Journal of Fine Arts Campus <p>The Journal of Fine Arts Campus is a multidisciplinary journal published by Lalitkala Campus, Tribhuvan University, Bhotahity, Kathmandu, Nepal.</p> en-US (Dr. Dhrubesh Chandra Regmi) (Sioux Cumming) Fri, 12 May 2023 14:33:03 +0000 OJS 60 Music education in the campuses of Tribhuvan University <p>An organized music education system is pivotal for the overall development of an individual or the country. The country which has a systematic music education creates opportunities for all types of music related professionals. Many countries have incorporated music into their education system. Sad to say, no governments in the Nepali History ever made effort to establish and to promote a broad-based, organized and institutionalized music education. It is only after 1951, the organized and institutionalized music education have begun to put down roots in Nepal. The establishment of Tribhuvan University (TU) in 1959 can be taken as a momentous event in this regard. In this paper, we take a look at the role of Tribhuvan University and campuses under it contributing to the development of music education in Nepal. This paper tries to portray the current state of music in the campuses under the TU.</p> Dhrubesh Chandra Regmi Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Mathematics Teachers’ Problems in Teaching Equation, Figure, Drawing Symbols and Use of Software on Mathematical Content Instruction <p>The aim of the research was to measure the effect of mathematics teachers’ problems in teaching equation and figure, drawing symbols, and use of software on the problems of mathematical content instruction online with respect to educational background and ICT training status. The cross-sectional online survey design was used among 258 secondary level mathematics teachers of Nepal. The path analysis technique was used to analysis the data. The finding of the research shows that the problems in using software and drawing figures are main predictors to the problems in instructing mathematical content with respect to non-educational background and untrained in ICT teachers. Whereas the problems in drawing symbols and teaching equations are main predictors in mathematical content instruction with respect to educational background and trained in ICT teachers.</p> Dirgha Raj Joshi, Krishna Prasad Sharma Chapai, Bishnu Khanal Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Composition of a Research Paper <p>A research paper is a verbal presentation of research finding in reliable and persuasive manner. A researcher has a problem/question or questions on particular subject, area or issue. A research finds the answer to this question. The answer of this question is the finding of the research. A thesis statement is a sentence that includes the finding of the research, the main point of the research paper. The paper clearly states the main point and supports it with reasoning, data, examples and interpretations. The topic of the research paper includes the research area and the perspective of the researcher on it. In other words, it attempts to provide a glimpse of the main point as far as possible. The topic is linked to thesis statement. The thesis statement is clarified and a bit more elaborated in abstract. "Keywords" in research paper lists some words that are closely related to the main point of the paper. Introduction briefly presents the background of the research area and perspective (theory). Literature review surveys earlier researches and finds the research gap. The purpose of the research is to fill this gap. The secondary sources like books and articles are acknowledged and cited in the text and listed in the references. Introduction and literature review are based on secondary sources but analysis and interpretation has your own voice. We can use the earlier researches and books in our paper but the statement of the paper should be different from earlier works. Others' views should not dominate our paper but our own voice should be leading others with additional emphasis. </p> Yam Prasad Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Resolute Women Characters, “Indramaya” and “Chitranggada” <p>This paper made study of two strong women characters Indramaya and Chitranggada in Bisheshwor Prasad Koirala’s <em>Tin Ghumti </em>(2004) and Sharada Sharma’a <em>Kampa </em>(2016) respectively. Drawing on feminist theory and gender theory, I analyzed these characters as real humans who are not immune of shortcomings, hardships and conundrums they face in their life. My effort was engrossed to explore how women’s sense of self esteem, freedom and existence is revered in these two novels. By resisting the imposed androcentric values these two characters choose to live their life independently saving their soul and individuality. Such characters can be found in Nepali society where they drift, fight, and claim their right to existence. The narrative, dialogues, and plot portrays these two women of the 21<sup>st</sup> century heroine, imperfect and sometimes absurd. True love is on the cards, but prohibited relationship nearly sinks them. But they realize and rise without remorse. They represent the world which is non-compliance with the world patriarchy has organized liberating oneself from the sense of inadequacies. They are the voice in the novel that is heard the loudest.</p> Rena Thapa Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 नेपालका सङ्गीत रेकर्डिङ्ग स्टुडियोमा तबलावाद्यको प्रयोग - अवस्था र चुनौती {Use of tabla in music recording studios of Nepal - situation and challenges} <p>रेकर्डिङ्ग (अभिलेखन) भन्नाले कुनै उल्लेख्य कार्यको आधिकारिक जानकारी उपलब्ध गर्न÷गराउने उद्देश्यका लागि गराइने विभिन्न प्रक्रिया वा कार्य भनेर प्रज्ञा नेपाली बृहद शब्दकोषमा उल्लेख रहेको छ । प्राचीनकालमा अभिलेख राख्नका लागि छाला, वस्त्र, ताडपत्र, शिला, स्वर्णपत्र, ताम्रपत्र, आदिमा लेखन गर्ने वा कुँद्ने प्रचलन रहेको थियो । वर्तमान समयमा भौतिक विज्ञानद्वारा आविष्कार गरिएका विभिन्न विद्युतीय उपकरणको प्रयोग गरी अभिलेख राख्ने प्रचलन रहेको छ । माइक्रोफोन, मिक्सर, स्पिकर, एम्प्लिफायर विभिन्न उपकरणहरू प्रयोग गरी सङ्गीत सम्बन्धी अभिलेख तयार गरिने स्थानलाई वर्तमान समयमा रेकर्डिङ्ग स्टुडियो भनिन्छ । प्रस्तुत लेख काठमाडौँमा रहेका रेकर्डिङ्ग स्टुडियोहरुमा स्वतन्त्रवादन बाहेक सङ्गीत अन्तर्गतका विभिन्न रचनात्मक कार्यमा गरिने तबलावादनका बारेमा केन्द्रित रहने छ । नेपालको रेकर्डिङ्ग स्टुडियोहरूमा तबलावादनको विषयका बारेमा यस किसिमको लेख प्राप्त नभएको हुनाले यस शिर्षकमा केहि जानकारी उपलब्ध गराउन खोजिएको हो । शास्त्रीय एवम् रेकर्डिङ्ग स्टुडियोमा क्रियाशील रहेका वादकहरूमध्ये प्रसिद्ध कलाकारहरूमध्ये अध्येताको पहुँचमा रहेका तबलावादकहरूसँगको छलफलका आधारमा लेखमा केहि तथ्य उपलब्ध गराइएको छ । प्राथमिक (काठमाडौँ उपत्यका भित्रका सम्बन्धित विषयका विभिन्न व्यक्तिहरूसँग छलफल), द्वितीयक (विभिन्न विद्वानहरूको स्नातकोत्तर एवम् विद्यावारिधी शोधग्रन्थ, प्रकाशित पुस्तक, खोजमूलक लेखहरू) श्रोतको सहयोगमा गुणात्मक विधिको प्रयोग गरि लेख तयार गरिएको छ । तबलावादनको व्यावसायिक मार्ग रेकर्डिङ्ग स्टुडियो तर्फ लाग्न चाहने व्यक्तिहरूलाई प्रस्तुत लेखले केहि जानकारि प्रदान गर्ने छ ।</p> <p>{Pragya Nepali comprehensive dictionary mentions that recording means various processes or actions carried out for the purpose of providing official information of a significant work. In ancient times, there was a practice of writing or engraving on leather, cloth, palm paper, stone, gold paper, copper paper, etc. to keep records. Nowadays, there is a trend of keeping records using various electronic devices invented by science. A recording studio is a place where music records are prepared using various devices like microphones, mixers, speakers, amplifiers. The presented article will be focused on the tabla playing in various creative works under music apart from freestyle in the recording studios in Kathmandu. Since there is no such article about the subject of tabla playing in the recording studios of Nepal, we have tried to provide some information on this topic. Some facts have been provided in the article based on discussions with tabla players who are within the reach of scholars among the famous artists who are active in classical and recording studios. The article has been prepared using the qualitative method with the help of primary (discussion with various people of related subjects within Kathmandu Valley), secondary (postgraduate and postgraduate research papers of various scholars, published books, investigative articles) sources. This article will provide some information for people who want to take the professional path of tabla playing towards the recording studio.}</p> वेङ्कटेश Wenkatesh ढकाल Dhakal Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 नेपाली पञ्चै बाजा समुहः एक विश्लेषण {Nepali Panchai Baja Group: An Analysis} <p>प्रस्तुत लेखमा गन्धर्व अन्तर्गत दमाई समुदायले नेपाली लोक परम्पराका विभिन्न अवसरहरूमा बजाउदै आएको प्रचलित पञ्चैे बाजालाई विश्लेषणको बिषय बनाइएको छ । नेपाली लोक परम्पराका विभिन्न धार्मिक तथा सांस्कृतिक अवसरमा बजाईने पञ्चै बाजा परम्परादेखि चल्दै आएको हाम्रो धरोहरको रुपमा रहेको मौलिक बाजा हो । पञ्चै बाजा अन्तर्गत सहनाई, नरसिङ्गा, कर्नाल, दमाहा, ढोलकी, ट्याम्को र झ्याली गरी जम्मा पाँच वटा बाजाहरु रहेका हुन्छन । यस बाजा भित्र रहेको पाँच वटा बाजाहरुको प्रयोगबाट नै यसको नाम पञ्चैे बाजा भएको हो । यी बाजाहरुको आफ्नै गरिमा, महत्व, विशेषता र शैली रहेको छ । यी बाजाहरुको बनोट कसरी भएको छ ? यसमा के कस्ता पदार्थको प्रयोग भएको छ ? यसको पृष्ठभूमि विशेषता र शैली कस्तो छ ? विगत र वर्तमानको अवस्था, समस्या र चुनौती बारे एकातिर चर्चा गरिएको छ भने अर्को तीर यस पञ्चै बाजामा बज्ने र बजाइने विभिन्न प्रकारका राग, रागिनी तथा धुनहरु के कति छन ? उक्त राग, रागिनी र धुनहरु कुन अवसरको कस्तो अवस्थामा प्रयोग भएको छ ? यसको विशेषता के हो भन्ने बारेमा वृस्तित रुपमा ब्याख्या गरिएको छ । यस लेखबाट हाम्रो धरोहरको रुपमा रहेको पञ्चै बाजा बारेमा पाठक वर्गलाई वृस्तित जानकारी र ज्ञान हासिल हुने छ र यसमा उठाइएका कुराले समाज र साङ्गीतिक क्षेत्रमा रहेको कौतुहलता, उत्सुकता र जिज्ञासालाई केहि हदसम्म मेटाउने छ साथै नेपाली लोक सङ्गीतको क्षेत्रमा टेवा पुग्ने छ । </p> <p>{In the presented article, the popular panchaye baja played by the Damai community under Gandharva on various occasions of Nepali folk tradition has been made the subject of analysis. Panchai baza, which is played on various religious and cultural occasions of Nepali folk tradition, is the original baza, which is our heritage. There are five instruments under Panchai Baja namely Sahanai, Narsinga, Karnal, Damaha, Dholki, Tamko and Jhyali. It is named Panchaye Baja from the use of five instruments inside this instrument. These instruments have their own dignity, importance, characteristics and style. How are these tools made? What substances have been used in it? What is its background characteristics and style? Past and present conditions, problems and challenges have been discussed on the one hand and on the other hand, how many different types of ragas, raginis and tunes are played in this panchai instrument? The said raga, ragini and tunes are used in what occasion? Its features have been explained in detail. From this article, the readership will get a lot of information and knowledge about Panchai Baja, which is our heritage, and the things raised in it will erase the curiosity, eagerness and curiosity in the society and the musical field to some extent and will help in the field of Nepali folk music.}</p> Nagendra Prasad नगेन्द्रप्रसाद न्यौपाने Neupane Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 राजनीतिक परिवर्तनमा प्रगतिशील गीतः नेपाली मिडियाको दृष्टिकोण (वि.सं. २०७३–२०७८) <p>समाजको आधुनिकीकरण परिवर्तनको सबैभन्दा महत्वपूर्ण प्रक्रिया हो, जसमा सामाजिक, आर्थिक, राजनैतिक, मनोवैज्ञानिक सबै किसिमका परिवर्तनहरु गाँसिएका हुन्छन् । पञ्चायतकालमा प्रगतिशील गीत र नेपाली मिडिया एक अर्काबीच पुरक रहेका थिए । दुबैले प्रजातन्त्रको पुनःस्थापना लागी राजनैतिक दलहरूको उद्धेश्यलाई सघाएका थिए । यी दुईको सम्बन्ध प्रजातन्त्रपछि पनि अन्नोन्याश्रित छ । यसै सन्दर्भमा राजनैतिक परिवर्तन वि.सं. २०४६, २०६२÷६३ मा प्रगतिशील गीतले व्यवस्था विरोधी आन्दोलनमा खेलेको भूमिका र त्यस उपर नेपालका स्वतन्त्र नेपाली छापा तथा अनलाइन मिडिया वि.सं. २०७३–७८ द्वारा प्रकाशित गरिएका सामग्रीहरूको समाचारीय कोणको पहिचान गर्ने कार्य गरिएको छ । राजनीतिक परिवर्तनमा प्रगतिशील गीतको भूमिकाको समीक्षा गर्नु र त्यसउपर मिडियाले लिएको समाचारीय दृष्टिकोणको विवेचना गर्नु प्रस्तुत लेखको मूल उद्धेश्य हो । यस लेखले पञ्चायती शासनकालमा राजनैतिक परिवर्तनलाई मूल एजेण्डा बनाएका प्रगतिशील गीत र मिडियाको सम्बन्धलाई उजागर गरेको छ । प्रस्तुत अध्ययनमा विश्लेषणात्मक एवम् वर्णनात्मक विधि अपनाइएको छ । प्रजातान्त्रिक आन्दोलनमा प्रगतिशील गीतको भूमिकाका बारेमा अध्ययन गर्न चाहने अध्येताहरूका लागि यो अध्ययन बढी उपयोगी हुने अपेक्षा गरिएको छ । प्रजातन्त्रको पुनः स्थापना, र गणतन्त्रको स्थापनामा प्रगतिशील गीतले महत्वपूर्ण सहयोगी औजारको रूपमा भूमिका खेलेको र नेपाली मिडिया पनि त्यसको पुरक भूमिकामा रहेको थियो भन्ने शोध निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।</p> <p>टीकाप्रसाद भण्डारी</p> <p>{Modernization of society is the most important process of change, in which all kinds of social, economic, political, psychological changes are intertwined. During the Panchayat period, progressive songs and Nepali media were complementary to each other. Both of them helped the cause of the political parties for the restoration of democracy. The relationship between these two is dependent even after democracy. In this context, political change vs. In 2046, 2062-63, the role played by progressive songs in the anti-establishment movement and the news angle of the materials published by the independent Nepali print and online media of Nepal (year 2073-78) have been identified. The main objective of this article is to review the role of progressive songs in political change and to analyze the news approach taken by the media. This article has exposed the relationship between progressive songs and media that made political change the main agenda during the Panchayati regime. Analytical and descriptive methods have been adopted in the present study. This study is expected to be more useful for scholars who want to study the role of progressive songs in the democratic movement. The research conclusion has been presented that the progressive song played a role as an important supporting tool in the re-establishment of democracy and the establishment of the republic and the Nepali media also played a complementary role.}</p> टीकाप्रसाद Tika भण्डारी Bhandari Copyright (c) 2022 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000