Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management <p>The Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management is published by the Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Nepal.</p> Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus en-US Journal of Forest and Natural Resource Management 2661-6424 <p>©&nbsp;Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus</p> Assessing Governance Status: Learning from Community Forest User Groups, Nepal <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Community forestry practices have proven to be successful in forest resource conservation and utilization in Nepal. Nevertheless, inclusive decision-making processes and equitable benefit-sharing among each household pose significant challenges to the Community Forestry Users Groups (CFUGs). The four key elements of good governance: Participation, Transparency, Accountability, and Predictability, each with their four own local indicators, were employed to measure the governance status in two CFUGs: Bosan and Hattiban Mahila in Kathmandu district. We collected data through a questionnaire survey (n=95), focus group discussions, and key informant surveys. The results showed that the general status of governance in Bosan CFUG was 'Good' (43 out of a total attainable score of 64), whereas that of Hattiban Mahila CFUG was 'Medium'(32 out of a total attainable score of 64). Scores for Transparency, Accountability, and Predictability in Bosan CFUG managed by men and women alike were found to be higher than those of Hattiban Mahila CFUG, which was managed mostly by women. Both the CFUGs received the same score for good governance element: Participation. This study helps policymakers to formulate effective programs for CFUGs members to improve the governance system in such forestry user groups.</p> </div> </div> </div> Sameen Raut Suraj Upadhaya Sagar Godar Chhetri Murari Raj Joshi Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 2 1 1 18 10.3126/jfnrm.v2i1.40217 Drivers and Dynamics of Land Use Land Cover in Phewa Watershed, Kaski, Nepal <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Geospatial tools play an important role in monitoring Land Use Land Cover (LULC) dynamics. This study assessed the extent of LULC changes during 2003, 2010 and 2018 using temporal satellite imageries, computed the rate of change in area of Phewa Lake and explored the drivers of LULC change and lake area change in Phewa watershed. It used Landsat Imageries for 2003, 2010 and 2018 and carried out purposive household survey (N=60), key informant survey (N=5), focus group discussion (N=4) and direct field observation to explore the drivers of LULC change and lake area change. It generated LULC maps by using supervised classification and computed LULC change by applying post classification change detection technique. On screen digitization was done to find the area of Phewa Lake during 2010 and 2018. Agricultural land and urban areas were found to have increased by 11.63% and 1.46% respectively while forest area, barren land and water bodies were found to have decreased by 9.21%, 3.56% and 0.5% respectively between 2003 and 2010. Forest area, urban areas and barren land were found to have increased by 5.9%, 3.28% and 5.02% respectively while agricultural landand water bodies were observed to have decreased by 7.83% and 0.16% respectively between 2010 and 2018. During 2010-2018, rate of change in lake area was found to have decreased by 0.61% with periodic annual decrement by 2.59 ha. The drivers responsible for LULC change were alternative form of energy, community forestry, promotion of private forestry, migration for foreign employment, inadequate market price of agricultural products, road construction, soil erosion and population pressure. Lake area was found to have decreased due to sedimentation, encroachment and road construction. Further study is important to know the exact contributions of these drivers of LULC change and lake area change for the sustainability of Phewa watershed.</p> </div> </div> </div> Sudip Raj Regmi Mahendra Singh Thapa Raju Raj Regmi Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 2 1 19 36 10.3126/jfnrm.v2i1.40218 Assessment of Human-Tiger Conflict and its Community Based Mitigation Efforts in Madi Valley of Chitwan District, Nepal <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Human fatalities and livestock depredation are the ultimate manifestation of human–tiger conflict (HTC). It is one of the major challenging issues that need to be sorted out where such incidences occur frequently. This study aimed to investigate the status of HTC and mitigation measures adopted by local communities in Madi valley adjacent of Chitwan National Park (CNP). Data were collected through household interviews (n=52, including 25% victim’s households), direct field observation and CNP archive records from 2014 to 2018. This study revealed that average livestock depredation was 15.60 (n=78, mean=5.06, SE±1.66) animals per year and among them goats were highly depredated animals (n=39, mean=7.80, SE±2.33). It also showed that livestock depredation trend increased at the rate of 4.1 animals per year but that of human casualties decreased at the rate of -0.3 persons per year during 2014 to 2018. Predation proof corrals, mesh wire fencing, traditional fencing using white cloths andlivelihood diversifications were the major local mitigation efforts adopted by local people. However, detailed studies on effectiveness of locally adopted mitigation techniques along with further investment to implement them from government line agencies and conservation partners are suggested for strengthening human-tiger co-existence in the study area.</p> </div> </div> </div> Sita Dahal Dol Raj Thanet Deepak Gautam Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 2 1 37 49 10.3126/jfnrm.v2i1.40219 Distribution of Blue Bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) and its Conservation Threats in Bardia National Park, Nepal <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Blue bull is Asia’s largest antelope, a species of least concern in IUCN Red data list of 2020. In Nepal, it is vulnerable and is often considered as a problem animal for its crop raiding habit. Although, its population is restricted in India and Nepal, there are insufficient studies conducted on the distribution and threats of the species at local level. This study aimed to assess the distribution of blue bull and its conservation threats in Bardia National Park and its buffer zone. Field survey was carried out to identify the potential area with the information provided by park staff and buffer zone people and by the transect method in the selected habitat to determine the distribution of blue bull population. Additionally, six focus group discussions (1 in each of thefive sites and 1 with park staff) and a half-day workshop (involving 25 participants representing each site and park office) were organized to assess the existing threats to the species. Data were analyzed descriptively using MS Excel, while the distribution map was prepared using Arc GIS. Also, 8 major identified threats were ranked using relative threat ranking procedure and classified into four severity classes. We found that the population of blue bull was dispersed from core area of Bardia National Park towards the buffer zone area. Open grazing, invasive species, predation by tiger and flash flood were the major threats to the blue bull as perceived by the local people. Habitat management activities including control of grazing, removal of invasive plant species, plantation of palatable grass species, increase in other prey species of tiger and control of flood in blue bull’s habitats are recommended to protect the species and thus sustain their threatened population.</p> </div> </div> </div> Pramila Koirala Bijaya Neupane Thakur Silwal Bijaya Dhami Siddhartha Regmi Deepa Dahal Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 2 1 50 60 10.3126/jfnrm.v2i1.40220 Assessment of Residents' Understanding of Potential Ecosystem Services of Phewa Watershed <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Phewa watershed, the second largest natural lake system in Nepal, is considered vital for the well being and economy at local, provincial and national level. Phewa watershed offers multiple benefits to the downstream dwellers involved in tourism, hotel, boating, fishing, irrigation, hydropower, etc. The constant degradation of watershed has become a serious challenge to sustain the watershed. Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) can be an effective environmental management tool for sustaining ecological and economic benefits, especially in an urban watershed like Phewa. This study has assessed the opportunities for the potentialityof PES in Phewa watershed. It first identified and ranked the tradable ecosystem services along with service providers and beneficiaries using Likert scale. Then, 137 households were surveyed to evaluate their perceptions of payment for ecosystem services and sustainable management of Phewa Lake. The results identified tourism as the major ecosystem service in the watershed followed by biodiversity and sediment retention to control flooding and erosion. Protected and community forests users groups within the watershed area, landowners, and farmers were identified as upstream users or service providers whereas the business owners like boat agencies, hotels and restaurants, drinking water users, and Nepal electricity authority were identifiedas the service beneficiaries of the identified ecosystem service. The challenges associated with implementing PES scheme were the lack of financial resource, lack of institutional organization and marketing for ecosystem services, population growth, lack of coordination between stakeholders, and lack of public participation. Thus, this study showed that education-based activities should be organized to enhance participation of beneficiaries and upstream dwellers. Also, PES policy mechanism with clear guidelines should be formulated for assuring the participation of the community people forthe implementation of PES.</p> </div> </div> </div> Shivaraj Thapa Subina Shrestha Suman Bhattarai Mahamad Sayab Miya Deepak Gautam Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 2 1 61 78 10.3126/jfnrm.v2i1.40223 Potentiality of Bamboos to Combat Climate Change Impacts and Biodiversity Conservation in the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Diverse physiography and topography have made the landscape of Nepal fragile and highly vulnerable to climate change. Bamboo is likely to be highly able to stock carbon due to its rapid and easy growth. Here we explore the potentiality of bamboo to combat climate change impacts and biodiversity conservation through mitigation. The mitigation potentiality is studied through biomass and biomass carbon estimation along with soil carbon estimation. Data collected through participatory resource mapping, direct field observation and biophysical measurements were analyzed for biomass estimation and carbon stocking in the biomass and soil of bamboo stand, using Statistical analysis. The study revealed that Melocanna baccifera yielded the highest potential biomass carbon density of 109.41 tons C/plot, followed by Bambusa Nepalensis and Himalayacalamus Fimbriatus of 85.10 tonsC/plot and 64.58 tons C/plot, respectively. However, the soil under Himalayacalamus fimbriatus yielded the highest potential soil organic carbon of 49.24 tons C/plot, followed by the soil under Bambusa Nepalensis and Melocana Bacifera of 38.69 tons C/plot and 27.91 tons C/plot, respectively. Unsustainable extraction of bamboo was highly threatening, therefore, conservation education is recommended to aware local people of the importance of bamboo having the potential to fight against climate change and bringing harmony between biodiversity conservation and traditional culture is recommended.</p> </div> </div> </div> Kabita Ghale Shailendra Kumar Yadav Neeru Thapa Jit Narayan Sah Copyright (c) 2020 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 2 1 79 91 10.3126/jfnrm.v2i1.40222