks (three JV and seven NJV banks) out of total population of 27 commercial banks for a time period of 2073/74 to 2077/78 for collecting secondary data. Multiple regression analysis, correlation analysis and descriptive statistics were used in analyzing the data. The primary data analysis concluded that most of the respondents have knowledge about the provision of non-performing loan according to NRB directives among bank staffs. The questionnaire survey shows majority of respondents agree with the statement macro-economic variables of non-performing loan affect the financial performance. The analysis of secondary data in correlation analysis reveals that the relationship between ROA, ROE and CAR with NPL is negative and insignificant. Similarly, the relationship between macro-economic variables with NPL is insignificant for JV and NJV banks. The relationship between ROA and ROE with GDP growth and interest rate is positive and significant for JV banks. The positive effect of GDP growth and interest rate on profitability indicates that increase in GDP growth and interest rate ultimately increases financial performance of JV banks. The regression analysis reveals that relationship between NPL with ROE is negative and significant for NJV bank which implies that increase in NPL decreases ROE. Likewise, this study also helps the future researchers to conduct future research on impact of NPL on firm performance to extend with new data and sample.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 GMMC, Pokhara Capitalism and Marriage Practices- A case study of Pokhara Metropolitan City 2023-09-20T13:40:12+00:00 Shreedhar Pokhrel <p>For the most of human history, the family was primarily concerned with producing economic output. Families were built around production, thus choosing a spouse depended on how effectively one could both produce, including having more kids to supply the labor for farm or small business needed. Women and men were "yoke mates," as Stephanie Coontz, the family historian, put it. Marriages were about the ties of what economists call “complementary productive human capital.” The rise of industrial system led to an increase in the amount of work performed outside of the home where people made bundle of social relationships. This all phenomenon results changes in marriage practice and love marriage becomes dominant features of capitalism where husband-wife relationship resolved around similar interests and consumption habits for rising the prosperity and easiness of life.</p> <p>This paper examines the changing trends of marriage in capitalistic society and the factors affecting the selection of mate by arguing that selecting mate is not a personal decision but its outcome of particular form of society type and nature. The evidences presented here use data from both secondary literature and primary sources. The primary data have been purposively selected using case study methods on Pokhara Metropolitan city. Particular attention is paid to the transformation of marriage practices in city area with the rise of capitalism. The results indicate that the marriage institution have been changing rapidly than ever before with the rapid expansion of market economy, migration, education and communication which is directly or indirectly related to the personal decision of individuals mate selection process. The study also provides a more nuanced understanding of the involvement of men and women in decision making process for the selection of mate despite their caste and class.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 GMMC, Pokhara नेपालको प्रजातान्त्रिक आन्दोलनः एक विश्लेषण 2023-10-03T08:33:33+00:00 अर्जुन बहादुर Arjun Bahadur भण्डारी Bhandari <p>संसारका प्रजातान्त्रिक आन्दोलनको परिप्रेक्ष्यमा नेपालको प्रजातान्त्रिक आन्दोलनको इतिहास त्यति लामो पाइँदैन । वास्तवमा नेपालको प्रजातान्त्रिक आन्दोलनको शुरुवात एउटा परिवारको मनपरितन्त्र र जनतापक्षले चाहेको निर्णायक भूमिका बिचको संघर्षबाट भएको पाइन्छ । कालान्तरमा मूल्य, मान्यता, आदर्श एवम् सैद्धान्तिक दृष्टिकोण समेत समाहित भई यसले विशिष्टता प्राप्त गर्यो । तसर्थ नेपालको प्रजातान्त्रिक आन्दोलनको विजारोपण राणा शासनको उत्तराद्र्धमा राणा विरोधी आन्दोलनको रुपमा शुरुवात भई यसले विभिन्न कालखण्डमा विभिन्न स्वरुप परिवर्तन गर्दै अन्ततः लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र प्राप्तिको उद्देश्यमा गई टुङ्गिएको छ । पृथ्वीनारायण शाहले राष्ट्र निर्माणमा सामान्य जनताको सहयोगको महत्वलाई राम्ररी बुझेका थिए । तसर्थ पृथ्वीनारायण शाहको अभियान सामान्य जनताको सहयोग, सहभागिता र समर्थनमा आधारित थियो । जसले स्थायित्वको प्रत्याभूति गरायो । तर उनी पछिका शासकहरुले जनचाहना, लोकसम्मति र जनताको उपेक्षा गर्दा नेपालको राजनीति प्रतिशोध, बदलाको भावना, षडयन्त्र, भ्रष्टाचार र अव्यवस्थाको केन्द्र बन्न पुग्यो । लोकसम्मति र जनचाहना अनुसार संचालन हुने शासनव्यवस्था एकतन्त्रिय, गुटगत, स्वार्थबाट प्रेरित हुन थाल्यो फलस्वरुप जनताले आफ्नो हक स्थापनार्थ कालक्रम अनुसार हतियार बन्द तथा हतियार विहिन आन्दोलनको थालनी गर्नुपर्यो । चन्द्र शमशेरको शासनकालबाट शुरु भएको प्रजातान्त्रिक आन्दोलन वि.सं. २०६२।६३को लोकतान्त्रिक– गणतन्त्र स्थापनाको अवस्थामा आई स्थिर बनेको छ । जसलाई राजनैतिक विश्लेषकहरु प्रजातान्त्रिक आन्दोलनको समापन विन्दुको रुपमा परिभाषित गर्ने गर्दछन् । वास्तवमा आन्दोलन स्थायी प्रकृतिको नभई गतिशिल स्वरुपको हुने र समाजका कतिपय अनुत्तरित सवालको हल प्राप्त नभइ सकेकोले आन्दोलनको सम्भाव्यता अन्त्यको विश्लेषण भने गर्न सकिँदैन ।</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 GMMC, Pokhara