Journal of Development Review 2023-10-11T09:30:55+00:00 Daman Bahadur Singh Open Journal Systems <p>The Journal of Development Review is published by the Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association of Saraswati Multiple Campus (a unit of Tribhuvan University Teachers' Association, Nepal).</p> The Practicing of Parliamentary Democracy in Federal Nepal 2023-10-10T12:59:21+00:00 Abrita Shah Chakra Bam <p>This article assesses how the parliamentary democracy (PD) in federal Nepalworks. Nepal's federal parliament spent six years, but the notion and practice of PD are gradually fading. It descriptively analyzes the condition of cabinet, the parliament session, the role of the opposition parties, and the motion of confidence. The federal parliament practices the old-fashioned types political culture and the absence of democratic traits. The House session works for 364 days within 43 times meeting adjourned. The federal parliament also faced two times parliament dissolutions and one time PM failed to secure the vote of motion. Likewise, 41 times cabinet had been reshuffled and lower representation of women ministers. More than 50 times federal parliament obstructed, protested, and encircled. It studies qualitative methods of descriptive and analytical design. The source of data is secondary. Hence, this paper concludes that the practice of PD in the federal parliament survived but no reasonable outcomes were achieved.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Identity Crisis: Alienation and Religious Demarcation in Bhisham Sahni’s Pali 2023-10-10T13:10:39+00:00 Bhim Prasad Subedi <p>Bhisham Sahni's "Pali" the novel, delves into the devastating fallout of the Indian-Pakistani split and emphasizes the severe suffering brought on by religious enmity. Pali the protagonist of the novel a representative of solitude and melancholy, moves through a range of feelings, from solitary to identity-crisis. This research highlights the wider impact of religious prejudice and parallels the suffering of individuals caught in the crossfire. The narrative, which is linked with contemporary partition literature, reveals common trauma and its lingering effects. Pali's anguish highlights the universal narrative of suffering and reveals the pervasive effects of hatred. Despite Sahni's efforts to link experience and understanding, some agonies are still indescribable. The anguish that Pali, the main character, endured resides imprisoned, scorched too deeply for words. The book serves as a conduit for these profound effects, reflecting inexpressible sentiments. Pali encapsulates generational trauma, testifying to the religious enmity that birthed the India-Pakistan division. Pali's journey unfolds into a tapestry of emotions, revealing identity's complexity, coexistence's fragility, and prejudice's destructiveness. Sahni's work transcends his works portraying humanity's spirit, historical shadows, and a call for harmony amidst discord. This research revitalizes "Pali," its resonance reaching those seeking to comprehend the past and shape an inclusive, empathetic future.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 नेपाली भाषाको मानकीकरण र आधुनिकीकरण 2023-10-10T15:03:20+00:00 Bishnu Neupane <p>नेपाली भाषाको मानकीकरण र आधुनिकीकरण शीर्षकको यस लेखमा नेपाली भाषाको विकासका क्रममा भएका कार्यहरूमध्ये व्याकरणलेखन, साहित्यलेखन, कोशनिर्माण, पठनपाठन, अनुसन्धान, पत्रपत्रिका प्रकाशन र भाषिक आन्दोलन तथा अभियानहरूजस्ता उपशीर्षकहरूमा विषयको विश्लेषण गरिएको छ । विक्रमको दसौँ शताब्दीदेखि आजसम्मको नेपाली भाषाको विकासको इतिहासका विभिन्न कालखण्डहरूमा विभिन्न कामहरू भएका छन् । यिनै कामहरू केकसरी अगाडि बढे भन्ने मूल समस्यामा यो लेख केन्द्रित छ । नेपाली भाषा बहुसङ्ख्यक नेपालीको मातृभाषा, नेपालभित्र बोलिने विभिन्न भाषाहरूको सम्पर्क भाषा, नेपालको राष्ट्रभाषा, नेपाल राज्यभित्र सरकारी काजकाजको भाषा हो । यसको विकासमा भएका कार्यहरूको विवरणात्मक र विश्लेषणात्मक अध्ययन गर्नु यस लेखको उद्देश्य हो । पुस्तकालय अध्ययन कार्यका आधारमा द्वितीयक स्रोत सामग्री सङ्कलन गरी यिनै सामग्रीको अध्ययन र पुनरावलोकनबाट गुणात्मक अनुसन्धान ढाँचामा विश्लेषित यस अनुसन्धान लेखमा नेपाली भाषाका विकास र विस्तारमा उल्लेख्य कार्य भई यो भाषा एउटा संवृद्ध भाषाका रूपमा रहेको निष्कर्ष प्रस्तुत गरिएको छ ।</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Economic Viability and Legal Aspect of Fiscal Federalism in Nepal 2023-10-10T13:28:53+00:00 Chandra Prasad Dhakal <p>Fiscal federalism is one of the important tools for economic viability in the nation. Nepal follows federal system of government with allocation of certain economic rights to federal units. Constitution of Nepal (2015) makes the provision of three levels of government and all the governments have certain financial rights such as preparing and implementing the budget in its' territory. The study analyzes economic viability and legal aspect of fiscal federalism in Nepal. Objectives of the study are to highlight the legal aspects of financial federalism and analyze budget practice of fiscal federalism of Nepal. Qualitative research design was used to fulfill the objectives of the study. Only secondary source of data was used for this study. Data were collected through library research and interpretive paradigm was used to complete the research. Finding and conclusion of the study has been based on interpretation of data. The implementation fiscal federalism is not effective in Nepal as well as implementation mechanism of the governments is found also weak that makes fiscal federalism as controversial issue in economic development.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Jhumpa Lahiri’s Interpreter of Maladies as Postmodern Rupture on Classical Diaspora 2023-10-10T13:35:55+00:00 Duryodhan Rai <p>This research paper illumines how Jhumpa Lahiri’s short stories’ collection Interreter of Maladies presents postmodern diaspora as the discontinuity of classical diaspora. Classical/traditional diaspora sees homeland as irreplaceable place. The immigrants eventually return their homelands. Lahiri's version of diaspora differs from traditional mode of diaspora. As a well-known Indian American writer, Jhumpa Lahiri is pretty admired for her chronicle of Bengali immigrant experience. Though she portrays an attachment of immigrants with their homeland, they do not necessarily dream of returning home one day. They continuously strive to adjust themselves in new milieu. Lahiri’s characters in Interpreter of Maladies go on endeavoring to transform their sense of dislocation as their proper location. They constantly build up new identity using their memory combining with new ongoing experiences in new setting.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 The Union's Efforts to Enhance Labor Relations in Nepal's Manufacturing Sector 2023-10-10T13:43:08+00:00 Ganesh Datt Pant <p>The purpose of a trade union is to represent the collective voice of workers for the improvement of the workplace and amenities for employees. Workers in various sectors organized trade unions to engage in collective bargaining with management for better amenities and perks after Nepal achieved democracy in 1950. The objective of the study is to find the effort of labor union to improve labor relation in Nepalese manufacturing organizations. The study based on descriptive analysis and concentrates on understanding the role of union in increasing earning, securing employment, providing time off, and paying overtime which are essential for improving labor relation at work. In order to perform the study, some workers were contacted, and the currently available literature was reviewed. The study concentrated on trade union efforts to enhance labor relations, pay, benefits, overtime pay, job security, health, and welfare in various time periods. Older employees were given an open-ended questionnaire to share their perspectives. The study concludes that labor management relation is influenced by trade union’s activities. Labor unions have evolved into full-fledged political organizations that harm workers' livelihoods.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Globalization, Citizenship and Subjectivity: Theoritical Assumptions and Empirical Understanding in Nepalese Context 2023-10-10T13:51:37+00:00 Jhakendra Gharti Magar <p>This article attempts to show the relationship between theoretical assumptions and empirical understanding of globalization, citizenship and subjectivity. These three issues are not only interrelated each other but also controversial phenomenon in contemporary world. On the one hand, due to omnipresent nature of globalization, notions of citizenship and human subjectivity have been changing dramatically. On the other hand, citizenship derives from the existence of a community of people, a polity embedded in a geographically bounded nation state recognized by other nations and with boundaries and laws upheld, if necessary, by force. However, both globalization and citizenship are equally shaping and reconstructing the human subjectivity differently. Therefore, the main objective of the article is to explore the relationship among globalization, citizenship and subjectivity with theoretical assumptions and empirical understanding in Nepalese context. For this, in the first part of the article presents theoretical assumptions of globalization, citizenship and subjectivity followed by four Nepalese cases. More specifically, four individuals share their empirical understanding on how globalization has been shaping their human subjectivity in their own words. Finally, the article concludes that due to the globalization, human subjectivity and citizenship both also became globalizing because self and subject itself as fluid and socially constructed in globalized world.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Exploring T.S. Eliot’s The Waste Land as a Pre-postmodern Text 2023-10-10T13:56:43+00:00 Jitendra Man Rajbhandari <p>Despite being a groundbreaking literary work of Modernism, T.S. Eliot’s poem <em>The Waste Land</em> heralds the new era of Postmodernism that officially begins almost two decades after its publication. Although Eliot is one of the best representatives of modernist poets, his major work <em>The Waste Land</em> foreshadows some postmodern techniques and concepts. A seminal modernist poem of 1922, it can also be read as a postmodernist poem in the making. The present paper analyses some postmodern elements in <em>The Waste Land</em> and finds it a great epic of pre postmodernist thoughts. Its intertextuality, fragmentation, discontinuity in narrative structure, and deconstruction of meaning put <em>The Waste Land</em> closer to postmodernism.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Livelihood as a Part of Ecosystem 2023-10-10T14:03:05+00:00 Laxmi Thapa <p>The earning practices of rural residents have been transitioning from agricultural-based to a remittance-based economy. Data report that more than seventy five percent of population households in the study area are currently engaged in foreign employment. This phenomenon has had variety of impacts on both community and its ecological environment. However, academic discourse rarely delves into the changing dynamics of livelihood patterns and their interplay with the surrounding environment. This paper aims to examine the livelihood practices of people as a part of ecology. For the analysis of the objectives set here, mixed method has been deployed to collect and analyze the required data. Semi-structured interview is followed by observation as techniques to collect the information. The study reveals that the changing practice of the livelihood of the people has played a vital role to transform the operation modality of households in both the socio-economic and the physical, environmental dimensions. Moreover, from the analysis of collected data, it was found that the quantity of flora and fauna has increased significantly. The areas once utilized for grazing livestock and cultivation have been found to be rapidly transformed into overgrown and abandoned fields, as the lack of manpower has made it difficult to tend to the land used by the people. Thus, the study concludes livelihood as an integral part of ecology, continuously interacting with its surroundings and changes in its nature have also led to corresponding alterations in the size of components in ecosystem.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 समका कवितामा ब्रह्मचिन्तन 2023-10-11T05:33:23+00:00 Mukta Raj Upadhyaya <p>ईश्वरचिन्तनबाट आफ्नो काव्ययात्राको पहिलो पाइलो सारेका बालकृष्ण समका अधिकांश कविता पूर्वीय दर्शनबाट अनुप्राणित रहेका छन् । यिनलाई नास्तिक वा भौतिकवादी कविका रूपमा व्याख्या विवेचना गर्ने गरिए तापनि यिनका कवितामा निहित वैचारिक मान्यताको मूल आधार पूर्वीय दर्शन नै हो । आध्यात्मिक एवं ईश्वरीय चिन्तनयुक्त पारिवारिक वातावरण र संस्कारमा हुर्किएका बालकृष्ण समको ध्यान विज्ञान विषय लिई त्रिचन्द्र कलेजमा पढ्न थालेपछि भने बिस्तारै भौतिकवादी दर्शनतर्फ आकृष्ट हुन थालेको हो तापनि अध्यात्मविनाको विज्ञान त्रूmर र विनाशक हुनसक्छ भन्ने कुरामा सचेत समले अध्यात्मचिन्तन र पूर्वीय दर्शनको गहिरो अध्ययनबाट नै आफ्नो वैचारिक धरातल निर्माण गरेका हुन् । प्रस्तुत आलेख पूर्वीय षड्दर्शनहरूमध्ये वेदान्त दर्शनको ब्रह्मचिन्तनका आलोकमा बालकृष्ण समका कविताहरूको अध्ययनमा केद्रित रहेको छ । वेदमा जेजति दार्शनिक विचारहरू छन् तिनको परिपक्व र विकसित रूप उपनिषद्हरूमा पाइन्छ । वेदहरूको अन्तिम सीमा उपनिषद्हरूलाई मानेर वेदान्त नाम दिइएको हो । वेदान्तका अनेक सम्प्रदायहरूमध्ये शङ्कर प्रतिपादित अद्वैत वेदान्त सबैभन्दा महŒवपूर्ण मानिन्छ । यस दर्शनले ब्रह्मलाई सत्य र जगत्लाई मिथ्या मान्दछ । ‘ब्रह्म सत्यम् जगन्मिथ्या’ यस दर्शको मूल सिद्धान्त हो । ब्रह्म मात्र सत्य पदार्थ हो जुन परम अद्वैत छ । यसबाहेक अन्य केही पनि छैन । सम्पूर्ण संसार अथवा सृष्टि ब्रह्मकै देन हो । अविद्याको कारणले गर्दा जगत्का अनेक रूपहरू प्रतिभाषित भएका मात्र हुन् । ज्ञानको पूर्णताद्वारा जब अज्ञानता वा अविद्या समाप्त भएर जान्छ तब ब्रह्म नै एक मात्र सत्य देखिन्छ, बाँकी सबै मिथ्या लाग्दछन् भन्ने वेदान्त दर्शनको मूल मान्यतालाई बालकृष्ण समले आफ्नो जीवनको उत्तराद्र्धतिर पूर्णरूपमा आत्मसात् गर्न पुगेका छन् । बालकृष्ण समद्वारा प्रायः जीवनको उत्तराद्र्धतिर लेखिएका केही कविताहरूबाट साक्ष्य लिई ‘ब्रह्म’सम्बन्धी वेदान्त दर्शनसँग सम्बद्ध चिन्तन कवितामा कसरी प्रकट भएको छ भन्ने कुराको खोजी यस अध्ययनमा गरिएको छ ।</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 २००७ सालको प्रथम संयुक्त सरकार र तत्कालीन परिवेश 2023-10-10T15:10:05+00:00 Murari Krishna Gautam <p>शताब्दीभन्दा बढी समय राष्ट्रको शासन सत्ता सम्हालेको राणाकालीन शासन व्यवस्था अत्यन्त निरङ्कुश, दयनीय, बर्बर, अप्रजातान्त्रिक, प्रतिक्रियावादी, जहानीया र हुकुमी शासनमा आधारित रहेको थियो । अङ्ग्रेजहरूको आशीर्वाद प्राप्त शासन व्यवस्था नेपाली जनताका निमित्त अमानुषिक एवं अमानवीय प्रवृत्तिको थियो । देशमा न्यायप्रियता, प्रजातन्त्र, समानता, स्वतन्त्रता, सार्वभौमसत्ता गुमेको तथा कानुनी राज्यका मूल्य, मान्यता र आदर्शअनुरूप परिचालित नभएको हुनाले त्यस बेलाका साहसी युवा वर्गले दललगायतका धार्मिक एवं सामाजिक संङ्घ, संस्थासमेत स्थापना गरी अनेकौं तौरतरिका, उपाय, राजनैतिक गतिविधि गरी प्रजातान्त्रिक अधिकार बहालीका लागि अथकित प्रयास गरी देश विदेशबाट समर्थन जुटाए । वि.सं. १९९७ मा प्रजापरिषदका सदस्यहरुलाई निर्मम यातनासहित बरर्बरतापूर्वक फाँसीको सजाय दिएपछि नेपालमै बसी राणाशासन विरुद्ध विद्रोह गर्नु निकै कठिन भएकाले सचेत युवाहरू एवम् राणा परिवारभित्रकै राणाशासन विरोधी राणाहरुले भारतमा निर्वासित भई त्यहीँबाट नै राणाविरोधी आन्दोलनको तयारी गरे । श्री ५ त्रिभुवनलाई भारतीय राजदूतावास हुँदै दिल्ली पु¥याएपश्चात् राणाशासन विरुद्ध सशस्त्र क्रान्तिको सुरुआत भयो र यो आन्दोलन दिल्ली सम्झौतामा गएर टुङ्गियो । उक्त सम्झौताअनुसार राजा त्रिभुवन नेपालमा आई २००७ साल फागुन ७ गते प्रजातन्त्रको घोषणा गरे । सोही घोषणाअनुसार नेपालमा प्रथम संयुक्त सरकारको गठन भयो ।</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Global Climate Change and Response: Analysis from Sociological Perspectives 2023-10-10T14:28:15+00:00 Nabin Acharya <p>Climate change is one of the greatest challenges of the contemporary world. From the beginning, natural sciences within the specific discipline have dominated climate change research and have been successful in identifying the relationship between human action and environmental change but are unable to see the relationship within society that builds environmentally damaging social structure. Sociologists have made important contributions in identifying the effects of social structure on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Sociology provides a wealth of resources including different concepts and theories that take into account the influence of social norms, values, cultural beliefs, power, social inequalities, vulnerabilities, and global systems in causing climate change. This paper is based on the review of different articles, book chapters and research reports related to climate change and examine the causes, impacts and response measures from sociological perspectives and insights. The study showed that the individual’s consumption behaviour that drives GHG emissions is constrained by the contexts of the society and the working of the global system. The impacts of climate change are varied among social groups and societies so need to take account the underlying causes of social inequalities, vulnerabilities and climate injustice at both national and global levels. The paper concludes that without understanding the complex interaction between individuals and the socio-cultural, economic and political context of the society we cannot deal with the current challenges of climate change.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Human Resource Planning on Organization Performance in Cooperatives Sector 2023-10-10T14:37:15+00:00 Narayan Prasad Aryal Gobind Kumar Singh <p>The study investigates the empirical examination of human resource planning in the cooperative sector. It aims to assess the impact of forecasting manpower demand and strategic action on the overall performance of these organisations. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the intricate relationship between human resource planning and organisational performance. The selection of firms was conducted using stratified sampling techniques within the cooperative sector. The exploratory research design was selected as the primary research paradigm to uncover and understand reality. In this quantitative study, information came from a sample of 54 cooperative employees, specifically in the areas of Kalimati, Balkhu, and Teku. A meticulously developed structured questionnaire was employed, and the resulting data were subjected to analysis utilising SPSS version 20. Data collection has been conducted using convenience sampling. The results of the study suggest a noteworthy correlation between human resource planning and organisational effectiveness. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the cooperative sector and its human resource managers should consistently conduct manpower audits and planning. This will allow them to proactively assess the demand and supply situation in the labour market before proceeding with employee recruitment.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Commitment of Faculty Members, Tribhuvan University 2023-10-10T15:16:01+00:00 Padam Bahadur Lama Kamal Raj Bhattarai Mukund Chataut <p>The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of emotional intelligence (EI) on organizational commitment of faculty members of Tribhuvan University (T.U.). A cross sectional data collected through a convenient sampling using structured questionnaires. A total of 384 valid questionnaire received from respondents and analyzed using inferential statistics. The findings of the study depicts that emotional intelligence of university faculty members has positive and significant impact on organizational commitment i.e. affective commitment. It indicates that university faculty who had higher levels of emotional intelligence displayed higher degrees of affective commitment. The results of this study will motivate University policy makers and academic personalities to understand the linkage of EI of university faculty members and their affective commitment for better decision making.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023