Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources 2022-12-27T17:40:19+00:00 Jiban Shrestha, PhD Open Journal Systems <p>A journal published by Tribhuvan University, Institute of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, Prithu Technical College, <span style="color: #000000;">Lamahi Municipality Ward-3, Bangaun, Deukhuri Dang, Nepal</span>.</p> <p>Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources was included on <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> on 7th March 2019.</p> Damage and yield loss estimate in maize varieties owing to stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) infestation and insecticidal control 2022-12-19T07:56:35+00:00 Saraswati Neupane Subash Subedi Ramesh Kumar Shrestha Sunita Pandey <p>Stem borer (<em>Chilo partellus</em> Swinhoe) is one of the most damaging and yield reducing pest in maize. Field experiments were organized to assess the extent of damage and yield loss due to the infestation of stem borer in maize following two factors randomized complete block design with three replications at National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal, during two consecutive spring seasons of 2020 and 2021. Maize varieties; Rampur Hybrid (RH)-8, RH-10, RH-12 (CAH-1715), RH-14 (RML-86/RML-96), RH-16 (RML-95/RML-96), TX-369, Arun-2, ZM-401, ZM-627 and Rampur Composite were used as a test variety (First factor) whereas pest control conditions (spray and non-spray) was considered as the second factor in the experiments. The sprayed plots (protected plots) were kept completely free from stem borer infestation by using three application of standard dose of insecticide (spinosad 45% EC@0.4mL/L) at 10 days interval and non spray (unprotected plots) were selected for natural infestation of stem borers. Standard agronomical practices such as time of planting, row spacing, seed rate, irrigation, weeding and fertilizer application and doses were adopted to raise the crop. Among tested varieties Arun-2 was found most susceptible to stem borer attack in both experimental years resulted in higher % dead hearts (6.04%), higher no of exit hole (4.72), higher % foliage damage at before tasseling stage (12.17%) and higher tunnel length (4.62cm). Quantitative yield loss increased with the increase of the borer's infestation. The yield loss was ranged from 25 to 45% in different maize varieties due to the attack of stem borer. Highest yield loss was quantified for the open pollinated varieties, ZM-401(44.61%) followed by Rampur Composite (41.39%) and Arun-2 (41.22%). Spraying of insecticide enabled the recently introduced maize hybrid RH-14 to produce more yield and to be less vulnerable to stem borer damage.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Neupane et al. Increasing the productivity of rajma through proper sowing date and plant geometry 2022-12-19T09:22:16+00:00 Anil Pokhrel Sangharsh Raj Dangi <p>Rajma (<em>Phaseolus vulgaris</em> L.) cultivation is gaining popularity in Terai to Hills of Nepal. The poor plant establishment and yield due to the results of unsuitable sowing time and row spacing are the main reasons for lower productivity of it. Therefore, the date of sowing and row spacing trials were conducted in two consecutive years, 2017 and 2018 at the Grain Legumes Research Program, Khajura, Banke. A widespread and registered variety of rajma PDR 14 was used in the experiment. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with four sowing dates (a) 11<sup>th</sup> October, (b) 26<sup>th</sup> October, (c) 10<sup>th</sup> November and (d) 25<sup>th</sup> November as the main-factor, and three rows spacing (a) 30 cm, (b) 40 cm and (c) 50 cm as the sub-factor, consisted of three replications. The effect of the date of sowing on all the yield and yield attributing characters was found significant at a one percent significance level. Similarly, row spacing has resulted in a significant difference in grain yield. Rajma sown on 26<sup>th</sup> October (<em>Kartik</em> 9) produced 12, 38 and 64% higher grain yield than sown on 11<sup>th</sup> October, 10<sup>th</sup> November and 25<sup>th</sup> November, respectively. Moreover, rajma seeds sown on 26<sup>th</sup> October with 30 cm × 10 cm plant geometry produced the highest grain yield (2185 kg/ha). The narrow row spacing seemed well than the wider row in rajma production. There is a great potential to increase the production and productivity of rajma through an appropriate time of sowing and row spacing.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Anil Pokhrel, Sangharsh Raj Dangi Effect of mulch materials on potato production and soil properties in high hill of Parbat, Gandaki Province, Nepal 2022-12-19T23:26:14+00:00 Sandip Timilsina Asmita Khanal CK Timilsina TB Poon <p>An experiment for two consecutive years (2017 and 2018) was conducted to evaluate the use of mulching materials in increasing productivity and profitability of potato production. The experiment was conducted in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with five different mulching materials including control replicated for four times namely, banmara (<em>Agertina adenophora</em>) weed (T1), black polythene sheet (T2), white polythene sheet (T3), commercially used mulch paper having black color outside and silver color inside (T4) and farmers practice (T5) as a control with no mulch. The research result revealed that all the mulching materials significantly (p value ≤ 0.05) increased tuber yield and yield attributing characters of potato as compared with control (no mulch). The highest tuber yield was obtained from mulching with commercial mulch paper followed by mulching with black polythene sheet in both years. Mulching with banmara also produced significantly (p value ≤ 0.01) higher tuber yield than no mulch plot in the year 2017 and 2018. Mulching practices significantly (p value ≤ 0.05) improved the soil available phosphorus. The incremental benefit cost ratio was highest (2.97) in the mulched with banmara followed by commercial mulch paper (2.12). The banmara mulch was also profitable with comparatively higher tuber yield.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Timilsina et al. Comparison of different cereal grains for hydroponic fodder production in locally constructed polyhouse at Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal 2022-12-20T10:16:18+00:00 Sujaya Upreti Ram P. Ghimire Niraj Banskota <p>Hydroponic fodder production technology involves an intensive method of quality fodder production in less space and in a shorter duration. An experiment was conducted to compare the different cereal grains under hydroponic fodder production for the fodder yield, fodder quality, and per unit production cost in a locally constructed polyhouse. Maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.), oat (<em>Avena sativa</em> L.) and wheat (<em>Triticum aestivum</em> L.) were evaluated as the treatments. The experiment was carried out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 12 replications at National Pasture and Fodder Research Program in July 2017 and July 2018. The observations were taken on plant morphological characters, fodder yield (including root mat), fodder nutrient composition and expenses in variable costs. The results of the study showed that the fodder yield varied significantly (P&lt;0.05) for different cereal grains. The hydroponic fodder yields from each kg grain were recorded higher in fodder oat (7.96 kg) compared to wheat (6.76 kg) and maize (5.32 kg). Similarly, the crude protein (CP) content of the fodder was higher in wheat (16.16%) compared to oat (13.96%) and maize (12.51%). The cost of hydroponic maize, oat and wheat fodder production were obtained as recorded NPR 20.64, 24.67 and 18.76 per kg, respectively.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Upreti et al. Growth and yield of different oat (Avena sativa) varieties in Lalitpur district of Nepal 2022-12-20T12:35:56+00:00 Shankar Raj Pant Ram Prasad Ghimire Prenil KC Sujaya Upreti <p>Oat (<em>Avena sativa</em>) is considered as one of the best fodders to mitigate the present seasonal feed deficit for ruminants in Nepal. The study was undertaken to evaluate eleven oat varieties for fodder and seed yield at the Khumaltar condition from December 2021 to April 2022. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The fodder oat varieties; Ever leaf, Titan, Baler no. 1, Sweet oat, Monida, Qingyin no. 1, Qinghai no. 444, Kona, Swan Pak, Longford, and Netra (as a check variety) were used as the treatments. An experimental unit was a 4 m × 3 m sized plot with the row to row spacing of 0.30 m and continuous sowing within a row. A total of two cuttings were taken for fodder. The observations on growth and yielding characters comprising of plant height, leaf area, number of tillers plant<sup>-1</sup>, number of leaves/tiller, fodder dry matter, seed and straw yield were recorded. The results showed the fodder dry matter yields ranged from 2.35 to 3.58 t/ha and were not significantly different (p&gt;0.05) among the varieties. The seed and straw yields were obtained statistically different (p&lt;0.05) among the varieties. Netra (2.90 t/ha) and Kona (2.88 t/ha) produced higher seed yields. Similarly, the highest straw yield was produced for the variety Longford (8.73 t/ha).</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pant et al. Characterization of Nepalese rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces for qualitative traits 2022-12-21T16:31:18+00:00 Raju Kharel Sujan Subedi Diwas Ghimire Suraj Shrestha <p>The characterization of rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L.) landraces enables to identify phenotypically unique variables which certainly aid in rice breeding program. So, an experiment was conducted in alpha designed to characterize 188 rice landraces from NAGRC (National Agriculture Genetic Resources center) Nepal for their qualitative agromorphologies in research farm of Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU), Rampur, Chitwan in 2020 AD. Twenty-nine qualitative variables viz; twelve leaf characters, six culm characters, four panicle character and seven grain characters were observed and 26 characters revealed diverse trait expressions for each variable in experimented 188 rice accessions. Two leaf characters namely ligule colour and flag leaf attitude for early observation and one grain character (stigma colour for early observation) showed no variation among studied rice accessions. The intensity of green colour of leaf blade, culm lodging resistance and culm habit, secondary branching of panicle, and lemma and palea colour, lemma apiculus colour and sterile lemma colour, elucidated the higher variation in studied characters. The distinction revealed in qualitative characters approves the presence of abundant phenotypic diversity in the landraces assemblage and that eventually signifies the efficient and effective utilization of landrace in rice breeding programs.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kharel et al. Evaluation of performance and genetic parameters in quality protein maize genotypes 2022-12-21T21:49:06+00:00 Aradhana Regmi Dikshya Niraula Upasana Shrestha Suraj Shrestha Bishnu Prasad Kandel <p>Quality protein maize (QPM) contains opaque-2 mutant genes that increases lysine and tryptophan level which are not normally found in maize. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of QPM genotype based on their yield, yield attributing and other relevant characteristics. A varietal trial on QPM was conducted in the research field of Lamahi municipality-3, Dang, Nepal from February to June 2021. This experiment was performed in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Thirteen genotypes of QPM and one standard check (Poshilo Makai-2) were evaluated. Each genotype was assigned an area of 3m × 3m with a net plot area of 452.5m<sup>2 </sup>per block. Analysis of variance revealed significant data for the most of the genotypes. Four genotypes Rampur-S13FQ-02 Rampur-SO3FQ-02, Rampur-S13FQ010 and Rampur-S13FQ-08 were found superior with a yield of 4.32 t/ha, 3.97 t/ha, 3.89 t/ha, 3.63 t/ha respectively in comparison to the standard check Poshilo makai-2 (2.66 t/ha). Significant and positive correlation were observed for the ear length, ear diameter, number of kernels per ear, number of kernel row per ear, ear weight whereas negative for ear aspect with grain yield was observed. Ear weight without husk had the highest contribution to grain yield. For all observed traits, the coefficient of phenotypic variation (PCV) was found to be higher than that of genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV). The highest GCV, PCV, genetic advance and heritability were observed in ear aspect, thousand grain weight, ear height, plant height respectively. As a result, breeding programs can be further improved by selecting these traits.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Regmi et al. Economics of production and marketing of fish in Dang district of Nepal 2022-12-21T22:43:14+00:00 Sabina Poudel Samaya Gairhe Anjan Bhatta Jeevan Lamichhane Krishna Aryal Susan Subedi <p>A study was carried out to analyze the economics of fish production and marketing in Dang district of Nepal. Structured survey was done with 75 respondents (45 producers, 5 wholesalers, 10 retailers, and 15 consumers) in three different sites of Dang district (<em>viz:</em> Lamahi Municipality, Rapti Rural Municipality and Gadhawa Rural Municipality). The initial investment, cost of production and returns, production function, price spread,and marketing margin, and ranking of production and marketing problems of fish were done by index ranking techniques. Financial analysis showed that the total initial investment per hectare of fishpond was found to be NRs. 9, 68,394 with the annual production cost of NRs. 6, 93,483. The total return was found to be NRs. 932,088 and net profit realized per hectare was NRs. 238,604. Out of total cost, about 73.70% was variable cost and the remaining 26.30% was fixed cost. Of the total variable cost, the cost of feed (58.63%) was significantly higher followed by the cost of fingerlings (12.94%), labor (11.37%), manure and fertilizer cost (8.33%) fuel/ energy (4.46%) and maintenance cost (4.27%) respectively. The benefit cost ratio (B/C ratio) was found to be 1.82 which implies that the fish enterprise was found to be profitable in the study area. The research also revealed that the producer’s share was 78.17% with price spread of 71.57 and marketing efficiency of 90.81%. The value sum of the estimated parameters associated with all the inputs is 0.52 which indicates the decreasing return to scale. Lack of technological know-how and unavailability of inputs on time are the major production problems. Inefficient price information system and competition with the Indian fish are the major marketing problems. Thus, for sustainable production and marketing of fish government should focus primarily on technological dissemination and better pricing policy.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Poudel et al. Field efficacy of phytoextracts, antagonists and chemical fungicides with native approach for controlling banded leaf and sheath blight in maize 2022-12-22T07:12:25+00:00 Subash Subedi Saraswati Neupane Lokendra Oli Jiban Shrestha <p>Experiments on maize (<em>Zea mays</em> L.) were carried out aiming to control banded leaf and sheath blight (BLSB) caused by fungus, <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em> Kuhn with six treatments represented by different fungicides, antagonists and phytoextracts against control receiving no spray with three replicates of each under field conditions during two consecutive years from 2019 to 2020. In 2019, the higher Percent Disease Control (44.85%) and Percent Yield Increase (62.10%) both were estimated in plot treated with SAAF (carbendazim 12% WP + mancozeb 63% WP) followed by the plot where seed was treated with bavistin (carbendazim 50% WP). The grain yield was higher in plots treated with SAAF followed by leaf stripping method. Almost similar trends of disease control were observed in 2020. The lower percent disease index (47.67% PDI) with higher yield (4660 kg/ha) was recorded from the plot sprayed with SAAF@3 g/L during knee high and subsequent spray after 15 days interval followed by leaf stripping technique (lower 3-4 leaves from ground surface) as compared to control plot (PDI- 93.67% and yield-1393.33 kg/ ha). The results showed that, the combined treatment with fungicides i.e. seed treatment with bavistin before sowing and twice spraying of SAAF during knee height stage at 15 days interval followed by leaf stripping technique were effective to control banded leaf and sheath blight disease of maize to increase the yield.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Subedi et al. Identification of micronutrient-rich germplasms of barley for mid-hills and Terai region of Nepal 2022-12-22T09:01:39+00:00 Bhanu Bhakta Pokharel Parbati Adhikari Shailendra Thapa Shashi Ram Sharma <p>Zinc and iron deficiencies, common in many parts of the world, having risk factors that raise the burden of disease with high child and adult mortality. Breeding efforts for exploring barley grains with higher zinc and iron are underway. A study was conducted &nbsp;during the normal barley growing season of 2017 to identify the barley genotypes with higher concentration of protein, starch, iron and zinc for the mid-hill and Terai conditions of Nepal. An augmented block design was followed, and two improved varieties i.e., Bonus and Solu Uwa were used as repeated checks. The average grain protein, starch, zinc, and iron content were 11.9%, 55.6%, 47.4 mg/kg and 41.4 mg/kg at Dailekh and 11.3%, 53.3%, 46.6 mg/kg and 39.9 mg/kg at Rampur, respectively. The grain protein content was found up to 19.8% (AM-55, AM-45, AM-88 at Dailekh) and 16.6% (AM-81, AM-77, AM-98 at Rampur). Similarly, the highest grain zinc content was found 97 mg/kg (AM-6, AM-138 and AM-125 at Dailekh) and 92 &nbsp;mg/kg (AM-226,&nbsp; AM-99 and AM-227 mg/kg at Rampur). The highest iron content 71 mg/kg &nbsp;( AM-2, AM-43, AM-4 at Dailekh) and 63 &nbsp;mg/kg<sup>&nbsp; </sup>(AM-90, AM-168 and AM-92 at Rampur). The identified genotypes with higher grain elements concentration are valuable resources for Nepal's barley breeding program that helps develop quality and nutritious barley varieties.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pokharel et al. Management of blast disease of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L. Gaertn) caused by Pyricularia grisea under field conditions in Dolakha, Nepal 2022-12-23T07:29:38+00:00 Suk Bahadur Gurung Narayan Bahadur Dhami Subash Subedi Jiban Shrestha <p>Lack of understanding regarding the choice of chemical fungicides or botanicals with their optimal doze and spraying schedule is one of the major problems concerning mid-hill farmers to control finger millet diseases in Nepal. In order to assess the effectiveness of the four fungicides, namely Bavistin 50 WP (Carbendazim 50%), SAAF (Carbendazim 12% + Mancozeb 63% WP), RIDOMIL-MZ 72 WP (Metalyxl 8% + Mancozeb 64% WP), BAAN 75 WP (Tricyclazole 75%), and two botanicalsermented anaerobically in cattle urine, an artificial epiphytotic field. In the years 2018 and 2019, the experiment was run using a randomized complete block design with three replications. Carbendazim, one of the chosen treatments, had the greatest impact in lowering the AUDPC values for leaf blast (1818, 1191) as well as neck (4,53) and finger blast (10,45) incidence percentage in both 2018 and 2019 years. Tricyclazole, SAAF, RIDOMIL-MZ, and <em>Lantana camara</em> fermented in cow urine were also discovered to be beneficial throughout the year.&nbsp; So it is recommended to deploy fungicides in a controlled manner through rotation and mixed applications, which is advantageous for both grain and seed production even for minor and underutilized crops from an economic aspect.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Gurung et al. Management of bacterial leaf blight disease of rice in farmer's field condition at Bhaktapur district of Nepal 2022-12-23T10:10:44+00:00 Patiksha Sharma Suraj Baidya Saraswoti Kandel Suraj Chaudhary Prem Bahadur Magar <p>Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by <em>Xanthomonas oryzae </em>pv. <em>oryzae</em> is considered as one of the major threats to rice production in Nepal. To identify the effective control measures, an experiment was done in a randomized complete block design with three replications in a farmer<sup>'</sup>s rice field at Bhaktapur, during the <em>summer </em>seasons of 2018 and 2019. Three plants extracts; 1% Neem extract, 2% Asuro leaf extract, and 2% Titepati leaf extract along with two fungicides viz. 0.1% Agricin and 0.2% Blitox 50, and one bio-control agent 1%Kisan Pseudomonas were used as treatments. The first spray was given as a prophylactic spray at the jointing stage, and they were applied 3 times at 50, 60 and 70 days interval. All the treatments significantly reduced disease and improved test weight higher than control. Among the tested treatments, 0.1% Agricin performed as the best with 65.70% disease control and increase in yield over control by 28.13%. Among the tested botanicals, 2% stock solution of Titepati performed as the best with 50.59% disease control and increase in yield by 13.51%. Therefore, three times application of 0.1% Agricinat 10 day interval starting from jointing stage can be used to control BLB disease for higher rice production.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sharma et al. Effect of different doses of probiotics on growth performance of New Hampshire chicken 2022-12-23T14:59:49+00:00 Luma Nidhi Pandey Jagbir Chaudhary Manoj Kumar Shah <p>The feed additive is one of the important components in poultry production to enhance the performance of birds. An experiment was conducted atNational Animal Nutrition Research Center, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal in order to evaluate the feasibility of probiotics as feed additives in New Hampshire chicken performance. The experiment was laid out with four treatments viz. basal diet which is concentrate mixture without inclusion of probiotic (<em>Lactobacillus acidophilus</em> - 50*10<sup>9 </sup>cfu/kg, <em>Bacillus subtilis</em> - 1*10<sup>9 </sup>cfu/kg, <em>Bacillus licheniformis</em> - 1*10<sup>9 </sup>cfu/kg, <em>Saccharomyces boulardii</em> - 10*10<sup>9</sup>cfu/kg) as basal diet with 0.5 gram of probiotic per liter of water , basal diet with 1 gram of probiotics per liter of water and basal diet with 1.5 gram of probiotics per liter of water under completely randomized design replicated three times. A total of 180, 8<sup>th</sup> week New Hampshire chickens were allotted with 15 birds in each experimental unit. Experimental birds were fed <em>ad-libitum</em> amount of formulated concentrate feed and clean drinking water with proper management practices.The highest weight gain was observed in treatment group provided with 1g of probiotic in diet (1957.96 g) followed by treatment group provided with 0.5 g of probiotic in diet (1891.40 g), 1.5g probiotic in diet (1879 g) and lowest in treatment group without probiotic in diet (1793.62 g). However there was no significant difference in total feed intake between all the treatment groups. Similarly, better feed conversion ratio (FCR) was found inbirds fed with 1g probiotic (3.59) followed by 0.5g probiotic (3.67), 1.5 g probiotic (3.72) and without probiotic in diet (3.87). Dressing percentage was also found higher (85.03 %) in birds fed with 1g of probiotic included diet than other groups of birds.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pandey et al. Efficacy of co-inoculation of the rhizobium and pseudomonas in combination with chemical fertilizer on the productivity of rice under legume-based cropping system 2022-12-24T11:55:54+00:00 Saraswoti Kandel Anil Pokhrel Reena Sharma Kamana Rayamajhi Suraj Chaudhary <p>The main production restriction in Nepal is a shortage of nitrogen and phosphorus-based fertilizers. In addition, the excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase rice production alters the soils’ physicochemical and biological qualities. The effective application of biofertilizers obtained from beneficial microorganisms is on demand for increasing agriculture production as well as maintaining soil health sustainably. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design (RCBD) with five treatments and four replications at Grain Legumes Research Program (GLRP), Khajura, Banke in order to find out the response of co-inoculation of <em>Rhizobium</em> and <em>Pseudomonas</em> in combination with different dose of recommended chemical fertilizers. The application of the co-inoculated <em>Rhizobium</em> and <em>Pseudomonas</em> at the dose of 800 g/ha along with the recommended N:P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>:K<sub>2</sub>O dose of 100:60:30 kg/ha was found to be best effective among all treatment combinations. The maximum panicle length, biological yield, grain yield and thousand grains weight were 27.75 cm, 6.55 t/ha, 6.083 t/ha<sup>, </sup>and 27.67 g, respectively. In this study, co-inoculation of <em>Rhizobium</em>, <em>Pseudomonas</em> and a full dose of prescribed chemical fertilizers improved panicle length, biological yield, grain yield and thousand grains weight considerably more than others.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kandel et al. Genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance in Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) 2022-12-24T15:08:30+00:00 Padam Prasad Poudel Laxman Aryal Rajendra Darai Rabendra Sah Kumar Subedi Basistha Acharya Subash Subedi Jiban Shrestha <p>The present study was carried out to study the variation, broad-sense heritability, and genetic advance, correlation among traits for growth, yield, and its attributing traits in lentil genotypes. Sixty lentil genotypes were evaluated in augmented design in 2020 at Khajura, Banke. The results indicated that the genotypes were significantly different for days to flowering, days to maturity, 500 seed weight and grain yield kg/ha. The phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was greater than the genotypic coefficient of variance (GCV) for all traits. The 500 seed weight showed the highest PCV (22%) and GCV (21%) whereas days to maturity showed the lowest PCV (5.5%) and GCV (3.2%). The highest value (90%) of heritability (broad sense) was in and lowest (3%) in pods per plant. Genetic Advance Mean 40% was the highest for seed weight but lowest at 1.2% in pods per plant. Grain yield showed a positive and significant correlation in genotypic level with days to maturity (r = 0.7**), plant height (r = 1.66*), pods per plant (r = 1.15**) and seed weight (r = 0.56*). Path analysis found that the seed weight had the most impact on grain yield followed by pod per plant. Thus, selection for yield in lentils through these characteristics would be effective in the varietal developmental program.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Poudel et al. In vitro evaluation of different fungicides against Rhizoctonia solani and Alternaria citri infecting citrus 2022-12-24T17:06:16+00:00 Susmita Sigdel Saurav Ranabhat Srijana Bhandari Prem Bahadur Magar Jiban Shrestha Subash Subedi <p><em>Rhizoctonia solani</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Alternaria&nbsp;citri</em>&nbsp;are major plant pathogens of citrus, causing considerable production losses. Chemical fungicides are widely used for disease control. Using the food poisoning technique under in vitro conditions, an experiment was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of several fungicides against those pathogens. To evaluate the effect on <em>Rhizoctonia solani</em> mycelial growth, five different chemicals, viz. SAAF (Carbendazim 12% WP + Mancozeb 63% WP), Bavistin (Carbendazim 50% WP), VACOMIL PLUS (Metalaxyl 15% WP + Copper oxychloride 35% WP), and Raze (Copper oxychloride 50% WP) were used at 100 ppm and 200 ppm concentration each<em>. </em>Similar chemicals were used for <em>Alternaria citri </em>except for additional Mancozab (Mancozeb 75% WP)<em>.</em>&nbsp;Mycelial growth inhibition was measured until the fungus nearly covered the plate in control.&nbsp;All fungicides reduced the fungal growth compared to control. After 96 hours of incubation with&nbsp;<em>Rhizoctonia solani</em>, maximum inhibition (100%) was achieved at both concentrations of Bavistin, followed by SAAF @ 200 ppm (97.59%) and SAAF @ 100 ppm (88.25%), whereas VACOMIL PLUS and Raze had the minimum effect on the mycelial growth. Similarly, after 8 days of incubation of&nbsp;<em>Alternaria citri</em>, SAAF @ 200 ppm showed the highest inhibition (70.86%), followed by SAAF @ 100 ppm (65.11%), Mancozab @ 200 ppm (64.39%), and Mancozab @ 100 ppm (47.48%), but the effect of Bavistin, Raze, and VACOMIL PLUS had the lowest impact. The chemical proven effective against the pathogens should be trialed in pot and field experiments for further verification.&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sigdel et al. Nutrient contents in different sources of organic manures used in different farms of Bhaktapur district, Nepal 2022-12-24T20:37:49+00:00 Reena Sharma Saraswoti Kandel Sujan Khadka Suraj Chaudhary <p>Organic manure contributes carbonaceous matter to soil, which when decomposed, offers mineral nutrients to plants, also&nbsp;acts as a base exchange material, and helps to improve the physical, chemical, and biological aspects of soil. This&nbsp;study was conducted to assess the amount of total nitrogen, available phosphorous, available potassium,&nbsp;pH, under various organic manure sources. Collected organic matter samples were tested for total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, soil organic matter, and pH at the soil laboratory of Nepal Polytechnic College, Bharatpur-11, Chitwan, using the NARC, Soil Science Research Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur standard rating. The overall nitrogen concentration of goat dung was 1.667%, whereas buffalo manure had the lowest at 0.665%. The available phosphorus content of organic manure in the research area ranged from 0.732% in vermi-compost to 0.432% in compost, with substantial differences amongst manure samples. The goat manure had the highest potassium level (0.853%), whereas buffalo manure had the lowest (0.513%). &nbsp;The pH value of goat manure was 8.4 while the pH content of compost manure was 7.567. The maximum amount of organic matter (54.8) was found in buffalo manure, while the lowest (46.3) was found in vermi compost. The maximum amount of organic matter (54.8%) was found in buffalo manure, while the lowest (46.3%) was found in vermi compost. Modern technology must be adapted for successful and improved manure production. To increase the availability and maintenance of nutrients in organic manure, methods such as covering the manure to protect it from rain and sun, avoiding waterlogged conditions, and correct manure decomposition can be implemented.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sharma et al. Effect of additional pollen supplement on fruit setting in Moringa oleifera 2022-12-24T20:56:22+00:00 BAZIE Babou Frédéric DAO Madjelia Cangré Ebou <p><em>Moringa oleifera</em> Lam. is a woody species with hermaphrodite flowers cultivated for its fruits and seeds for oil production. The fruit production of the species remains below producers' expectations.The current study was carried out from July to October along two consecutive years (2019 and 2020) at Komsilga (12°18'48.2''N and 1°64'60.2''W ) and at the INERA experimental station in Ouagadougou (12°22'801''N and 1°30'295''W ) both located in the northern Sudanian zone of Burkina Faso. Our study aimed at testing whether additional pollen on the flower stigma could improve pod and seed yields. For this purpose, a sample of 10 flowering trees and 20 inflorescences/tree was randomly selected at each site. Per tree, 10 newly flowering inflorescences were left to open pollinated and 10 others received pollenmanually. Results show that hand-pollinated inflorescences produced an average of 0.19 and 0.17 fruits, compared to 0.16 and 0.14 for open-pollinated inflorescences at INERA and Komsilga respectively (p= 0.7720). The mean seed weight was 63 (±11.2) and 50 (±7.4) g for the manualand open pollinated treatment, respectively. The Kruskal-wallis test of mean seed weight shows that the smallest fruits were obtained in the open pollination which differed significantly from manual pollination (p&lt; 0.0001).&nbsp; The addition of pollen significantly improved Moringa fruit production.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 BAZIE Babou Frédéric, DAO Madjelia Cangré Ebou Issues in rice marketing system: a case of central terai 2022-12-25T05:10:31+00:00 Meena Kharel Krishna Prasad Timsina Surya Prasad Adhikari Yuga Nath Ghimire Samaya Gairhe Deepa Devkota Hema Kumari Poudel <p>This study was conducted to understand the challenges and prospects of ricemarketing by taking case of central Nepal. Two focus group discussionsalong with eight key informants’ interviewswere conductedinBara and Parsa districts of Nepal.Also, secondary information was collected by reviewing the related literatures.The study revealed that the consumer price of rice is almost double than the farm gate price, possibly due to the presence of several intermediaries in different nodes of the supply chain.Key market actors like large collectors, millers and wholesalers have a dominating role in price negotiation and supply of rice in the market. The rice value chain is not strong enough, which might be due to poor vertical and horizontal as well as backward and forward linkages among the key players. The demand of fine and aromatic rice is gradually increasing due to changing food habits of the consumers and their access to purchasing capacity as well.The high yielding short duration varieties of fine and aromatic rice need to be identified and developed to meet the growing demand of consumers.In addition, to boost productivity and profitability of rice, a better investment climate, risk sharing mechanism and strengthened value chain with efficient research and extension services are required.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Kharel et al. Effects of organic manures on yield and yield attributes of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) genotypes 2022-12-25T14:56:22+00:00 Jeet Narayan Chaudhary Yuba Raj Bhusal Tek Prasad Gotame Krishna Bahadur Thapa Deepa Singh Shrestha Jiban Shrestha <p>An experiment was carried out to determine the effects of organic sources of fertilizers on yield and yield parameters of five coffee (<em>Coffea arabica</em>) genotypes at Gulmi district in 2015 to 2021. Five different source of organic manures (mustard cake @ 2 kg/plant, poultry manure @ 2.5 kg/plant, vermi compost @ 3 kg/plant, goat manure @ 4 kg/plant and FYM/cattle manure @ 5 kg/plant) was applied on five coffee genotypes (Chhetradip Local, Gulmi Local, Selection-10, Syangja Special and Yellow Cattura). Field experiment was laid out in factorial randomized complete block design with three replications. Irrespective of genotypes, the length of cherry was found maximum (15.3 mm) in mustard cake applied plants which was followed by poultry manure applied plants (15.2 mm). The average cherry length was found longest (15.3 mm) in Yellow Cattura and Syangja Special which was followed by genotype Chhetradip Local (15.1 mm). The highest diameter of cherry (12.7 mm) was obtained with the use of mustard cake followed by poultry manure (12.4 mm). The application of mustard cake produced the highest cherry yield (3.55 kg/plant) followed by poultry manure (3.43 kg/plant). Yellow Cattura produced the highest fresh cherry yield (3.34 kg/ha) followed by Selection-10 (3.07 kg/plant). Results indicate that poultry manure and Yellow Cattura are most effective for higher production of coffee.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Chaudhary et al. Evaluation of the growth and yield characteristics of various genotypes of the soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] 2022-12-26T02:32:44+00:00 Pallavi Kumari Singh Ujjawal Kumar Singh Kushwaha Jiban Shrestha <p>Eighteen genotypes of soybean were evaluated in coordinated varietal trial in 2018 and eight genotypes in pre-released varietal trial in 2019 at National Plant Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal. The experimental design was randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The results showed that the maximum yield was obtained from CN-60 (2858 kg/ha) followed by CM-9133 (2791 kg/ha) in 2018 and CM-9125 (2708 kg/ha) followed by G-1872 (2666 kg/ha) in 2019. Similarly, combined analysis of pre-released varietal trial showed that grain yield was maximum for the LS-22-16-16 (2737.5 kg/ha) followed by G-4508 (2718.5 kg/ha) in 2018 and 2019. Thus, LS-22-16-16 and G-4508 seeds can be delivered to farmers as a farmers acceptance test for the release of soybean variety, while CN-60 and CM-9133 can be promoted to pre-released varietal trial.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Singh et al. Efficacy of Trichoderma isolates against Sclerotium rolfsii causing collar rot of lentil 2022-12-26T05:25:02+00:00 Laxman Aryal Suraj Baidya Subash Subedi <p>Lentil collar rot disease caused by <em>Sclerotium rolfsii</em> Sacc. is an&nbsp; important disease causing significant yield loss in Nepal. Seven <em>Trichoderma</em> spp. isolates collected from different regions of Nepal were tested for their capacity to inhibit mycelial growth of <em>Sclerotium rolfsii</em> in in-vitro condition. Experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design with four replications in the plant pathology laboratory of Grain Legumes Research Program, Khajura, Banke during 2020. Dual culture method was performed to assess the efficacy of Trichoderma isolates. <em>Trichoderma </em>spp. isolates inhibited mycelial growth of <em>S. rolfsii</em> to various degrees ranging from 48.33-72.47% after 120 hours of inoculation. Maximum colony inhibition of <em>S. rolfsii</em> (72.47%) was obtained by Kapilvastu isolate followed by Nepalgunj isolate (67.72%). Minimum colony inhibition of <em>S. rolfsii</em> (48.33%) was obtained by Mangalpur, Chitwan isolate followed by Rampur, Chitwan isolate (49.33%). Among seven Trichoderma isolates, two isolates (Kapilbastu and Nepalgunj) showed good antagonistic activity against <em>S. rolfsii</em> and were also highly competitive in in-vitro condition. These isolates would therefore be useful in biological disease management.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Aryal et al. Plant protection measures to promote organic farming in Nepal: prospects and challenges 2022-12-26T05:45:14+00:00 Sunita Pandey Sunil Aryal Lok Nath Aryal Krishna Prasad Timsina <p>Organic farming is a production system that relies on ecosystem management rather than external agricultural inputs to sustain the health of soils, ecosystem and organisms. This needs enough organic plant protection measures and biological fertilizers by eliminating synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. An attempt was made to review current plant protection measures for organic farming in Nepal. Though some insect pests and diseases are very hard to control without the use of chemical pesticides, this is high time to produce agriculture products organically. There is ample prospect of organic production in Nepal utilizing traditional knowledge of Nepalese farmers and existing agri-biodiversity. The paper is focused on best utilization of local natural resources, indigenous knowledge and bio-control agents for plant protection in organic agriculture. The information related to organic plant protection measures are collected from various sources and are grouped. The authors have listed technologies on organic plant protection measures in Nepal and made some suggestions to improve the organic farming of the country.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pandey et al. Effects of different dose of nitrogen and lime on soil properties and maize (Zea mays L.) on acidic nitisols of Northwestern Ethiopia 2022-12-26T07:18:18+00:00 Birtukan Amare Eyayu Molla Yihenew G. Selassie Habtamu Tadele Belay Tesfaye Bayu <p>This study was carried out on the nitisols of Burie district, Ethiopia to examine the effect of integrated use of lime and nitrogen on soil physicochemical properties and maize yield. Two levels of lime (0 and 0.5 t/ha) and five-level of nitrogen (0, 46, 92, 138 and 184 kg N/ ha) were laidout in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results indicated that among before planting, soil bulk density (BD), pH, soil organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), available P and CEC were 1.42 g/cm<sup>3</sup>, 5.2 (strongly acidic), 1.32% (very low), 0.12% (low), 8.86 mg /kg (very low), and 19.57 cmolc /kg (medium), respectively. The physicochemical properties except bulk density increased. The lowest soil BD (1.21 g/m<sup>3</sup>) was from plots treated with 0.5 t/ha lime and 184 kg N/ ha. The maximum soil pH (6.85) was obtained from plots treated with 184 kg N/ ha and 0.5 t/ha lime. The maximum soil CEC (35.38 (cmol<sub>c</sub> /kg) was obtained from plots treated with 184 kg N/ ha and 0.5 t/ha lime. Level of lime, nitrogen fertilizer, and interaction effects of lime and nitrogen fertilizer (L×N) significantly affected maize yield (p&lt;0.001). Indeed yield of maize has positive correlations with most soil physicochemical properties but negative with BD (r= -0.543). The adjusted yield and net benefits was 6.4 t/ha and 1101.77$. Inherent physicochemical properties of the soil are changed either by sole or combined use of lime and N fertilizer. Soils tilled with 0.5 t/ha lime and 138 kg/ha<sup> </sup>nitrogen were found in maximum net benefit. Residual long-term effects should be researched. Thus, liming should be given an emphasis on acidic soil amelioration. Moreover, the government may facilitate the supply of lime and nitrogen fertilizer to the farmers.</p> <p> </p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Amare et al. Phenotypic characterization and diversity of Nepalese garlic (Allium sativum L.) landraces 2022-12-27T17:07:35+00:00 Deepa Singh Shrestha Jeet Narayan Chaudhary Krishna Hari Ghimire Jiban Shrestha <p>A total 37 garlic landraces collection from Nepal Genebank were characterized using phenotypic trait maps or agro morphological markers at National Agriculture Genetic Resources Centre (Genebank), Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal during 2017 using quantitative and qualitative traits. Shannon and Weaver diversity index (H’) analysis revealed significant intra landrace diversity for both quantitative and qualitative traits. Nine principal components contributed 100 % to the cumulative variance and the first three principle components with Eigen value &gt;1 accounted for 69.9 % of the entire variability.The cluster analysis grouped the 37 accessions into five distinct group. The Accession CO4816 from cluster 5 were superior in terms of yield attributing characters such as number of cloves/bulb, weight of cloves and yield but found to be shorter is plant height.&nbsp; Pearson correlation analysis among eight quantitative traits showed highly significant positive correlation between leaf length and leaf width, leaf length and shaft length, leaf length and yield, weight of cloves and yield. The high yield is associated with leaf length, leaf width, weight of cloves and number of cloves. The frequency distribution for disease (<em>Cercospora leafspot and Alternaria porii</em>) occurrence were very low in 78 % of the accessions.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Shrestha et al.